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Common Variable Immune disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222802/counts-of-bovine-monocyte-subsets-prior-to-calving-are-predictive-for-postpartum-occurrence-of-mastitis-and-metritis
#1
Brianna Pomeroy, Anja Sipka, Jamal Hussen, Melanie Eger, Ynte Schukken, Hans-Joachim Schuberth
The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14(+)/CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(+)/CD16(+)) and non-classical monocytes (CD14(-)/CD16(+)) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212436/antibody-deficiency-in-patients-with-frequent-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#2
Brian N McCullagh, Alejandro P Comellas, Zuhair K Ballas, John D Newell, M Bridget Zimmerman, Antoine E Azar
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the third leading cause of death in the US, and is associated with periodic exacerbations, which account for the largest proportion of health care utilization, and lead to significant morbidity, mortality, and worsening lung function. A subset of patients with COPD have frequent exacerbations, occurring 2 or more times per year. Despite many interventions to reduce COPD exacerbations, there is a significant lack of knowledge in regards to their mechanisms and predisposing factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198725/adult-pneumococcal-vaccination-advances-impact-and-unmet-needs
#3
Ricardo J José, Jeremy S Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preventing pneumonia in the elderly and study participants individuals with comorbidities is an unmet clinical need. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest bacterial cause of pneumonia, and we summarize recent findings regarding current S. pneumoniae vaccines, and debate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in risk groups. We also discuss potential future vaccine strategies such as protein antigen vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Current vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not prevent S...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192579/infectious-diseases-and-immunizations-in-international-adoption
#4
Emily Obringer, Linda Walsh
Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192146/autoimmune-and-inflammatory-manifestations-occur-frequently-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#5
Alain Fischer, Johan Provot, Jean-Philippe Jais, Alexandre Alcais, Nizar Mahlaoui
BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are inherited diseases associated with a considerably increase in susceptibility to infections. It is known that PIDs can also predispose to cancer and immune diseases including allergy, autoimmunity and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining the incidence of autoimmunity and inflammation in PID patients. METHODS: We have retrospectively screen 2183 consecutive cases of PID in the French CEREDIH registry for the occurrence of autoimmunity and inflammation...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188718/-hematopoietic-stem-cells-transplant-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-is-a-therapeutic-option
#6
Julio César Cambray-Gutiérrez, Diana Andrea Herrera-Sánchez, Patricia López-Pérez, Aurora Chávez-García, Marco Antonio Yamazaki-Nakashimada
BACKGROUND: Patients with common variable immunodeficiency show higher incidence of sinopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections, as well as lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases. The treatment of choice is replacement therapy with human gamma-globulin. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a non-conventional therapeutic modality. CASE REPORT: Twenty-six-year old woman with no family or hereditary history of primary immune deficiencies or consanguinity, with repeated episodes of otitis, sinusitis, gastroenteritis and bronchitis since childhood...
January 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160307/treatment-of-presumptive-primary-immune-mediated-thrombocytopenia-with-mycophenolate-mofetil-versus-cyclosporine-in-dogs
#7
F O Cummings, S A Rizzo
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare hospitalisation duration, survival times, adverse events and cost of therapy in dogs with presumptive primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia undergoing therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids versus cyclosporine and corticosteroids. METHODS: A retrospective study of medical case records of dogs with presumed primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was conducted. Data collected included signalment, presenting complaints, haematologic and biochemical profiles, vector-borne disease testing, thoracic and abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, medications administered, duration of hospitalisation, 30- and 60-day survival, adverse events and cost of therapy...
February 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154563/host-immune-evasion-by-lyme-and-relapsing-fever-borreliae-findings-to-lead-future-studies-for-borrelia-miyamotoi
#8
REVIEW
Brandee L Stone, Catherine A Brissette
The emerging pathogen, Borrelia miyamotoi, is a relapsing fever spirochete vectored by the same species of Ixodes ticks that carry the causative agents of Lyme disease in the US, Europe, and Asia. Symptoms caused by infection with B. miyamotoi are similar to a relapsing fever infection. However, B. miyamotoi has adapted to different vectors and reservoirs, which could result in unique physiology, including immune evasion mechanisms. Lyme Borrelia utilize a combination of Ixodes-produced inhibitors and native proteins [i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110955/determination-of-inosine-5-monophosphate-dehydrogenase-activity-in-red-blood-cells-of-thiopurine-treated-patients-using-hplc
#9
Audrey Beringer, Antony Citterio-Quentin, Rebeca Obenza Otero, Clémence Gustin, Rebecca Clarke, Jean-Paul Salvi, Roselyne Boulieu
Thiopurine drugs are commonly used in immune diseases and to a lesser extent, in transplant rejection prophylaxis: however interindividual variability in drug response and in the occurrence of adverse events is observed. Genetic variation in thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) doesn't completely explain the occurrence of all adverse events and drug response variability. The potential implication of other enzymes involved in thiopurine metabolism, such as ITPA, has been investigated over the last decade but little data is available on inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in patients treated with thiopurine drugs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#10
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099084/mechanisms-and-new-strategies-for-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#11
Clio P Mavragani
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands, mainly salivary and lacrimal, resulting in oral and ocular dryness, although virtually any organ system can be affected. SS-related systemic manifestations are classified as either related to the presence of periepithelial infiltrates in exocrine and parenchymal organs or resulting from immunocomplex deposition due to B cell hyperactivity with increased risk for B cell lymphoma development...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#12
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095323/pattern-recognitions-receptors-in-immunodeficiency-disorders
#13
Esameil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Payam Tabarsi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Hamidreza Jamaati, Aliakbar Velayati
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092390/asthma-comparing-the-impact-of-vitamin-d-versus-uvr-on-clinical-and-immune-parameters
#14
Kylie A Morgan, Elizabeth H Mann, Antony R Young, Catherine M Hawrylowicz
The incidence of asthma has increased markedly since the 1960s and is currently estimated to affect more than 300 million individuals worldwide. A number of environmental factors are implicated in asthma pathogenesis, one of which is vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern and has increased in parallel with asthma incidence. Epidemiological studies report associations between low vitamin D status, assessed as circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, with asthma incidence, severity, exacerbations and responses to treatment...
