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Carotenoid synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716091/suppression-of-the-phytoene-synthase-gene-egcrtb-alters-carotenoid-content-and-intracellular-structure-of-euglena-gracilis
#1
Shota Kato, Mika Soshino, Shinichi Takaichi, Takahiro Ishikawa, Noriko Nagata, Masashi Asahina, Tomoko Shinomura
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic organisms utilize carotenoids for photoprotection as well as light harvesting. Our previous study revealed that high-intensity light increases the expression of the gene for phytoene synthase (EgcrtB) in Euglena gracilis (a unicellular phytoflagellate), the encoded enzyme catalyzes the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. To examine carotenoid synthesis of E. gracilis in response to light stress, we analyzed carotenoid species and content in cells grown under various light intensities...
July 17, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698858/astaxanthin-and-%C3%AE-carotene-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-gastric-inflammation-a-mini-review-on-action-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Hyunju Kang, Hyeyoung Kim
Helicobacter pylori is a dominant bacterium living in the human gastric tissues. In H. pylori-infected tissues, the infiltrated inflammatory cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to gastric inflammation with production of various mediators. According to numerous epidemiological studies, dietary carotenoids may prevent gastric inflammation due to their antioxidant properties. Recent studies showed that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of astaxanthin and β-carotene may contribute to inhibition of H...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698499/molecular-mechanisms-behind-free-radical-scavengers-function-against-oxidative-stress
#3
REVIEW
Fereshteh Ahmadinejad, Simon Geir Møller, Morteza Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Gholamreza Bidkhori, Mohammad-Saeid Jami
Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson's disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively), collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)...
July 10, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649000/suppression-of-the-mads-box-gene-slmbp8-accelerates-fruit-ripening-of-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum
#4
Wencheng Yin, Zongli Hu, Baolu Cui, Xuhu Guo, Jingtao Hu, Zhiguo Zhu, Guoping Chen
MADS-box genes encode important transcription factors that are involved in many biological processes of plants, including fruit ripening. In our research, a MADS-box gene, SlMBP8, was identified, and its tissue-specific expression profiles were analysed. SlMBP8 was highly expressed in fruits of the B+4 stage, in senescent leaves and in sepals. To further characterize its function, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector of SlMBP8 was constructed and transferred into tomato. In the transgenic plants, the ripening of fruits was shortened by 2-4 days compared to that of wild type...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612271/overexpression-of-dnaj-like-chaperone-enhances-carotenoid-synthesis-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#5
Tateki Morikawa, Yusuke Uraguchi, Shohei Sanda, Satoshi Nakagawa, Shigeki Sawayama
Production of functional carotenoids using microalgae may facilitate the commercialization of anti-aging nutritional supplements. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uses a non-mevalonate (MEP) pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) synthesis. Two enzymes thought to play important roles in this MEP pathway to IPP synthesis are 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductase (DXR). DnaJ-like chaperone (Orange protein) is thought to support phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in plant carotenoid synthesis...
June 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609133/carotenoids-biosynthesis-and-cleavage-related-genes-from-bacteria-to-plants
#6
Ming-Hua Liang, Jianhua Zhu, Jian-Guo Jiang
Carotenoids are essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection in photosynthetic organisms and beneficial for human health. Apocarotenoids derived from carotenoid degradation can serve critical functions including hormones, volatiles, and signals. They have been used commercially as food colorants, animal feed supplements, and nutraceuticals for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. This review focuses on the molecular evolution of carotenogenic enzymes and carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) from bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria, algae, and plants...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607067/a-recruiting-protein-of-geranylgeranyl-diphosphate-synthase-controls-metabolic-flux-toward-chlorophyll-biosynthesis-in-rice
#7
Fei Zhou, Cheng-Yuan Wang, Michael Gutensohn, Ling Jiang, Peng Zhang, Dabing Zhang, Natalia Dudareva, Shan Lu
In plants, geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) is produced by plastidic GGPP synthase (GGPPS) and serves as a precursor for vital metabolic branches, including chlorophyll, carotenoid, and gibberellin biosynthesis. However, molecular mechanisms regulating GGPP allocation among these biosynthetic pathways localized in the same subcellular compartment are largely unknown. We found that rice contains only one functionally active GGPPS, OsGGPPS1, in chloroplasts. A functionally active homodimeric enzyme composed of two OsGGPPS1 subunits is located in the stroma...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570075/comparative-proteome-reveals-metabolic-changes-during-the-fruiting-process-in-flammulina-velutipes
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jing-Yu Liu, Ming-Chang Chang, Jun-Long Meng, Cui-Ping Feng, Hui Zhao, Ming-Liang Zhang
Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the fruiting process in macro-fungi, especially industrially cultivated mushrooms, has long been a goal in mycological research. To gain insights into the events accompanying the transformation of mycelia into fruit-bodies in Flammulina velutipes, proteins expressed characteristically and abundantly at primordium and fruit-body stages were investigated by using the iTRAQ labeling technique. Among the 171 differentially expressed proteins, a total of 68 displayed up-regulated expression levels that were associated with 84 specific KEGG pathways...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533983/comparative-transcriptome-analyses-of-a-late-maturing-mandarin-mutant-and-its-original-cultivar-reveals-gene-expression-profiling-associated-with-citrus-fruit-maturation
#9
Lu Wang, Qingzhu Hua, Yuewen Ma, Guibing Hu, Yonghua Qin
Characteristics of late maturity in fruit are good agronomic traits for extending the harvest period and marketing time. However, underlying molecular basis of the late-maturing mechanism in fruit is largely unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to late-maturing characteristics from a late-maturing mutant 'Huawan Wuzishatangju' (HWWZSTJ) (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and its original line 'Wuzishatangju' (WZSTJ). A total of approximately 17...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511892/occurrence-and-biosynthesis-of-carotenoids-in-phytoplankton
#10
REVIEW
Jim Junhui Huang, Shaoling Lin, Wenwen Xu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition...
