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Carotenoid synthase

Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Akifumi Kawata, Yukio Murakami, Seiji Suzuki, Seiichiro Fujisawa
BACKGROUND/AIM: The polyene carotenoids β-carotene and lycopene are antioxidants that not only quench singlet oxygen but also inhibit lipid peroxidation. Tri-n-butyl borane (TBB) is used as an initiator for dental resin materials and is extremely reactive with oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This reactionability of TBB may be analogous to that of carotenoids with ROS. To clarify the biological activity of such ROS scavengers, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of β-carotene, lycopene and TBB in terms of the expression of RNA for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2), nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnfa), and mRNA expression and up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) mRNA in RAW264...
March 2018: In Vivo
Yi Chang, Cheng Wei Lu, Yi Jing Chen, Tzu Yu Lin, Shu Kuei Huang, Su Jane Wang
Excitotoxic damage caused by increased glutamate levels is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Astaxanthin, a natural carotenoid with multiple health benefits, inhibits glutamate release from the brain tissue; however, whether it possesses the ability to affect glutamate-induced brain injury is unknown. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin on kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity in rats and the possible underlying intracellular signaling pathway...
February 20, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Su Wen Lu, Yin Zhang, Kaijie Zhu, Wei Yang, Jun Li Ye, Lijun Chai, Qiang Xu, Xiuxin Deng
Although remarkable progress has been made towards understanding carotenoid biosynthesis, the mechanisms that regulate the transcription of carotenogenic genes remain poorly understood. Lycopene β-cyclases (LCYb) are critical enzymes located at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Here, we used the promoter sequence of LCYb1 as bait in a yeast one-hybrid screen for promoter-binding proteins from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). This screen identified a MADS transcription factor, CsMADS6, that was coordinately expressed with fruit development and coloration...
February 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Naglaa F Khedr, Hoda A El-Bahrawy, Omnia B Hamada
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation may play a key role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Lycopene, a natural carotenoid, has antioxidant scavenger capacity and inhibits inflammation in many experimental models. AIM: The study was designed to investigate whether lycopene can ameliorate l-arginine-induced pancreatitis in rats and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects. METHODS: Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into: control group (vehicle, orally, 10 days), AP group (3 g/kg l-arginine, single i...
February 2, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Man Zhu, Jiajia Lin, Junli Ye, Rui Wang, Chao Yang, Jinli Gong, Yun Liu, Chongling Deng, Ping Liu, Chuanwu Chen, Yunjiang Cheng, Xiuxin Deng, Yunliu Zeng
Elaioplasts of citrus peel are colorless plastids which accumulate significant amounts of terpenes. However, other functions of elaioplasts have not been fully characterized to date. Here, a LC-MS/MS shotgun technology was applied to identify the proteins from elaioplasts that were highly purified from young fruit peel of kumquat. A total of 655 putative plastid proteins were identified from elaioplasts according to sequence homology in silico and manual curation. Based on functional classification via Mapman, ~50% of the identified proteins fall into six categories, including protein metabolism, transport, and lipid metabolism...
2018: Horticulture Research
Micaela Cerletti, Roberto Paggi, Christian Troetschel, Maria Celeste Ferrari, Carina Ramallo Guevara, Stefan Albaum, Ansgar Poetsch, Rosana De Castro
The membrane protease LonB is an essential protein in the archaeon Haloferax volcanii and globally impacts its physiology. However, natural substrates of the archaeal Lon protease have not been identified. In this study the whole proteome turnover was examined in a H. volcanii LonB mutant under reduced and physiological protease levels. LC-MS/MS combined with stable isotope labeling was applied for the identification/quantitation of membrane and cytoplasm proteins. Differential synthesis and degradation rates were evidenced for 414 proteins in response to Lon expression...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Li Yun Yang, Shuang Long Yang, Jun Ying Li, Jun Hong Ma, Tao Pang, Cong Ming Zou, Bin He, Ming Gong
BACKGROUND: Temperature remarkably affects the growth and metabolism of plants. Tobacco is an important cash crop, and the long-term effects of different growth temperatures (18.5, 23.5 and 28.5 °C, daily average) on growth, development and plastid pigments metabolism of tobacco plants were investigated in this study. RESULTS: Compared with tobacco plants grown under 23.5 °C, treatments with 18.5 and 28.5 °C inhibited the expansion of leaves. The contents of superoxide anion (O 2·- ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased under 28...
