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Carotenoid synthase

Hisayuki Komaki, Kenta Sakurai, Akira Hosoyama, Akane Kimura, Yasuhiro Igarashi, Tomohiko Tamura
To identify the species of butyrolactol-producing Streptomyces strain TP-A0882, whole genome-sequencing of three type strains in a close taxonomic relationship was performed. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization using the genome sequences suggested that Streptomyces sp. TP-A0882 is classified as Streptomyces diastaticus subsp. ardesiacus. Strain TP-A0882, S. diastaticus subsp. ardesiacus NBRC 15402T , Streptomyces coelicoflavus NBRC 15399T , and Streptomyces rubrogriseus NBRC 15455T harbor at least 14, 14, 10, and 12 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), respectively, coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs)...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nadja A Henke, Julian Wichmann, Thomas Baier, Jonas Frohwitter, Kyle J Lauersen, Joe M Risse, Petra Peters-Wendisch, Olaf Kruse, Volker F Wendisch
Patchoulol is a sesquiterpene alcohol and an important natural product for the perfume industry. Corynebacterium glutamicum is the prominent host for the fermentative production of amino acids with an average annual production volume of ~6 million tons. Due to its robustness and well established large-scale fermentation, C. glutamicum has been engineered for the production of a number of value-added compounds including terpenoids. Both C40 and C50 carotenoids, including the industrially relevant astaxanthin, and short-chain terpenes such as the sesquiterpene valencene can be produced with this organism...
April 17, 2018: Genes
Tal Dahan-Meir, Shdema Filler-Hayut, Cathy Melamed-Bessudo, Samuel Bocobza, Henryk Czosnek, Asaph Aharoni, Avraham A Levy
Current breeding relies mostly on random mutagenesis and recombination to generate novel genetic variation. However, targeted genome editing is becoming an increasingly important tool for precise plant breeding. Using the CRISPR-Cas system combined with the bean yellow dwarf virus rolling circle replicon we optimized a method for targeted mutagenesis and gene replacement in tomato. The carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) and phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway were chosen as targets due to their easily detectable change of phenotype...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Sambandam Ravikumar, Han Min Woo, Jong-Il Choi
Novel synthetic isoprenoids have been synthesized in engineered microbial hosts by evolving terpene synthase or expressing heterologous terpene synthases. Recently, the native operon, crtN a N c M derived from Planococcus sp. PAMC 21323, has isolated for potential industrial applications of C35 carotenoids. For the first time, novel C35 carotenoids (sesquarterpene) were synthesized in Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing the crtN a N c M genes. The recombinant strains accumulate various sesquarterpene including 4-apolycopene (red color), 4-aponeurosporene (yellow color), and no pigmentation, depending on the expression of the genetic elements of the crtN a N c M genes...
April 17, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Z Yousefi, M Kolahi, A Majd, P Jonoubi
Cadmium is an important environmental pollutant which genetically, physiologically and biochemically affects the cell. Phytochelatins (PC) are involved in one of the phytoremediation mechanisms, in which they are able to bind heavy metals, such as cadmium. The objective of this study was to evaluate morphometric, antioxidant enzyme activity, and SoPCS gene expression in sugarcane growing under cadmium stress. After propagation, samples were cultured in triplicate for 14 days in modified MS medium containing CdCl2 (100, 250, 500 µmol)...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hiroaki Iwasaka, Ryo Koyanagi, Ryota Satoh, Akiko Nagano, Kenshi Watanabe, Kanako Hisata, Noriyuki Satoh, Tsunehiro Aki
Labyrinthulomycetes have been regarded as a promising industrial source of xanthophylls, including astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, ω-3 oils, and terpenic hydrocarbons, such as sterols and squalene. A Thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105 produces carotenoids, including astaxanthin, with strong antioxidant activity. To gain genomic insights into this capacity, we decoded its 97-Mbp genome and characterized genes for enzymes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis...
