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clinical biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934448/cervical-spine-deformity-part-2-management-algorithm-and-anterior-techniques
#1
Lee A Tan, K Daniel Riew, Vincent C Traynelis
A sound operative plan based on solid understanding of the pathology and biomechanics is the most important part of cervical deformity correction. Many different surgical options exist for operative management of cervical spine deformities. However, selecting the correct approach that ensures the optimal clinical outcome can be challenging and often controversial. In Part 2 of this three-part review series, we discuss the pre-operative planning, management algorithm, and anterior surgical techniques for cervical deformity correction...
October 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932338/recent-innovations-in-collagen-corneal-cross-linking-a-mini-review
#2
Iraklis Vastardis, Brigitte Pajic-Eggspuehler, Charis Nichorlis, Jörg Mueller, Bojan Pajic
BACKGROUND: The introduction of corneal cross-linking (CXL) with ultraviolet-A (UVA) and Riboflavin photosensitizer (Vit B2) from Seiler et al., revolutionized the treatment of Keratoconus and other corneal ectatic diseases. Today, the commonly known epithelium off Dresden protocol is in clinical use for the last 15 years with great success and regarded by many as the golden standard. METHODS: With several studies demonstrating its simplicity, efficacy and safety this revolutionary method, paved the way for new therapies and strategies in the treatment of corneal ectatic diseases and changed our understanding in corneal biomechanics...
2017: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932334/corneal-biomechanics-in-ectatic-diseases-refractive-surgery-implications
#3
Renato Ambrósio, Fernando Faria Correia, Bernardo Lopes, Marcella Q Salomão, Allan Luz, Daniel G Dawson, Ahmed Elsheikh, Riccardo Vinciguerra, Paolo Vinciguerra, Cynthia J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Ectasia development occurs due to a chronic corneal biomechanical decompensation or weakness, resulting in stromal thinning and corneal protrusion. This leads to corneal steepening, increase in astigmatism, and irregularity. In corneal refractive surgery, the detection of mild forms of ectasia pre-operatively is essential to avoid post-operative progressive ectasia, which also depends on the impact of the procedure on the cornea. METHOD: The advent of 3D tomography is proven as a significant advancement to further characterize corneal shape beyond front surface topography, which is still relevant...
2017: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932303/the-influence-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-remnant-on-postoperative-clinical-results-in-patients-with-remnant-preserving-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#4
Alan Andonovski, Sonja Topuzovska, Milan Samardziski, Zoran Bozinovski, Biljana Andonovska, Zlatko Temelkovski
BACKGROUND: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) remnants have important biomechanical, vascular and proprioceptive function. AIM: To determine the influence of the ACL residual remnants after partial and complete ACL ruptures on postoperative clinical results in patients with remnant preserving ACL reconstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 66 patients divided into two groups. In patients from the investigation group remnant preserving ACL reconstruction was performed, in patients from the control group single bundle ACL reconstruction was performed...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929033/baastrup-s-disease-interspinal-bursitis-and-dorsal-epidural-cysts-radiologic-evaluation-and-impact-on-treatment-options
#5
REVIEW
Jesse Hatgis, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson
Baastrup's disease or "kissing spines syndrome" was first described as a cause of lumbar pain before computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning existed. The diagnosis was based on x-ray studies, which showed that the spinous processes, especially in the lower lumbar spine, became approximated to each other and this was a generator of positional back pain. Biomechanically, the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments that are degenerated in Baastrup's disease normally contribute significantly to sagittal alignment...
July 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927929/mechanical-characterization-of-structurally-porous-biomaterials-built-via-additive-manufacturing-experiments-predictive-models-and-design-maps-for-load-bearing-bone-replacement-implants
#6
D Melancon, Z S Bagheri, R B Johnston, L Liu, M Tanzer, D Pasini
Porous biomaterials can be additively manufactured with micro-architecture tailored to satisfy the stringent mechano-biological requirements imposed by bone replacement implants. In a previous investigation, we introduced structurally porous biomaterials, featuring strength five times stronger than commercially available porous materials, and confirmed their bone ingrowth capability in an in-vivo canine model. While encouraging, the manufactured biomaterials showed geometric mismatches between their internal porous architecture and that of its as-designed counterpart, as well as discrepancies between predicted and tested mechanical properties, issues not fully elucidated...
September 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927643/a-combined-kinematic-and-kinetic-analysis-at-the-residuum-socket-interface-of-a-knee-disarticulation-amputee
#7
Jinghua Tang, Michael McGrath, Nick Hale, Liudi Jiang, Dan Bader, Piotr Laszczak, David Moser, Saeed Zahedi
The bespoke interface between a lower limb residuum and a prosthetic socket is critical for an amputee's comfort and overall rehabilitation outcomes. Analysis of interface kinematics and kinetics is important to gain full understanding of the interface biomechanics, which could aid clinical socket fit, rehabilitation and amputee care. This pilot study aims to investigate the dynamic correlation between kinematic movement and kinetic stresses at the interface during walking tests on different terrains. One male, knee disarticulation amputee participated in the study...
