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Carotenoid synthase

Gui Li, Jing Xi, Xiaoming Ji, Ming-Zhuo Li, De-Yu Xie
Designing effective synthetic genes of interest is a fundamental step in plant synthetic biology for biomass. Geranyl pyrophosphate (diphosphate) synthase (GPPS) catalyzes a bottleneck step toward terpenoid metabolism. We previously designed and synthesized a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana)-insect (Myzus persicae, Mp) GPPS- human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) cDNA, namely PTP-MpGPPS-HA (or PTP-sMpGPPS-HA, s: synthetic), to localize the protein in plastids and improve plant biomass. To better understand the effects of different subcellular localizations on plant performance, herein we report PTP-sMpGPPS-HA re-design to synthesize a new MpGPPS-HA cDNA, namely sMpGPPS-HA, to express a non-plastidial sMpGPPS-HA protein...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jin Won Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Hyun-Jun Kang, Hoon Ryu, Pyung Cheon Lee
A novel type strain, Planococcus faecalis AJ003T, isolated from the feces of Antarctic penguins, synthesizes a rare C30 carotenoid, glycosyl-4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4'-ol-4-oic acid. The complete genome of P. faecalis AJ003T comprises a single circular chromosome (3,495,892bp; 40.9% G+C content). Annotation analysis has revealed 3511 coding DNA sequences and 99 RNAs; seven genes associated with the MEP pathway and five genes involved in the carotenoid pathway have been identified. The functionality and complementation of 4,4'-diapophytoene synthase (CrtM) and two copies of heterologous 4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN) involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed in Escherichia coli...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Sara Landolfo, Giuseppe Ianiri, Salvatore Camiolo, Andrea Porceddu, Giuliana Mulas, Rossella Chessa, Giacomo Zara, Ilaria Mannazzu
A molecular approach was applied to the study of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. At first, functional annotation of the genome of R. mucilaginosa C2.5t1 was carried out and gene ontology categories were assigned to 4033 predicted proteins. Then, a set of genes involved in different steps of carotenogenesis was identified and those coding for phytoene desaturase, phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase and carotenoid dioxygenase (CAR genes) proved to be clustered within a region of ~10 kb...
January 2018: Microbiology
Getu Beyene, Felix R Solomon, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robyn L Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel J Taylor, Edgar B Cahoon
Storage roots of cassava, a major subsistence crop of sub-Saharan Africa, are calorie-rich but deficient in essential micronutrients, including provitamin A β-carotene. In this study, β-carotene concentrations in cassava storage roots were enhanced by co-expression of transgenes for deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB), mediated by the patatin type-1 promoter. Storage roots harvested from field-grown plants accumulated carotenoids to ≤50 μg/g DW, 15- to 20-fold increases relative to roots from non-transgenic plants...
November 28, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Yoshifumi Hayashi, Tomokazu Ito, Tohru Yoshimura, Hisashi Hemmi
(E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate (HMBPP) is an intermediate of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. Utilization of HMBPP by lycopene elongase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a UbiA-family prenyltransferase responsible for C50 carotenoid biosynthesis, was investigated using an Escherichia coli strain that contained the exogenous mevalonate pathway as well as the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Inhibition of the endogenous methylerythritol phosphate pathway resulted in loss of the production of C50 carotenoid flavuxanthin, while C40 lycopene formation was retained...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
R Dhandapani, V P Singh, A Arora, R C Bhattacharya, Ambika Rajendran
An experiment was conducted with twelve major Indian banana cultivars to investigate the molecular relationship between the differential accumulation of β-carotene in peel and pulp of the banana fruit and carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that all banana cultivars accumulated two-three fold more β-carotene in non-edible portion of the banana fruit. However, Nendran, a famous orange fleshed cultivar of South India, had high β-carotene content (1362 µg/100 g) in edible pulp...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yongzhi Zhang, Yufang Xu, Shipeng Wang, Xuefeng Li, Mingqi Zheng