April 9, 2018: Genes
Settypalli Triloknadh, Chunduri Venkata Rao, Kerru Nagaraju, Nallapaneni Hari Krishna, Chintha Venkata Ramaiah, Wudayagiri Rajendra, Daggupati Trinath, Yeguvapalli Suneetha
A series of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine alkyne Mannich base derivatives (7a-e, 8a-e) and thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (9a-e, 10a-e) have been synthesized and evaluated for their neuroprotective and neurotoxicity activities where 9a, 10d displayed good neuroprotection 10.6 and 11.88 µg/mL respectively against the H2 O2 induced cell death at the EC50 values and 9b, 9d showed respective toxic effects on PC12 cells at CC50 86.12 and 94.16 µg/mL. Compounds 9a, 9e, 10a and 10b showed strong antibacterial activity against two gram positive (S...
March 13, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Tayebe Abdollahzadeh, Ali Niazi, Ali Moghadam, Zohreh Heydarian, Reza Ghasemi-Fasaei, Elina Kaviani, Neda Pourdad
Petroleum compounds are considered as one of the critical environmental pollutants. Salicornia can grow in petroleum-contaminated soil. Therefore, the potential of two Iranian Salicornia species, S. persica Akhani and S. iranica Akhani, for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with 0.2% and 2% petroleum contaminations was evaluated over the short (1 and 10 h) and long (100 days) periods of time. In addition, some key factors involved in phytoremediation including the expression analysis of phytoene synthase, physiological and morphological factors were studied...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Kanchana Rueksomtawin Kildegaard, Belén Adiego-Pérez, David Doménech Belda, Jaspreet Kaur Khangura, Carina Holkenbrink, Irina Borodina
Astaxanthin is a red-colored carotenoid, used as food and feed additive. Astaxanthin is mainly produced by chemical synthesis, however, the process is expensive and synthetic astaxanthin is not approved for human consumption. In this study, we engineered the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for de novo production of astaxanthin by fermentation. First, we screened 12 different Y. lipolytica isolates for β-carotene production by introducing two genes for β-carotene biosynthesis: bi-functional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase ( crtYB ) and phytoene desaturase ( crtI ) from the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous ...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Do Manh Cuong, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Jin Jeon, Yun Ji Park, Soon-Jae Kwon, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Sang Un Park
Carotenoids, found in the fruit and different organs of bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ), have attracted great attention for their potential health benefits in treating several major chronic diseases. Therefore, study related to the identification and quantification of the medically important carotenoid metabolites is highly important for the treatment of various disorderes. The present study involved in the identification and quantification of the various carotenoids present in the different organs of M...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Akifumi Kawata, Yukio Murakami, Seiji Suzuki, Seiichiro Fujisawa
BACKGROUND/AIM: The polyene carotenoids β-carotene and lycopene are antioxidants that not only quench singlet oxygen but also inhibit lipid peroxidation. Tri-n-butyl borane (TBB) is used as an initiator for dental resin materials and is extremely reactive with oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This reactionability of TBB may be analogous to that of carotenoids with ROS. To clarify the biological activity of such ROS scavengers, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of β-carotene, lycopene and TBB in terms of the expression of RNA for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2), nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnfa), and mRNA expression and up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) mRNA in RAW264...
March 2018: In Vivo
Yi Chang, Cheng Wei Lu, Yi Jing Chen, Tzu Yu Lin, Shu Kuei Huang, Su Jane Wang
Excitotoxic damage caused by increased glutamate levels is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Astaxanthin, a natural carotenoid with multiple health benefits, inhibits glutamate release from the brain tissue; however, whether it possesses the ability to affect glutamate-induced brain injury is unknown. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin on kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity in rats and the possible underlying intracellular signaling pathway...
June 2018: Neurochemistry International
Suwen Lu, Yin Zhang, Kaijie Zhu, Wei Yang, Junli Ye, Lijun Chai, Qiang Xu, Xiuxin Deng
Although remarkable progress has been made toward understanding carotenoid biosynthesis, the mechanisms that regulate the transcription of carotenogenic genes remain poorly understood. Lycopene β-cyclases (LCYb) are critical enzymes located at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Here, we used the promoter sequence of LCYb1 as bait in a yeast one-hybrid screen for promoter-binding proteins from sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis ). This screen identified a MADS transcription factor, CsMADS6, that was coordinately expressed with fruit development and coloration...