May 13, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469544/fucoxanthin-prevents-h2o2-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-via-concurrently-activating-the-pi3-k-akt-cascade-and-inhibiting-the-erk-pathway
#11
Jie Yu, Jia-Jia Lin, Rui Yu, Shan He, Qin-Wen Wang, Wei Cui, Jin-Rong Zhang
Background: As a natural carotenoid abundant in chloroplasts of edible brown algae, fucoxanthin possesses various health benefits, including anti-oxidative activity in particular. Objective: In the present study, we studied whether fucoxanthin protected against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal apoptosis. Design: The neuroprotective effects of fucoxanthin on H2O2-induced toxicity were studied in both SH-SY5Y cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons. Results: Fucoxanthin significantly protected against H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421096/regulation-of-banana-phytoene-synthase-mapsy-expression-characterization-and-their-modulation-under-various-abiotic-stress-conditions
#12
Navneet Kaur, Ashutosh Pandey, Shivani, Prateek Kumar, Pankaj Pandey, Atul K Kesarwani, Shrikant S Mantri, Praveen Awasthi, Siddharth Tiwari
Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a key regulatory enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. The present study examines the role of PSY in carotenogenesis and stress management in banana. Germplasm screening of 10 Indian cultivars showed that Nendran (3011.94 μg/100 g dry weight) and Rasthali (105.35 μg/100 g dry weight) contained the highest and lowest amounts of β-carotene, respectively in ripe fruit-pulp. Nendran ripe pulp also showed significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to Rasthali...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396598/cytological-and-molecular-characterization-of-carotenoid-accumulation-in-normal-and-high-lycopene-mutant-oranges
#13
Peng-Jun Lu, Chun-Yan Wang, Ting-Ting Yin, Si-Lin Zhong, Don Grierson, Kun-Song Chen, Chang-Jie Xu
Ripe Cara Cara sweet orange contains 25 times as much carotenoids in flesh as Newhall sweet orange, due to high accumulation of carotenes, mainly phytoene, lycopene and phytofluene. Only yellow globular chromoplasts were observed in Newhall flesh. Distinct yellow globular and red elongated crystalline chromoplasts were found in Cara Cara but only one type of chromoplast was present in each cell. The red crystalline chromoplasts contained lycopene as a dominant carotenoid and were associated with characteristic carotenoid sequestering structures...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386902/effect-of-earthworms-on-growth-photosynthetic-efficiency-and-metal-uptake-in-brassica-juncea-l-plants-grown-in-cadmium-polluted-soils
#14
Parminder Kaur, Shagun Bali, Anket Sharma, Adarsh Pal Vig, Renu Bhardwaj
The present study has been carried out to examine the role of earthworms in phytoremediation of Cd and its effect on growth, pigment content, expression of genes coding key enzymes of pigments, photosynthetic efficiency and osmoprotectants in Brassica juncea L. plants grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. The effect of different Cd concentrations (0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 mM) was studied in 30 and 60-day-old plants grown in soils containing earthworms. It was observed that earthworm inoculation showed stimulatory effect on phytoremediation capacity and Cd uptake has increased by 49% (in 30-day-old plants) and 35% (in 60-day-old plants) in shoots and 13...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350010/albino-t-dna-tomato-mutant-reveals-a-key-function-of-1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate-synthase-dxs1-in-plant-development-and-survival
#15
Manuel García-Alcázar, Estela Giménez, Benito Pineda, Carmen Capel, Begoña García-Sogo, Sibilla Sánchez, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Trinidad Angosto, Juan Capel, Vicente Moreno, Rafael Lozano
Photosynthetic activity is indispensable for plant growth and survival and it depends on the synthesis of plastidial isoprenoids as chlorophylls and carotenoids. In the non-mevalonate pathway (MEP), the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase 1 (DXS1) enzyme has been postulated to catalyze the rate-limiting step in the formation of plastidial isoprenoids. In tomato, the function of DXS1 has only been studied in fruits, and hence its functional relevance during plant development remains unknown. Here we report the characterization of the wls-2297 tomato mutant, whose severe deficiency in chlorophylls and carotenoids promotes an albino phenotype...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332598/metabolic-flux-redirection-and-transcriptomic-reprogramming-in-the-albino-tea-cultivar-yu-jin-xiang-with-an-emphasis-on-catechin-production