January 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090320/immunopathogenesis-of-granulomas-in-chronic-autoinflammatory-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Wilhelmina Maria Cornelia Timmermans, Jan Alexander Michael van Laar, Petrus Martinus van Hagen, Menno Cornelis van Zelm
Granulomas are clusters of immune cells. These structures can be formed in reaction to infection and display signs of necrosis, such as in tuberculosis. Alternatively, in several immune disorders, such as sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease and common variable immunodeficiency, non-caseating granulomas are formed without an obvious infectious trigger. Despite advances in our understanding of the human immune system, the pathogenesis underlying these non-caseating granulomas in chronic inflammatory diseases is still poorly understood...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068853/chronic-lung-disease-in-common-variable-immune-deficiency-cvid-a-pathophysiological-role-for-microbial-and-non-b-cell-immune-factors
#16
Denver Mooney, David Edgar, Gisli Einarsson, Damian Downey, Stuart Elborn, Michael Tunney
One of the most common and most severe forms of primary antibody deficiency encountered in the clinical setting is a heterogeneous group of syndromes termed common variable immune deficiency (CVID). This disorder is characterized by reduced immunoglobulin production and increased susceptibility to infection, particularly of the respiratory tract. Infection and subsequent immunological/inflammatory processes may contribute to the development of pulmonary complications such as bronchiectasis and interstitial lung disease...
January 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054583/common-variable-immunodeficiency-patients-with-a-phenotypic-profile-of-immunosenescence-present-with-thrombocytopenia
#17
Jan Stuchlý, Veronika Kanderová, Marcela Vlková, Ivana Heřmanová, Lucie Slámová, Ondřej Pelák, Eli Taraldsrud, Dalibor Jílek, Pavlína Králíc Ková, Børre Fevang, Marie Trková, Ondřej Hrušák, Eva Froňková, Anna Šedivá, Jiří Litzman, Tomáš Kalina
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of diseases. Our aim was to define sub-groups of CVID patients with similar phenotypes and clinical characteristics. Using eight-color flow cytometry, we analyzed both B- and T-cell phenotypes in a cohort of 88 CVID patients and 48 healthy donors. A hierarchical clustering of probability binning "bins" yielded a separate cluster of 22 CVID patients with an abnormal phenotype. We showed coordinated proportional changes in naïve CD4+ T-cells (decreased), intermediate CD27- CD28+ CD4+ T-cells (increased) and CD21low B-cells (increased) that were stable for over three years...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044365/clinical-implications-and-hospital-outcome-of-immune-mediated-myositis-in-horses
#18
L Hunyadi, E A Sundman, P H Kass, D C Williams, M Aleman
BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated myositis (IMM) is a cause of rhabdomyolysis, stiffness, and muscle atrophy predominantly affecting Quarter horses. Limited information is available with regard to outcome, prognostic indicators, and associations with concurrent diseases. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To report outcomes and associations between outcome and clinical and laboratory parameters, and presence of concurrent illness. ANIMALS: Sixty-eight horses; 52 Quarter horses and related breeds and 16 other breeds...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017520/microbial-dysbiosis-in-common-variable-immune-deficiencies-evidence-causes-and-consequences
#19
REVIEW
Roos-Marijn Berbers, Stefan Nierkens, Jacob M van Laar, Debby Bogaert, Helen L Leavis
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immune disorder that not only causes increased susceptibility to infection, but also to inflammatory complications such as autoimmunity, lymphoid proliferation, malignancy, and granulomatous disease. Recent findings implicate the microbiome as a driver of this systemic immune dysregulation. Here, we critically review the current evidence for a role of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of CVID immune dysregulation, and describe the possible immunologic mechanisms behind causes and consequences of microbial dysbiosis in CVID...
March 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008165/tuberculous-meningitis-in-an-immunocompetent-host-a-case-report
#20
Suchin R Khanna, Stephen M Kralovic, Rajan Prakash
BACKGROUND Tuberculous meningitis is very rare in the United States in immunocompetent hosts. Risk factors are similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis, including poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, a compromised immune system, and coming from an endemic area. Meningeal tuberculosis mortality and other outcomes have changed little over time despite effective therapies due to delay in diagnosis because of its rarity, variable presentation, and often indolent course. CASE REPORT We describe a case of a 57-year-old male immigrant from Senegal with no significant past medical history and no previous history of tuberculosis or evidence of immune compromise...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
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