April 2018: Plant Physiology
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Naglaa F Khedr, Hoda A El-Bahrawy, Omnia B Hamada
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation may play a key role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Lycopene, a natural carotenoid, has antioxidant scavenger capacity and inhibits inflammation in many experimental models. AIM: The study was designed to investigate whether lycopene can ameliorate l-arginine-induced pancreatitis in rats and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects. METHODS: Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into: control group (vehicle, orally, 10 days), AP group (3 g/kg l-arginine, single i...
February 2, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Man Zhu, Jiajia Lin, Junli Ye, Rui Wang, Chao Yang, Jinli Gong, Yun Liu, Chongling Deng, Ping Liu, Chuanwu Chen, Yunjiang Cheng, Xiuxin Deng, Yunliu Zeng
Elaioplasts of citrus peel are colorless plastids which accumulate significant amounts of terpenes. However, other functions of elaioplasts have not been fully characterized to date. Here, a LC-MS/MS shotgun technology was applied to identify the proteins from elaioplasts that were highly purified from young fruit peel of kumquat. A total of 655 putative plastid proteins were identified from elaioplasts according to sequence homology in silico and manual curation. Based on functional classification via Mapman, ~50% of the identified proteins fall into six categories, including protein metabolism, transport, and lipid metabolism...
2018: Horticulture Research
Micaela Cerletti, Roberto Paggi, Christian Troetschel, María Celeste Ferrari, Carina Ramallo Guevara, Stefan Albaum, Ansgar Poetsch, Rosana De Castro
The membrane protease LonB is an essential protein in the archaeon Haloferax volcanii and globally impacts its physiology. However, natural substrates of the archaeal Lon protease have not been identified. The whole proteome turnover was examined in a H. volcanii LonB mutant under reduced and physiological protease levels. LC-MS/MS combined with stable isotope labeling was applied for the identification/quantitation of membrane and cytoplasm proteins. Differential synthesis and degradation rates were evidenced for 414 proteins in response to Lon expression...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Li Yun Yang, Shuang Long Yang, Jun Ying Li, Jun Hong Ma, Tao Pang, Cong Ming Zou, Bin He, Ming Gong
BACKGROUND: Temperature remarkably affects the growth and metabolism of plants. Tobacco is an important cash crop, and the long-term effects of different growth temperatures (18.5, 23.5 and 28.5 °C, daily average) on growth, development and plastid pigments metabolism of tobacco plants were investigated in this study. RESULTS: Compared with tobacco plants grown under 23.5 °C, treatments with 18.5 and 28.5 °C inhibited the expansion of leaves. The contents of superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ), hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased under 28...
February 5, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Patrick Schaub, Marta Rodriguez-Franco, Christopher Ian Cazzonelli, Daniel Álvarez, Florian Wüst, Ralf Welsch
The net amounts of carotenoids accumulating in plant tissues are determined by the rates of biosynthesis and degradation. While biosynthesis is rate-limited by the activity of PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), carotenoid losses are caused by catabolic enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation. We established a system based on non-green Arabidopsis callus which allowed investigating major determinants for high steady-state levels of β-carotene. Wild-type callus development was characterized by strong carotenoid degradation which was only marginally caused by the activity of carotenoid cleavage oxygenases...
2018: PloS One
Ho Soo Kim, Chang Yoon Ji, Chan-Ju Lee, So-Eun Kim, Sung-Chul Park, Sang-Soo Kwak
Carotenoids play essential roles in various light-harvesting processes in plants and help protect the photosynthetic machinery from photo-oxidative damage. Orange genes, which play a role in carotenoid accumulation, were recently isolated from several plant species, and their functions were intensively investigated. The Orange gene (IbOr) from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] helps maintain carotenoid homeostasis to improve plant tolerance to environmental stress. IbOr, a protein with strong holdase chaperone activity, directly interacts with phytoene synthase (IbPSY), a key enzyme involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, in plants under stress conditions, resulting in increased carotenoid accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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