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Squalene synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157221/microbial-modulation-of-bacoside-a-biosynthetic-pathway-and-systemic-defense-mechanism-in-bacopa-monnieri-under-meloidogyne-incognita-stress
#1
Rupali Gupta, Akanksha Singh, Madhumita Srivastava, Vivek Singh, M M Gupta, Rakesh Pandey
Plant-associated beneficial microbes have been explored to fulfill the imperative function for plant health. However, their impact on the host secondary metabolite production and nematode disease management remains elusive. Our present work has shown that chitinolytic microbes viz., Chitiniphilus sp. MTN22 and Streptomyces sp. MTN14 singly as well as in combination modulated the biosynthetic pathway of bacoside A and systemic defense mechanism against Meloidogyne incognita in Bacopa monnieri. Interestingly, expression of bacoside biosynthetic pathway genes (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, and squalene synthase) were upregulated in plants treated with the microbial combination in the presence as well as in absence of M...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092952/total-synthesis-of-zaragozic-acid-c-implementation-of-photochemical-c-sp-3-h-acylation
#2
Takahiro Kawamata, Masanori Nagatomo, Masayuki Inoue
Zaragozic acid C (1) was isolated as a potent squalene synthase inhibitor. The 2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core of 1 is decorated with the three hydroxycarbonyl (C3,4,5), two hydroxy (C4,7), one acyloxy (C6), and one alkyl (C1) groups. Installation of the contiguous C4- and C5-fully substituted carbons presents a formidable synthetic challenge. Our approach to address this problem used a two-step photochemical C(sp(3))-H acylation. Persilylated d-gluconolactone 4 was derivatized into 3 with the 1,2-diketone moiety at the C5-tetrasubstituted center...
January 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939849/a-squalene-synthase-protein-degradation-method-for-improved-sesquiterpene-production-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Bingyin Peng, Manuel R Plan, Panagiotis Chrysanthopoulos, Mark P Hodson, Lars K Nielsen, Claudia E Vickers
Sesquiterpenes are C15 isoprenoids with utility as fragrances, flavours, pharmaceuticals, and potential biofuels. Microbial fermentation is being examined as a competitive approach for bulk production of these compounds. Competition for carbon allocation between synthesis of endogenous sterols and production of the introduced sesquiterpene limits yields. Achieving balance between endogenous sterols and heterologous sesquiterpenes is therefore required to achieve economical yields. In the current study, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to produce the acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, trans-nerolidol...
January 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894599/overexpression-of-the-homologous-lanosterol-synthase-gene-in-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-in-ganoderma-lingzhi
#4
De-Huai Zhang, Na Li, Xuya Yu, Peng Zhao, Tao Li, Jun-Wei Xu
Ganoderic acids (GAs) in Ganoderma lingzhi exhibit anticancer and antimetastatic activities. GA yields can be potentially improved by manipulating G. lingzhi through genetic engineering. In this study, a putative lanosterol synthase (LS) gene was cloned and overexpressed in G. lingzhi. Results showed that its overexpression (OE) increased the ganoderic acid (GA) content and the accumulation of lanosterol and ergosterol in a submerged G. lingzhi culture. The maximum contents of GA-O, GA-Mk, GA-T, GA-S, GA-Mf, and GA-Me in transgenic strains were 46...
February 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886451/activity-of-fluorine-containing-analogues-of-wc-9-and-structurally-related-analogues-against-two-intracellular-parasites-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
María N Chao, Catherine Li, Melissa Storey, Bruno N Falcone, Sergio H Szajnman, Sergio M Bonesi, Roberto Docampo, Silvia N J Moreno, Juan B Rodriguez
Two obligate intracellular parasites, Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, and Toxoplasma gondii, an agent of toxoplasmosis, upregulate the mevalonate pathway of their host cells upon infection, which suggests that this host pathway could be a potential drug target. In this work, a number of compounds structurally related to WC-9 (4-phenoxyphenoxyethyl thiocyanate), a known squalene synthase inhibitor, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their effect on T. cruzi and T. gondii growth in tissue culture cells...