D. Sophia is one of the most problematic weed species infesting winter wheat in China, and has evolved high resistance to tribenuron-methyl. Amino acid substitutions at site of Pro197, Asp376 and Trp574 in acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) were mainly responsible for D. sophia resistance to tribenuron-methyl. In this study, D. sophia plant individually homozygous for specific AHAS mutation (Pro197Leu, Pro197His, Pro197Ser, Pro197Thr, Asp376Glu and Trp574Leu) were generated. In addition, the effects of resistance mutations on pigments, growths and competitiveness of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) plants of D...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ralf Welsch, Xiangjun Zhou, Hui Yuan, Daniel Álvarez, Tianhu Sun, Dennis Schlossarek, Yong Yang, Guoxin Shen, Hong Zhang, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion, Theodore W Thannhauser, Li Li
Phytoene synthase (PSY) is the crucial plastidial enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. However, its post-translational regulation remains elusive. Likewise, Clp protease constitutes a central part of the plastid protease networks, but its substrates for degradation are not well known. In this study, we report that PSY is a substrate of the Clp protease. PSY was uncovered to physically interact with various Clp protease subunits (i.e. ClpS1, ClpC1, and ClpD). High levels of PSY and several other carotenogenic enzymes over-accumulate in the clpc1, clpp4 and clpr1-2 mutants...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant
H Balci Yuce, A Lektemur Alpan, F Gevrek, H Toker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid that has a strong antioxidant effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of astaxanthin on alveolar bone loss and histopathological changes in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: non-ligated (C, n = 6); ligature only (L, n = 6); ligature and astaxanthin (1 mg/kg/day astaxanthin, AS1 group, n = 8); ligature and astaxanthin (5 mg/kg/day astaxanthin, AS5 group, n = 8)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
Chaoyang Zhao, Paul D Nabity
Gene transfer among reproductively isolated organisms can lead to novel phenotypes and increased fitness. Among the Sternorrhyncha, a suborder of plant sap-feeding hemipteran insects, both aphids and adelgids acquired carotenoid biosynthesis genes from a fungal donor that result in ecologically relevant pigmentation. Phylloxerids form another family that are closely related to aphids and adelgids and share similar pigmentation, but are largely uncharacterized for their presence and number of pigment genes that have duplicated among aphids...
2017: PloS One
Hui-Wen Lin, Cheng-Wei Liu, Deng-Jye Yang, Ching-Chung Chen, Shih-Yin Chen, Jung-Kai Tseng, Tien-Jye Chang, Yuan-Yen Chang
Recent investigations have demonstrated that carotenoid extract of Dunaliella salina alga (Alga) contains abundant β-carotene and has good anti-inflammatory activities. Murine macrophage (RAW264.7 cells) was used to establish as an in vitro model of pseudorabies virus-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) response. In this study, antioxidant activities of Alga were measured based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, reducing power, and virus-induced ROS formation in RAW264...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Xingwen Zhou, Jiyuan Li, Yulin Zhu, Sui Ni, Jinling Chen, Xiaojuan Feng, Yunfeng Zhang, Shuangquan Li, Hongguang Zhu, Yuanguang Wen
The golden camellia, Camellia nitidissima Chi., is a well-known ornamental plant that is known as "the queen of camellias" because of its golden yellow flowers. The principal pigments in the flowers are carotenoids and flavonol glycosides. Understanding the biosynthesis of the golden color and its regulation is important in camellia breeding. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of flower development in C. nitidissima, a number of cDNA libraries were independently constructed during flower development. Using the Illumina Hiseq2500 platform, approximately 71...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jiajia Lin, Jie Yu, Jiaying Zhao, Ke Zhang, Jiachen Zheng, Jialing Wang, Chunhui Huang, Jingrong Zhang, Xiaojun Yan, William H Gerwick, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui, Shan He
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic impairments, and loss of neurons. Oligomers of β-amyloid (Aβ) are widely accepted as the main neurotoxins to induce oxidative stress and neuronal loss in AD. In this study, we discovered that fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid with antioxidative stress properties, concentration dependently prevented Aβ oligomer-induced increase of neuronal apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Sameh S M Soliman, Kareem A Mosa, Ali A El-Keblawy, Mohamed I Husseiny
Taxol is an anticancer identified in both endophytic fungus and its host plant. Plant Taxol is a diterpenoid with geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) mediates the biosynthesis of its terpenoid moiety. Previous report has suggested that fungal Taxol may require terpenoid pathway for its biosynthesis. Here in this study, feeding a Taxol-producing endophytic fungus (Paraconiothyrium SSM001) with terpenoid precursors including isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isoprene) and GGPP enhanced Taxol production threefold and fivefold, respectively, compared to the control...