February 5, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Patrick Schaub, Marta Rodriguez-Franco, Christopher Ian Cazzonelli, Daniel Álvarez, Florian Wüst, Ralf Welsch
The net amounts of carotenoids accumulating in plant tissues are determined by the rates of biosynthesis and degradation. While biosynthesis is rate-limited by the activity of PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), carotenoid losses are caused by catabolic enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation. We established a system based on non-green Arabidopsis callus which allowed investigating major determinants for high steady-state levels of β-carotene. Wild-type callus development was characterized by strong carotenoid degradation which was only marginally caused by the activity of carotenoid cleavage oxygenases...
2018: PloS One
Ho Soo Kim, Chang Yoon Ji, Chan-Ju Lee, So-Eun Kim, Sung-Chul Park, Sang-Soo Kwak
Carotenoids play essential roles in various light-harvesting processes in plants and help protect the photosynthetic machinery from photo-oxidative damage. Orange genes, which play a role in carotenoid accumulation, were recently isolated from several plant species, and their functions were intensively investigated. The Orange gene (IbOr) from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] helps maintain carotenoid homeostasis to improve plant tolerance to environmental stress. IbOr, a protein with strong holdase chaperone activity, directly interacts with phytoene synthase (IbPSY), a key enzyme involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, in plants under stress conditions, resulting in increased carotenoid accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lucio D'Andrea, Miguel Simon-Moya, Briardo Llorente, Ernesto Llamas, Mónica Marro, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Li Li, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion, Ariel Vicente
Profound metabolic and structural changes are required for fleshy green fruits to ripen and become colorful and tasty. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), fruit ripening involves the differentiation of chromoplasts, specialized plastids that accumulate carotenoid pigments such as β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) and lycopene. Here, we explored the role of the plastidial Clp protease in chromoplast development and carotenoid accumulation. Ripening-specific silencing of one of the subunits of the Clp proteolytic complex resulted in β-carotene-enriched fruits that appeared orange instead of red when ripe...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dan Yao, Yi Wang, Qian Li, Xufen Ouyang, Yaohua Li, Chuannan Wang, Lingli Ding, Lei Hou, Ming Luo, Yuehua Xiao
Provitamin A (PVA) bio-fortification of crops offers a sustainable strategy to prevent the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), one of the world's major public health problems. The present work aimed to enhance PVA accumulation in cottonseed, the main by-product in the production of cotton fibers and the third largest source of edible plant oil in the world. On the basis of comprehensive identification of carotenoid synthase genes and their expression levels in various cotton tissues, we selected phytoene synthase as the target for manipulating carotenoid biosynthesis in the developing cottonseeds...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tsubasa Fuke, Takaaki Sato, Savyasachee Jha, Myra L Tansengco, Haruyuki Atomi
Phytoene (C40H64) is an isoprenoid and a precursor of various carotenoids which are of industrial value. Archaea can be considered to exhibit a relatively large capacity to produce isoprenoids, as they are components of their membrane lipids. Here, we aimed to produce isoprenoids such as phytoene in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. T. kodakarensis harbors a prenyltransferase gene involved in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which are precursors of squalene and phytoene, respectively...