December 16, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884675/molecular-cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-squalene-synthase-ss-in-panax-notoginseng
#6
Dan Jiang, Qixian Rong, Yijun Chen, Qingjun Yuan, Ye Shen, Juan Guo, Yirui Yang, Liangping Zha, Huixiao Wu, Luqi Huang, Chunsheng Liu
Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen, which is a used traditional Chinese medicine known as Sanqi or Tianqi in China, is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the triterpene saponins. Squalene synthase (SS: EC 2.5.1.21) catalyzes the first enzymatic step from the central isoprenoid pathway toward sterol and triterpenoid biosynthesis. In this study, SS from P. notoginseng was cloned and investigated followed by its recombinant expression and preliminary enzyme activity. The nucleotide sequence of the ORF contains 1 248 nucleotides and encodes 415 amino acid residues with molecular weight of 47...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833811/phytogeographic-and-genetic-variation-in-sorbus-a-traditional-antidiabetic-medicine-adaptation-in-action-in-both-a-plant-and-a-discipline
#7
Anna Bailie, Sebastien Renaut, Eliane Ubalijoro, José A Guerrero-Analco, Ammar Saleem, Pierre Haddad, John T Arnason, Timothy Johns, Alain Cuerrier
Mountain ash (Sorbus decora and S. americana) is used by the Cree Nation of the James Bay region of Quebec (Eeyou Istchee) as traditional medicine. Its potential as an antidiabetic medicine is thought to vary across its geographical range, yet little is known about the factors that affect its antioxidant capacity. Here, we examined metabolite gene expression in relation to antioxidant activity, linking phytochemistry and medicinal potential. Samples of leaf and bark from S. decora and S. americana were collected from 20 populations at four different latitudes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821754/the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-the-nonsugar-high-intensity-sweetener-mogroside-v-from-siraitia-grosvenorii
#8
Maxim Itkin, Rachel Davidovich-Rikanati, Shahar Cohen, Vitaly Portnoy, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Elad Oren, Shiri Freilich, Galil Tzuri, Nadine Baranes, Shmuel Shen, Marina Petreikov, Rotem Sertchook, Shifra Ben-Dor, Hugo Gottlieb, Alvaro Hernandez, David R Nelson, Harry S Paris, Yaakov Tadmor, Yosef Burger, Efraim Lewinsohn, Nurit Katzir, Arthur Schaffer
The consumption of sweeteners, natural as well as synthetic sugars, is implicated in an array of modern-day health problems. Therefore, natural nonsugar sweeteners are of increasing interest. We identify here the biosynthetic pathway of the sweet triterpenoid glycoside mogroside V, which has a sweetening strength of 250 times that of sucrose and is derived from mature fruit of luo-han-guo (Siraitia grosvenorii, monk fruit). A whole-genome sequencing of Siraitia, leading to a preliminary draft of the genome, was combined with an extensive transcriptomic analysis of developing fruit...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811076/pglox6-encoding-a-lipoxygenase-contributes-to-jasmonic-acid-biosynthesis-and-ginsenoside-production-in-panax-ginseng
#9
Shadi Rahimi, Yu-Jin Kim, Johan Sukweenadhi, Dabing Zhang, Deok-Chun Yang
Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771819/ethylene-promotes-mycelial-growth-and-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#10
Guang Zhang, Ang Ren, Fengli Wu, Hanshou Yu, Liang Shi, Mingwen Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ethylene, in the form of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), on mycelial growth and ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in the higher basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum. RESULTS: Treatment with both 10 and 15 mM ethephon enhanced the growth of G. lucidum on solid CYM plates and in CYM liquid medium. After optimization using response surface methodology, GA reached 33 mg/g dry cell weight (DW), an increase of 90 %, compared with the control...
October 22, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746309/fungal-elicitors-enhance-ginsenosides-biosynthesis-expression-of-functional-genes-as-well-as-signal-molecules-accumulation-in-adventitious-roots-of-panax-ginseng-c-a-mey
#11
Jinxin Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Dahui Liu, Jianli Li, Wenyuan Gao
In this work, we selected three fungi strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae) as elicitors prepared from mycelium or fermentation broth to improve ginsenosides production in adventitious roots culture. The results showed that ginsenosides production (29.90±4.67mgg(-1)) was significantly enhanced upon elicitation with 200mgL(-1)A. niger elicitor prepared from mycelium, which was 3.52-fold of untreated group. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis was performed, showing that ginsenoside Rb3 was present after treatment with the A...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725246/cdna-isolation-and-functional-characterization-of-squalene-synthase-gene-from-ornithogalum-caudatum
#12
Ming Liu, Li-Na Li, Yi-Ting Pan, Jian-Qiang Kong
As the first step of ongoing efforts to investigate the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins in the medicinal plant Ornithogalum caudatum, this investigation reported the cDNA isolation, prokaryotic expression and functional characterization of squalene synthase (SQS) gene from O. caudatum for the first time. Specifically, two unigenes showing high sequence identity to SQS were retrieved from RNA-Taq data, and then a full-length OcSQS1 corresponding to the two unigenes was isolated from O...
