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Carotenoid synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895226/the-plastoglobule-localized-metallopeptidase-pgm48-is-a-positive-regulator-of-senescence-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Giulia Friso, Elden Rowland, Kristina Majsec, Klaas Jan van Wijk
Plastoglobuli (PG) are thylakoid-associated monolayer lipid particles with a specific proteome of ~30 PG core proteins and isoprenoid- and neutral lipids. During senescence, PG increase in size, reflecting their role in dismantling thylakoid membranes. Here we show that the only PG-localized peptidase, PGM48, positively regulates leaf senescence. We discovered that PGM48 is a member of the M48 peptidase family with PGM48 homologs, forming a clade (M48D) only found in photosynthetic organisms. Unlike the M48A, B, and C clades, members of M48D have no transmembrane domains, consistent with their unique subcellular location in the PG...
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865019/the-regulation-of-carotenoid-formation-in-tomato-fruit
#2
Eugenia M A Enfissi, Marilise Nogueira, Peter M Bramley, Paul D Fraser
Carotenoid biosynthesis in plants includes a complex series of desaturation/isomerisation reactions, catalysed by four independent enzymes. In bacteria and fungi one desaturase/isomerase enzyme completes the same series of reactions. In the present study, a bacterial desaturase (crtI) from Pantoea ananatis has been overexpressed in the tangerine mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) which accumulates cis carotene isomers in the fruit due to a defective isomerase (CRTISO) and the old gold crimson (og(c) ) tomato mutant, which is defective in the fruit-enhanced lycopene β-cyclase (CYCB)...
November 19, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837090/distinct-mechanisms-of-the-orange-protein-in-controlling-carotenoid-flux
#3
Noam Chayut, Hui Yuan, Shachar Ohali, Ayala Meir, Uzi Saar, Galil Tzuri, Yi Zheng, Michael Mazourek, Shimon Gepstein, Xiangjun Zhou, Vitaly Portnoy, Efraim Lewinsohn, Arthur A Schaffer, Nurit Katzir, Zhangjun Fei, Ralf Welsch, Li Li, Josef Burger, Yaakov Tadmor
Beta-carotene adds nutritious value and determines the color of many fruits including melon. In melon mesocarp, β-carotene accumulation is governed by the Orange gene (CmOr) 'golden' SNP through a yet to be discovered mechanism. In Arabidopsis, OR increases carotenoid levels by posttranscriptionally regulating phytoene synthase (PSY). Here we identified a CmOr nonsense mutation (Cmor-lowβ), which lowered fruit β-carotene levels with impaired chromoplast biogenesis. Cmor-lowβ exerted a minimal effect on PSY transcripts but dramatically decreased PSY protein levels and enzymatic activity, leading to reduced carotenoid metabolic flux and accumulation...
November 11, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808514/variation-in-key-flavonoid-biosynthetic-enzymes-and-phytochemicals-in-rio-red-grapefruit-citrus-paradisi-macf-during-fruit-development
#4
Priyanka R Chaudhary, Haejeen Bang, Guddadarangavvanahally K Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
In the current study, phytochemical contents and expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Rio Red grapefruit were studied at different developmental and maturity stages for the first time. Grapefruit were harvested in June, August, November, January, and April and analyzed for the levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, limonoids, flavonoids, and furocoumarins by HPLC. In addition, genes encoding for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and 1, 2-rhamnosyltransferase (2RT) were isolated and their expression in grapefruit juice vesicles was studied...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769185/genetic-analysis-of-phytoene-synthase-1-psy1-gene-function-and-regulation-in-common-wheat
#5
Shengnan Zhai, Genying Li, Youwei Sun, Jianmin Song, Jihu Li, Guoqi Song, Yulian Li, Hongqing Ling, Zhonghu He, Xianchun Xia
BACKGROUND: Phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) is the most important regulatory enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, whereas its function is hardly known in common wheat. The aims of the present study were to investigate Psy1 function and genetic regulation using reverse genetics approaches. RESULTS: Transcript levels of Psy1 in RNAi transgenic lines were decreased by 54-76 % and yellow pigment content (YPC) was reduced by 26-35 % compared with controls, confirming the impact of Psy1 on carotenoid accumulation...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734628/golden-bananas-in-the-field-elevated-fruit-pro-vitamin-a-from-the-expression-of-a-single-banana-transgene
#6
Jean-Yves Paul, Harjeet Khanna, Jennifer Kleidon, Phuong Hoang, Jason Geijskes, Jeff Daniells, Ella Zaplin, Yvonne Rosenberg, Anthony James, Bulukani Mlalazi, Pradeep Deo, Geofrey Arinaitwe, Priver Namanya, Douglas Becker, James Tindamanyire, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe, Robert Harding, James Dale