January 16, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Gui Li, Jing Xi, Xiaoming Ji, Ming-Zhuo Li, De-Yu Xie
Designing effective synthetic genes of interest is a fundamental step in plant synthetic biology for biomass. Geranyl pyrophosphate (diphosphate) synthase (GPPS) catalyzes a bottleneck step toward terpenoid metabolism. We previously designed and synthesized a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana)-insect (Myzus persicae, Mp) GPPS- human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) cDNA, namely PTP-MpGPPS-HA (or PTP-sMpGPPS-HA, s: synthetic), to localize the protein in plastids and improve plant biomass. To better understand the effects of different subcellular localizations on plant performance, herein we report PTP-sMpGPPS-HA re-design to synthesize a new MpGPPS-HA cDNA, namely sMpGPPS-HA, to express a non-plastidial sMpGPPS-HA protein...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jin Won Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Hyun-Jun Kang, Hoon Ryu, Pyung Cheon Lee
A novel type strain, Planococcus faecalis AJ003T, isolated from the feces of Antarctic penguins, synthesizes a rare C30 carotenoid, glycosyl-4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4'-ol-4-oic acid. The complete genome of P. faecalis AJ003T comprises a single circular chromosome (3,495,892bp; 40.9% G+C content). Annotation analysis has revealed 3511 coding DNA sequences and 99 RNAs; seven genes associated with the MEP pathway and five genes involved in the carotenoid pathway have been identified. The functionality and complementation of 4,4'-diapophytoene synthase (CrtM) and two copies of heterologous 4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN) involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed in Escherichia coli...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Sara Landolfo, Giuseppe Ianiri, Salvatore Camiolo, Andrea Porceddu, Giuliana Mulas, Rossella Chessa, Giacomo Zara, Ilaria Mannazzu
A molecular approach was applied to the study of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. At first, functional annotation of the genome of R. mucilaginosa C2.5t1 was carried out and gene ontology categories were assigned to 4033 predicted proteins. Then, a set of genes involved in different steps of carotenogenesis was identified and those coding for phytoene desaturase, phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase and carotenoid dioxygenase (CAR genes) proved to be clustered within a region of ~10 kb...
January 2018: Microbiology
Getu Beyene, Felix R Solomon, Raj D Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robyn L Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel J Taylor, Edgar B Cahoon
Storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a major subsistence crop of sub-Saharan Africa, are calorie rich but deficient in essential micronutrients, including provitamin A β-carotene. In this study, β-carotene concentrations in cassava storage roots were enhanced by co-expression of transgenes for deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB), mediated by the patatin-type 1 promoter. Storage roots harvested from field-grown plants accumulated carotenoids to ≤50 μg/g DW, 15- to 20-fold increases relative to roots from nontransgenic plants...
November 28, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Yoshifumi Hayashi, Tomokazu Ito, Tohru Yoshimura, Hisashi Hemmi
(E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate (HMBPP) is an intermediate of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. Utilization of HMBPP by lycopene elongase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a UbiA-family prenyltransferase responsible for C50 carotenoid biosynthesis, was investigated using an Escherichia coli strain that contained the exogenous mevalonate pathway as well as the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Inhibition of the endogenous methylerythritol phosphate pathway resulted in loss of the production of C50 carotenoid flavuxanthin, while C40 lycopene formation was retained...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
R Dhandapani, V P Singh, A Arora, R C Bhattacharya, Ambika Rajendran
An experiment was conducted with twelve major Indian banana cultivars to investigate the molecular relationship between the differential accumulation of β-carotene in peel and pulp of the banana fruit and carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that all banana cultivars accumulated two-three fold more β-carotene in non-edible portion of the banana fruit. However, Nendran , a famous orange fleshed cultivar of South India, had high β-carotene content (1362 µg/100 g) in edible pulp...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yongzhi Zhang, Yufang Xu, Shipeng Wang, Xuefeng Li, Mingqi Zheng
D. Sophia is one of the most problematic weed species infesting winter wheat in China, and has evolved high resistance to tribenuron-methyl. Amino acid substitutions at site of Pro197, Asp376 and Trp574 in acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) were mainly responsible for D. sophia resistance to tribenuron-methyl. In this study, D. sophia plant individually homozygous for specific AHAS mutation (Pro197Leu, Pro197His, Pro197Ser, Pro197Thr, Asp376Glu and Trp574Leu) were generated. In addition, the effects of resistance mutations on pigments, growths and competitiveness of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) plants of D...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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