October 7, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688805/photosynthetic-conversion-of-co2-to-farnesyl-diphosphate-derived-phytochemicals-amorpha-4-11-diene-and-squalene-by-engineered-cyanobacteria
#13
Sun Young Choi, Hyun Jeong Lee, Jaeyeon Choi, Jiye Kim, Sang Jun Sim, Youngsoon Um, Yunje Kim, Taek Soon Lee, Jay D Keasling, Han Min Woo
BACKGROUND: Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to value-added chemicals as bio-solar cell factories. However, the production levels of isoprenoids in engineered cyanobacteria were quite low, compared to other microbial hosts. Therefore, modular optimization of multiple gene expressions for metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria is required for the production of farnesyl diphosphate-derived isoprenoids from CO2. RESULTS: Here, we engineered Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 with modular metabolic pathways consisting of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway enzymes and the amorphadiene synthase for production of amorpha-4,11-diene, resulting in significantly increased levels (23-fold) of amorpha-4,11-diene (19...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652005/anti-inflammatory-and-cytoprotective-effects-of-a-squalene-synthase-inhibitor-tak-475-active-metabolite-i-in-immune-cells-simulating-mevalonate-kinase-deficiency-mkd-like-condition
#14
Nobutaka Suzuki, Tatsuo Ito, Hisanori Matsui, Masayuki Takizawa
TAK-475 (lapaquistat acetate) and its active metabolite-I (TAK-475 M-I) inhibit squalene synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to squalene. FPP is a substrate for synthesis of other mevalonate-derived isoprenoids (MDIs) such as farnesol (FOH), geranlygeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), and geranylgeraniol. In patients with MKD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, defective activity of mevalonate kinase leads to a shortage of MDIs. MDIs especially GGPP are required for prenylation of proteins, which is a posttranslation modification necessary for proper functioning of proteins like small guanosine triphosphatases...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649606/cloning-and-characterization-of-a-squalene-synthase-gene-from-the-chaga-medicinal-mushroom-inonotus-obliquus-agaricomycetes
#15
Panpan Zhang, Xiaoying Cao, Changgen Li, Zhujun Zheng, Sun Yong, Ji-Hong Jiang
Squalene synthase catalyzes the condensation of 2 molecules of farnesyl diphosphate to produce squalene, the first committed precursor for sterol, brassinosteroid, and triterpene biosynthesis. A squalene synthase gene, designated IoSQS, was isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom that produces a plethora of bioactive triterpenes. IoSQS complementary DNA was found to contain an open reading frame of 1476 bp, encoding a protein of 491 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.85 kDa. The IoSQS genomic DNA sequence consisted of 1813 bp and contained 4 exons and 3 introns...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644996/gene-expression-of-glycyrrhizin-acid-and-accumulation-of-endogenous-signaling-molecule-in-glycyrrhiza-uralensis-fisch-adventitious-roots-after-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-meyerozyma-guilliermondii-applications
#16
Jianli Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Jinxin Li, Wenyuan Gao
This study reports the best culture conditions for roots growth and accumulation of active components by optimizing the parameters. Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious roots metabolites were significantly increased after adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Meyerozyma guilliermondii. The highest contents of polysaccharide, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid and total flavonoids were obtained in Meyerozyma guilliermondii group, the content of glycyrrhizic acid was 5.3-fold higher than the control. In control and treatment groups, twelve compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS),among which, some new compounds have been detected in elicitor groups including 5,7-Dihydroxyflavanone, glycyrrhisoflavanone, licorice saponin J2, uralsaponin B, (3R)-vestitol, uralenol...
September 20, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630863/quantitative-gene-expression-of-erg9-in-model-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-chamomile-extract-for-human-cancer-treatment
#17
Maryam Hosseinpour, Mohsen Mobini-Dehkordi, Hossein Teimori
INTRODUCTION: Over expression of squalene synthase gene causes induction of growth tumour and reduction of apoptosis. This gene which is conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and humans, is named (ERG9). AIM: In this work, we studied the effect of Matricaria recutita extract on ERG9 gene (squalene synthase) expression in S.cerevisiae which was used as organism model in cancer therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: S. cerevisiae was cultured in YPD medium plus 0,250, 1000 and 3000 μg/ml of Matricaria recutita extract and we evaluated the (ERG9) gene expression by Real-time RT-PCR method after 24 hours...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605932/molecular-cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-squalene-synthase-2-sqs2-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge
#18
Qixian Rong, Dan Jiang, Yijun Chen, Ye Shen, Qingjun Yuan, Huixin Lin, Liangping Zha, Yan Zhang, Luqi Huang
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In the present study, cloning and characterization of S...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586658/subtractive-transcriptome-analysis-of-leaf-and-rhizome-reveals-differentially-expressed-transcripts-in-panax-sokpayensis
#19
Bhusan Gurung, Pardeep K Bhardwaj, Narayan C Talukdar
In the present study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy was used to identify rare and differentially expressed transcripts in leaf and rhizome tissues of Panax sokpayensis. Out of 1102 randomly picked clones, 513 and 374 high quality expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) were generated from leaf and rhizome subtractive libraries, respectively. Out of them, 64.92 % ESTs from leaf and 69.26 % ESTs from rhizome SSH libraries were assembled into different functional categories, while others were of unknown function...
November 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507797/terpene-metabolic-engineering-via-nuclear-or-chloroplast-genomes-profoundly-and-globally-impacts-off-target-pathways-through-metabolite-signalling
#20
Elise K Pasoreck, Jin Su, Ian M Silverman, Sager J Gosai, Brian D Gregory, Joshua S Yuan, Henry Daniell
The impact of metabolic engineering on nontarget pathways and outcomes of metabolic engineering from different genomes are poorly understood questions. Therefore, squalene biosynthesis genes FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (FPS) and SQUALENE SYNTHASE (SQS) were engineered via the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast (C), nuclear (N) or both (CN) genomes to promote squalene biosynthesis. SQS levels were ~4300-fold higher in C and CN lines than in N, but all accumulated ~150-fold higher squalene due to substrate or storage limitations...
September 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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