Vitamin A deficiency remains one of the world's major public health problems despite food fortification and supplements strategies. Biofortification of staple crops with enhanced levels of pro-vitamin A (PVA) offers a sustainable alternative strategy to both food fortification and supplementation. As a proof of concept, PVA-biofortified transgenic Cavendish bananas were generated and field trialed in Australia with the aim of achieving a target level of 20 μg/g of dry weight (dw) β-carotene equivalent (β-CE) in the fruit...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729470/carotenogenesis-is-regulated-by-5-utr-mediated-translation-of-phytoene-synthase-splice-variants
#7
Daniel Álvarez, Björn Voß, Dirk Maass, Florian Wüst, Patrick Schaub, Peter Beyer, Ralf Welsch
Phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyzes the highly regulated, frequently rate-limiting synthesis of the first biosynthetically formed carotene. While PSY constitutes a small gene family in most plant taxa, the Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), predominantly possess a single PSY gene. This monogenic situation is compensated by the differential expression of two alternative splice variants (ASV), which differ in length and in the exon/intron retention of their 5'UTRs. ASV1 contains a long 5'UTR (untranslated region) and is involved in developmentally regulated carotenoid formation, such as during deetiolation...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695116/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-phytoene-synthase-from-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#8
Flowerika, Anshu Alok, Jitesh Kumar, Neha Thakur, Ashutosh Pandey, Ajay Kumar Pandey, Santosh Kumar Upadhyay, Siddharth Tiwari
Phytoene synthase (PSY) regulates the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plants. The present work reports identification and characterization of the three PSY genes (TaPSY1, TaPSY2 and TaPSY3) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 genes consisted of three homoeologs on the long arm of group 7 chromosome (7L), short arm of group 5 chromosome (5S), and long arm of group 5 chromosome (5L), respectively in each subgenomes (A, B, and D) with a similarity range from 89% to 97%...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633588/orange-protein-has-a-role-in-phytoene-synthase-stabilization-in-sweetpotato
#9
Seyeon Park, Ho Soo Kim, Young Jun Jung, Sun Ha Kim, Chang Yoon Ji, Zhi Wang, Jae Cheol Jeong, Haeng-Soon Lee, Sang Yeol Lee, Sang-Soo Kwak
Carotenoids have essential roles in light-harvesting processes and protecting the photosynthetic machinery from photo-oxidative damage. Phytoene synthase (PSY) and Orange (Or) are key plant proteins for carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation. We previously isolated the sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) Or gene (IbOr), which is involved in carotenoid accumulation and salt stress tolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying IbOr regulation of carotenoid accumulation was unknown. Here, we show that IbOr has an essential role in regulating IbPSY stability via its holdase chaperone activity both in vitro and in vivo...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630663/differential-contribution-of-the-first-two-enzymes-of-the-mep-pathway-to-the-supply-of-metabolic-precursors-for-carotenoid-and-chlorophyll-biosynthesis-in-carrot-daucus-carota
#10
Kevin Simpson, Luis F Quiroz, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepción, Claudia R Stange
Carotenoids and chlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments synthesized in plastids from metabolic precursors provided by the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The first two steps in the MEP pathway are catalyzed by the deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductoisomerase (DXR) enzymes. While DXS has been recently shown to be the main flux-controlling step of the MEP pathway, both DXS and DXR enzymes have been proven to be able to promote an increase in MEP-derived products when overproduced in diverse plant systems...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589396/red-anthocyanins-and-yellow-carotenoids-form-the-color-of-orange-flower-gentian-gentiana-lutea-l-var-aurantiaca
#11
Judit Berman, Yanmin Sheng, Lourdes Gómez Gómez, Tania Veiga, Xiuzhen Ni, Gemma Farré, Teresa Capell, Javier Guitián, Pablo Guitián, Gerhard Sandmann, Paul Christou, Changfu Zhu
Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567632/reconstruction-of-the-astaxanthin-biosynthesis-pathway-in-rice-endosperm-reveals-a-metabolic-bottleneck-at-the-level-of-endogenous-%C3%AE-carotene-hydroxylase-activity
#12
Chao Bai, Judit Berman, Gemma Farre, Teresa Capell, Gerhard Sandmann, Paul Christou, Changfu Zhu
Astaxanthin is a high-value ketocarotenoid rarely found in plants. It is derived from β-carotene by the 3-hydroxylation and 4-ketolation of both ionone end groups, in reactions catalyzed by β-carotene hydroxylase and β-carotene ketolase, respectively. We investigated the feasibility of introducing an extended carotenoid biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm to achieve the production of astaxanthin. This allowed us to identify potential metabolic bottlenecks that have thus far prevented the accumulation of this valuable compound in storage tissues such as cereal grains...