October 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Pan Liao, Xinjian Chen, Mingfu Wang, Thomas J Bach, Mee-Len Chye
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS) in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway generates isoprenoids including phytosterols. Dietary phytosterols are important because they can lower blood cholesterol levels. Previously, the overexpression of Brassica juncea wild-type (wt) and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis and increased sterol content. Recombinant S359A had earlier displayed a 10-fold higher in vitro enzyme activity. Furthermore, tobacco HMGS-overexpressors (OEs) exhibited improved sterol content, plant growth and seed yield...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Sang-Hoon Lee, Jeong Su Yoon, Jae Kwang Kim, Sang Won Lee, Mok Hur, Sung Cheol Koo, Jin Meilan, Woo Moon Lee, Jae Ki Jang, Yoonkang Hur, Sang Un Park, And Yeon Bok Kim
Ixeris dentata var. albiflora is considered as a potential therapeutic agent against mithridatism, calculous, indigestion, pneumonia, hepatitis, and tumors as well as good seasoned vegetable in Far East countries. Phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS) ξ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB), lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYE), ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (CHXB), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZDS) are vital enzymes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. We have examined these seven genes from I...
August 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ravdeep Kaur, Poonam Yadav, Anket Sharma, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Vinod Kumar, Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Renu Bhardwaj
Cadmium(II) toxicity is a serious environmental issue warranting effective measures for its mitigation. In the present study, ameliorative effects of a bioactive brassinosteroid, castasterone (CS) and low molecular weight organic acid, citric acid (CA) against the Cd(II) toxicity to Brassica juncea L. were evaluated. Seeds of B. juncea treated with CS (0, 0.01, 1 and 100nM) were sown in cadmium spiked soils (0 and 0.6mmolkg(-1) soil). CA (0.6mmolkg(-1)soil) was added to soil one week after sowing seeds. Plants were harvested 30 days after sowing...
August 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Eun-Ha Kim, Dae-Woo Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol Lee, Su-Jin Jung, Jong-Seong Jeon, Hyun Uk Kim
Plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9) is essential for plant growth and development. Recently, we found that fibrillin5 (FBN5), a plastid lipid binding protein, is an essential structural component of the PQ-9 biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis. To investigate the functional conservation of FBN5 in monocots and eudicots, we identified OsFBN5, the Arabidopsis FBN5 (AtFBN5) ortholog in rice (Oryza sativa). Homozygous Osfbn5-1 and Osfbn5-2 Tos17 insertion null mutants were smaller than wild type (WT) plants when grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and died quickly when transplanted to soil in a greenhouse...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shota Kato, Mika Soshino, Shinichi Takaichi, Takahiro Ishikawa, Noriko Nagata, Masashi Asahina, Tomoko Shinomura
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic organisms utilize carotenoids for photoprotection as well as light harvesting. Our previous study revealed that high-intensity light increases the expression of the gene for phytoene synthase (EgcrtB) in Euglena gracilis (a unicellular phytoflagellate), the encoded enzyme catalyzes the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. To examine carotenoid synthesis of E. gracilis in response to light stress, we analyzed carotenoid species and content in cells grown under various light intensities...
July 17, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Hyunju Kang, Hyeyoung Kim
Helicobacter pylori is a dominant bacterium living in the human gastric tissues. In H. pylori-infected tissues, the infiltrated inflammatory cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to gastric inflammation with production of various mediators. According to numerous epidemiological studies, dietary carotenoids may prevent gastric inflammation due to their antioxidant properties. Recent studies showed that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of astaxanthin and β-carotene may contribute to inhibition of H...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
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