September 15, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926755/neochordoplasty-versus-leaflet-resection-for-ruptured-mitral-chordae-treatment-virtual-mitral-valve-repair
#8
Ahnryul Choi, David D McPherson, Hyunggun Kim
Degenerative mitral valve (MV) disease involving mitral prolapse is one of the most prevalent MV pathologies. Quadrangular leaflet resection and neochordoplasty demonstrate excellent clinical outcomes for the treatment of posterior leaflet prolapse. We evaluated the functional and biomechanical characteristics of a virtual pathologic MV model suffering from chordal rupture, performed virtual neochordoplasty and quadrangular leaflet resection, and compared the two post-repair MV functions. The pre-repair MV demonstrated severe posterior leaflet prolapse due to the ruptured P2 chordae and excessive stress concentration...
September 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926327/long-term-outcomes-of-the-calcaneo-stop-procedure-in-the-treatment-of-flexible-flatfoot-in-children-a-retrospective-study
#9
Francisca Pinho Costa, Gilberto Costa, Manuel Santos Carvalho, António Mendes Moura, Rui Pinto, João Torres
INTRODUCTION: Flexible flatfoot is common amongst children, although treatment is rarely indicated. The calcaneo-stop procedure has been reported to be effective in short-term studies. We aim to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the calcaneo-stop procedure in the treatment of flexible flatfoot in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six calcaneo-stop procedures performed between 1995 and 2006 on 13 patients were evaluated clinically and using photopodoscopy, and the FAOS questionnaire was applied for both feet...
August 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924381/osthole-promotes-bone-fracture-healing-through-activation-of-bmp-signaling-in-chondrocytes
#10
Pinger Wang, Jun Ying, Cheng Luo, Xing Jin, Shanxing Zhang, Taotao Xu, Lei Zhang, Meng Mi, Di Chen, Peijian Tong, Hongting Jin
Osthole is a bioactive coumarin derivative and has been reported to be able to enhance bone formation and improve fracture healing. However, the molecular mechanism of Osthole in bone fracture healing has not been fully defined. In this study we determined if Osthole enhances bone fracture healing through activation of BMP2 signaling in mice. We performed unilateral open transverse tibial fracture procedure in 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice which were treated with or without Osthole. Our previous studies demonstrated that chondrocyte BMP signaling is required for bone fracture healing, in this study we also performed tibial fracture procedure in Cre-negative and Col2-Cre;Bmp2(flox/flox) conditional knockout (KO) mice (Bmp2(Col2Cre) ) to determine if Osthole enhances fracture healing in a BMP2-dependent manner...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922558/biomechanical-properties-and-healing-effects-of-chitin-patch-in-a-rat-full-thickness-abdominal-wall-defect-model
#11
Jing Qiao, Zhiwen Jiang, Xuyue Liang, Yan Yang, Wanshun Liu, Baoqin Han
Hernia repair is usually accompanied with the implantation of a synthetic mesh, which frequently results in a foreign body response and serious complications. In the present study, a novel biodegradable chitin-based hernia patch was prepared and characterized. Biomechanical properties and biodegradability of the chitin patch were quantified in vitro and in vivo. In repair of the rat abdominal wall full-thickness defect model, the chitin patch induced more abundant new blood vessels with milder tissue inflammation and fibrosis compared with polypropylene mesh...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922314/temporal-indices-of-ankle-clonus-and-relationship-to-electrophysiologic-and-clinical-measures-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Kathleen J Manella, Kathryn E Roach, Edelle C Field-Fote
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clonus arising from plantar flexor hyperreflexia is a phenomenon that is commonly observed in persons with spastic hypertonia. We assessed the temporal components of a biomechanical measure to quantify ankle clonus, and validated these in persons with spasticity due to spinal cord injury. METHODS: In 40 individuals with chronic (>1 year) spinal cord injury, we elicited ankle clonus using a standardized mechanical perturbation (drop test)...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921307/cam-morphology-and-inguinal-pathologies-is-there-a-possible-connection
#13
G N Bisciotti, F Di Marzo, A Auci, F Parra, G Cassaghi, A Corsini, M Petrera, P Volpi, Z Vuckovic, M Panascì, R Zini
BACKGROUND: To analyse the prevalences of the cam and pincer morphologies in a cohort of patients with groin pain syndrome caused by inguinal pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients (40 men and 4 women) who suffered from groin pain syndrome were enrolled in the study. All the patients were radiographically and clinically evaluated following a standardised protocol established by the First Groin Pain Syndrome Italian Consensus Conference on Terminology, Clinical Evaluation and Imaging Assessment in Groin Pain in Athlete...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919512/strontium-and-magnesium-ions-released-from-bioactive-titanium-metal-promote-early-bone-bonding-in-a-rabbit-implant-model
#14
Yaichiro Okuzu, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Seiji Yamaguchi, Koji Yamamoto, Takayoshi Shimizu, Takashi Sono, Koji Goto, Bungo Otsuki, Tomiharu Matsushita, Tadashi Kokubo, Shuichi Matsuda
We have previously developed the "alkali and heat treatment" method to confer bioactivity (bone-bonding ability) to titanium metal (Ti). As strontium (Sr) and magnesium (Mg) ions reportedly promote osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation and accelerate bone formation, we improved this method to induce the release of Sr (Sr-Ti) or Mg (Mg-Ti) ions from Ti in a previous study. Here, we evaluated the bioactivity of these novel surface treatments, Sr-Ti and Mg-Ti. In vitro evaluation of cell viability, expression of integrin β1, β catenin, and cyclin D1, osteogenic gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and extracellular mineralization using MC3T3-E1 cells revealed that Sr-Ti and Mg-Ti enhanced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation...