August 27, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564697/control-of-light-dependent-keto-carotenoid-biosynthesis-in-nostoc-7120-by-the-transcription-factor-ntca
#13
Gerhard Sandmann, Jürgen Mautz, Jürgen Breitenbach
In Nostoc PCC 7120, two different ketolases, CrtW and CrtO are involved in the formation of keto carotenoids from β-carotene. In contrast to other cyanobacteria, CrtW catalyzes the formation of monoketo echinenone whereas CrtO is the only enzyme for the synthesis of diketo canthaxanthin. This is the major photo protective carotenoid in this cyanobacterium. Under high-light conditions, basic canthaxanthin formation was transcriptionally up-regulated. Upon transfer to high light, the transcript levels of all investigated carotenogenic genes including those coding for phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase and both ketolases were increased...
September 1, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559339/carotenoids-in-staple-cereals-metabolism-regulation-and-genetic-manipulation
#14
REVIEW
Shengnan Zhai, Xianchun Xia, Zhonghu He
Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551017/carotenoid-biosynthetic-pathways-are-regulated-by-a-network-of-multiple-cascades-of-alternative-sigma-factors-in-azospirillum-brasilense-sp7
#15
Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ashutosh Prakash Dubey, Santosh Kumar, Debashis Dutta, Mukti Nath Mishra, Bhupendra Narain Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi
: Carotenoids constitute an important component of the defense system against photooxidative stress in bacteria. In Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, a nonphotosynthetic rhizobacterium, carotenoid synthesis is controlled by a pair of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors (RpoEs) and their cognate zinc-binding anti-sigma factors (ChrRs). Its genome harbors two copies of the gene encoding geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (CrtE), the first critical step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in bacteria...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516768/de-novo-sequencing-and-analysis-of-lemongrass-transcriptome-provide-first-insights-into-the-essential-oil-biosynthesis-of-aromatic-grasses
#16
Seema Meena, Sarma R Kumar, D K Venkata Rao, Varun Dwivedi, H B Shilpashree, Shubhra Rastogi, Ajit K Shasany, Dinesh A Nagegowda
Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508637/-op-2d-02-lycopene-increases-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-and-inhibits-endothelial-cells-migration
#17
A Dalbeni, D Treggiari, B Molesini, C Fava, T Pandolfini, P Minuz
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic and intervention studies suggest that dietary vegetables containing lycopene may associate with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Lycopene has antioxidant activity, being the most efficient carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Aim of the present study was to explore the effects of lycopene on the synthesis and release of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells and endothelial cells migration, a key step in angiogenesis. DESIGN AND METHOD: Cultured human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated for 30 minutes in the presence or absence of lycopene (2 micromol/L), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A, 10 ng/mL) and the NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME (300 micromol/L)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507492/transcriptional-regulation-of-lycopene-metabolism-mediated-by-rootstock-during-the-ripening-of-grafted-watermelons
#18
Qiusheng Kong, Jingxian Yuan, Lingyun Gao, Peng Liu, Lei Cao, Yuan Huang, Liqiang Zhao, Huifang Lv, Zhilong Bie
Rootstocks have comprehensive effects on lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits. However, little is known about lycopene metabolic regulation in grafted watermelon. To address this problem, parallel changes in lycopene contents and the expression of its metabolic genes were analyzed during the fruit ripening of nongrafted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd, pumpkin, and wild watermelon. Results showed that rootstocks mediated the transcriptional regulations of lycopene accumulation in different ways...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485222/regulation-of-carotenoid-biosynthesis-during-fruit-development
#19
Joanna Lado, Lorenzo Zacarías, María Jesús Rodrigo
Carotenoids are recognized as the main pigments in most fruit crops, providing colours that range from yellow and pink to deep orange and red. Moreover, the edible portion of widely consumed fruits or their derived products represent a major dietary source of carotenoids for animals and humans. Therefore, these pigments are crucial compounds contributing to fruit aesthetic and nutritional quality but may also have protecting and ecophysiological functions in coloured fruits. Among plant organs, fruits display one of the most heterogeneous carotenoids patterns in terms of diversity and abundance...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450121/detection-of-herbicide-effects-on-pigment-composition-and-psii-photochemistry-in-helianthus-annuus-by-raman-spectroscopy-and-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence
#20
Petr Vítek, Kateřina Novotná, Petra Hodaňová, Barbora Rapantová, Karel Klem
The effects of herbicides from three mode-of-action groups - inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (carfentrazone-ethyl), inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (mesotrione, clomazone, and diflufenican), and inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (amidosulfuron) - were studied in sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus). Raman spectroscopy, chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) imaging, and UV screening of ChlF were combined to evaluate changes in pigment composition, photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, and non-photochemical quenching in plant leaves 6d after herbicide application...
January 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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