#16
Guo-Feng Liu, Zhuo-Xiao Han, Lin Feng, Li-Ping Gao, Ming-Jun Gao, Margaret Y Gruber, Zhao-Liang Zhang, Tao Xia, Xiao-Chun Wan, Shu Wei
In this study, shade-induced conversion from a young pale/yellow leaf phenotype to a green leaf phenotype was studied using metabolic and transcriptomic profiling and the albino cultivar 'Yu-Jin-Xiang' ('YJX') of Camellia sinensis for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the phenotype shift and the altered catechin and theanine production. Shaded leaf greening resulted from an increase in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid abundance and chloroplast development. A total of 1,196 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the 'YJX' pale and shaded green leaves, and these DEGs affected 'chloroplast organization' and 'response to high light' besides many other biological processes and pathways...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292708/dioscorea-alata-tuber-proteome-analysis-shows-over-thirty-dioscorin-isoforms-and-novel-tuber-proteins
#17
Shruti Sharma, Ravi Gupta, Renu Deswal
In Dioscorea, dioscorin (31 kDa) is the major storage protein constituting 85% of the total tuber proteins. An integrated proteomic and biochemical approach was used to understand the physiological role of dioscorin in the two contrasting growth stages (germinating and mature tuber). HPLC analysis showed 3 fold reduction in mannitol and 12.88 and 1.24 fold increase in sucrose and maltose in the germinating tuber. A 1.8 and 3 fold increase in sucrose phosphate synthase and mannitol dehydrogenase activity respectively was observed in the germinating tuber while a 2 fold higher invertase probably lowers the sucrose accumulation in the mature tuber...
May 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284309/alleviation-of-metabolic-bottleneck-by-combinatorial-engineering-enhanced-astaxanthin-synthesis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Pingping Zhou, Wenping Xie, Aipeng Li, Fan Wang, Zhen Yao, Qi Bian, Yongqiang Zhu, Hongwei Yu, Lidan Ye
Highly efficient biosynthesis of the commercially valuable carotenoid astaxanthin by microbial cells is an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis and microalgae extraction. With the goal of enhancing heterologous astaxanthin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, metabolic engineering and protein engineering were integrated to improve both the expression and activity of rate-limiting enzymes. Firstly, to increase the supply of β-carotene as a key precursor for astaxanthin, a positive mutant of GGPP synthase (CrtE03M) was overexpressed together with three other rate-limiting enzymes tHMG1, CrtI and CrtYB...
May 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262967/strigolactone-biosynthesis-is-evolutionarily-conserved-regulated-by-phosphate-starvation-and-contributes-to-resistance-against-phytopathogenic-fungi-in-a-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#19
Eva L Decker, Adrian Alder, Stefan Hunn, Jenny Ferguson, Mikko T Lehtonen, Bjoern Scheler, Klaus L Kerres, Gertrud Wiedemann, Vajiheh Safavi-Rizi, Steffen Nordzieke, Aparna Balakrishna, Lina Baz, Javier Avalos, Jari P T Valkonen, Ralf Reski, Salim Al-Babili
In seed plants, strigolactones (SLs) regulate architecture and induce mycorrhizal symbiosis in response to environmental cues. SLs are formed by combined activity of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) 7 and 8 from 9-cis-β-carotene, leading to carlactone that is converted by cytochromes P450 (clade 711; MAX1 in Arabidopsis) into various SLs. As Physcomitrella patens possesses CCD7 and CCD8 homologs but lacks MAX1, we investigated if PpCCD7 together with PpCCD8 form carlactone and how deletion of these enzymes influences growth and interactions with the environment...
March 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230761/transcriptomic-analysis-of-leaf-in-tree-peony-reveals-differentially-expressed-pigments-genes
#20
Jianrang Luo, Qianqian Shi, Lixin Niu, Yanlong Zhang
Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) is an important traditional flower in China. Besides its beautiful flower, the leaf of tree peony has also good ornamental value owing to its leaf color change in spring. So far, the molecular mechanism of leaf color change in tree peony is unclear. In this study, the pigment level and transcriptome of three different color stages of tree peony leaf were analyzed. The purplish red leaf was rich in anthocyanin, while yellowish green leaf was rich in chlorophyll and carotenoid...
February 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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