September 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918299/the-prosthetic-rehabilitation-of-a-patient-with-a-lateral-postsurgical-defect-using-a-2-piece-magnet-retained-facial-prosthesis-a-clinical-report
#15
Kariem M Elhelow, Yasser E Al-Thobaiti, Abdurabu A Gomawi
Nonsurgical prosthetic interventions are often proposed after repeated grafts have failed to restore irradiated facial defects. This report describes a facial prosthetic reconstruction following ablative surgery for a sizable facial tumor by using a novel custom-made magnet-bearing substructure, which connected with an exposed part of the mandibular reconstruction plate. The defect involved the entire left lower part of the face and angle of the mentum. This reconstructive technique, together with an added surface texture with hair-like silicone strands, effectively addressed the cosmetic needs of the patient...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916885/geometric-analysis-and-clinical-outcome-of-two-cemented-stems-for-primary-total-hip-replacement-with-and-without-modular-necks
#16
Marcel Haversath, Christine Wendelborn, Marcus Jäger, Boris Schmidt, Wojciech Kowalczyk, Stefan Landgraeber
INTRODUCTION: Restoration of the physiological biomechanical principles of the hip is crucial in total hip replacement. The aim of this study was to compare an arthroplasty system with different offset options (a: Exeter(®)) with a dual-modular stem (b: Profemur Xm(®)). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A local and an inertial coordinate system were used to assist the description of the components' assembly in the prosthesis. A resection line of the femoral head in standard position was added to the arthroplasties and geometric parameters were measured...
September 15, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914688/femtosecond-laser-assisted-versus-phacoemulsification-for-cataract-extraction-and-intraocular-lens-implantation-clinical-outcomes-review
#17
Shaun Y Ewe, Robin G Abell, Brendan J Vote
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) has gained popularity in recent years with the new technology suggesting potential improvements in clinical and safety outcomes over conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery (PCS). A decade since the advent of FLACS has given time and experience for laser technology to develop in maturity, and better quality evidence to become available. This review evaluates current evidence on the clinical and safety outcomes for FLACS in comparison to PCS...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914209/knee-ligament-injury-and-the-clinical-application-of-tissue-engineering-techniques-a-systematic-review
#18
Thomas Riley, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Background The incidence of knee ligament injury is increasing and represents a significant cost to healthcare providers. Current interventions include tissue grafts, suture repair and non-surgical management. These techniques have demonstrated good patient outcomes but have been associated graft rejection, infection, long term immobilization and reduced joint function. The limitations of traditional management strategies have prompted research into tissue engineering of knee ligaments. Objective This paper aims to evaluate whether tissue engineering of knee ligaments offers a viable alternative in the clinical management of knee ligament injuries...
September 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912707/methodological-choices-in-muscle-synergy-analysis-impact-differentiation-of-physiological-characteristics-following-stroke
#19
Caitlin L Banks, Mihir M Pai, Theresa E McGuirk, Benjamin J Fregly, Carolynn Patten
Muscle synergy analysis (MSA) is a mathematical technique that reduces the dimensionality of electromyographic (EMG) data. Used increasingly in biomechanics research, MSA requires methodological choices at each stage of the analysis. Differences in methodological steps affect the overall outcome, making it difficult to compare results across studies. We applied MSA to EMG data collected from individuals post-stroke identified as either responders (RES) or non-responders (nRES) on the basis of a critical post-treatment increase in walking speed...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906504/association-between-clinical-and-microbiologic-cluster-profiles-and-peri-implantitis
#20
Luigi Canullo, Miguel Peñarrocha, Alberto Monje, Andres Catena, Hom-Lay Wang, David Peñarrocha
PURPOSE: The correlation between associated local factors and peri-implantitis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the clinical and microbiologic profiles and peri-implantitis to eventually categorize different groups of this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects with at least one implant presenting signs of peri-implantitis were selected. The clinical, radiographic, occlusal, and microbiologic profiles of these infected implants were collected...
September 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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