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Ravi Katari
The recent outpouring of scholarly and open-access content on resident wellness and occupational satisfaction with regards to Emergency Medicine (EM) has been an inspiration and welcome development. ACEP Wellness Week, EMRA Wellness Committee, the recently established ALiEM Wellness Think Tank are a handful of several great examples of the professional community coming together to address the challenging reality of burnout in EM. Indeed, that EM is uniquely affected among other specialties has been extensively documented to an impressive degree...
December 1, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Lauren A Callender, Elizabeth C Carroll, Robert W J Beal, Emma S Chambers, Sussan Nourshargh, Arne N Akbar, Sian M Henson
Cellular senescence is accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We show here that primary human senescent CD8+ T cells also display a SASP comprising chemokines, cytokines and extracellular matrix remodelling proteases that are unique to this subset and contribute to age-associated inflammation. We found the CD8+ CD45RA+ CD27- EMRA subset to be the most heterogeneous, with a population aligning with the naïve T cells and another with a closer association to the effector memory subset...
October 12, 2017: Aging Cell
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Elisabet García, Victor Urrea, Marta Massanella, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery after cART has been associated with skewed T-cell maturation, inflammation and immunosenescence; however, T-cell functionality in those individuals has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we assessed T-cell function by assessing cytokine production after polyclonal, CMV and HIV stimulations of T-cells from ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordants) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordants). A group of HIV-uninfected individuals were also included as controls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gretchen N de Graav, Carla C Baan, Marian C Clahsen-van Groningen, Rens Kraaijeveld, Marjolein Dieterich, Wenda Verschoor, Jan H von der Thusen, Dave L Roelen, Monique Cadogan, Jacqueline van de Wetering, Joost van Rosmalen, Wilem Weimar, Dennis A Hesselink
BACKGROUND: Belatacept, an inhibitor of the CD28-CD80/86 costimulatory pathway, allows for calcineurin-inhibitor free immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation but is associated with a higher acute rejection risk than ciclosporin. Thus far, no biomarker for belatacept-resistant rejection has been validated. In this randomized-controlled trial, acute rejection rate was compared between belatacept- and tacrolimus-treated patients and immunological biomarkers for acute rejection were investigated...
October 2017: Transplantation
Alice Barbarin, Emilie Cayssials, Florence Jacomet, Nicolas Gonzalo Nunez, Sara Basbous, Lucie Lefèvre, Myriam Abdallah, Nathalie Piccirilli, Benjamin Morin, Vincent Lavoue, Véronique Catros, Eliane Piaggio, André Herbelin, Jean-Marc Gombert
Unconventional T cells are defined by their capacity to respond to signals other than the well-known complex of peptides and major histocompatibility complex proteins. Among the burgeoning family of unconventional T cells, innate-like CD8(+) T cells in the mouse were discovered in the early 2000s. This subset of CD8(+) T cells bears a memory phenotype without having encountered a foreign antigen and can respond to innate-like IL-12 + IL-18 stimulation. Although the concept of innate memory CD8(+) T cells is now well established in mice, whether an equivalent memory NK-like T-cell population exists in humans remains under debate...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
P A Apoil, B Puissant-Lubrano, N Congy-Jolivet, M Peres, J Tkaczuk, F Roubinet, A Blancher
Using a standardized immunophenotyping procedure we studied thirty-eight distinct subpopulations of T, B and NK lymphocytes in 253 healthy blood donors aged from 19 to 67. We analysed the influence of age, sex and HCMV seropositivity on each lymphocyte subpopulations and established reference ranges. We observed that aging influences the largest number of lymphocyte subpopulations with a slow increase of CD8+ EMRA T lymphocytes and of the numbers of circulating Tregs. The proportion of HLA-DR+ cells among Tregs increased with age and was correlated to the proportion of HLA-DR+ cells among effector T CD4+ lymphocytes...
April 2017: Cellular Immunology
Ming-Feng Lin, Yun-You Lin, Chung-Yu Lan
Efflux pumps play an important role in antimicrobial resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the function of the Emr pump system and the relationship between Emr and drug resistance has not been characterized in A. baumannii. In this study, four possible groups of emr-like genes were found by searching a genome database. Among them, A1S_1772 (emrB) and A1S_1773 (emrA) were demonstrated to be co-transcribed as a single operon. Moreover, during osmotic stress, A1S_1772 showed the largest change in gene expression compared to the other emrB-like genes, and deletion of A1S_1772 (AB ΔemrB) significantly slowed cell growth in 20% sucrose...
February 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Karin Boer, L Elly A de Wit, Fleur S Peters, Dennis A Hesselink, Leo J Hofland, Michiel G H Betjes, Caspar W N Looman, Carla C Baan
BACKGROUND: The role of DNA methylation in the regulation of the anti-donor-directed immune response after organ transplantation is unknown. Here, we studied the methylation of two mediators of the immune response: the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ) and the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD1) in naïve and memory CD8+ T cell subsets in kidney transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive medication. Both recipients experiencing an episode of acute allograft rejection (rejectors) as well as recipients without rejection (non-rejectors) were included...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Denice C Bay, Carol A Stremick, Carmine J Slipski, Raymond J Turner
Escherichia coli possesses many secondary active multidrug resistance transporters (MDTs) that confer overlapping substrate resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials via proton and/or sodium motive force. It is uncertain whether redundant MDTs uniquely alter cell survival when cultures grow planktonically or as biofilms. In this study, the planktonic and biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance of 13 E. coli K-12 single MDT gene deletion strains in minimal and rich media were determined. Antimicrobial tolerance to tetracycline, tobramycin and benzalkonium were also compared for each ΔMDT strain...
April 2017: Research in Microbiology
Francis L Counselman, Michael S Beeson, Catherine A Marco, Susan K Adsit, Anne L Harvey, Julia N Keehbauch
The Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine (the EM Model) is a three-dimensional representation of the clinical practice of emergency medicine. It is a product of successful collaboration involving the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM), the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (EMRA), the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD), the Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine (RRC-EM), and the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM)...
February 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Alicja Nowak-Zaleska, Miłosz Wieczór, Jacek Czub, Łukasz Nierzwicki, Roman Kotłowski, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek
Acinetobacter baumannii coccobacilli are dangerous to patients in intensive care units because of their multidrug resistance to antibiotics, developed mainly in the past decade. This study aimed to examine whether there is a significant correlation between the number of Pro-Ala repeats in the CAP01997 protein, the EmrA homologue of A. baumannii, and resistance to antibiotics. A total of 79 multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients were analysed. Resistance to antibiotics was determined on Mueller-Hinton agar plates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Kaitlin E Creamer, Frederick S Ditmars, Preston J Basting, Karina S Kunka, Issam N Hamdallah, Sean P Bush, Zachary Scott, Amanda He, Stephanie R Penix, Alexandra S Gonzales, Elizabeth K Eder, Dominic W Camperchioli, Adama Berndt, Michelle W Clark, Kerry A Rouhier, Joan L Slonczewski
Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 grows in the presence of membrane-permeant organic acids that can depress cytoplasmic pH and accumulate in the cytoplasm. We conducted experimental evolution by daily diluting cultures in increasing concentrations of benzoic acid (up to 20 mM) buffered at external pH 6.5, a pH at which permeant acids concentrate in the cytoplasm. By 2,000 generations, clones isolated from evolving populations showed increasing tolerance to benzoate but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline...
January 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
He Zhang, Yantian Ma, Pu Liu, Xiangkai Li
EmrAB operon is known for multidrug resistance in bacteria and yet has not been reported related to heavy metal resistance or antibiotics/heavy metal co-resistance. Strain Staphylococcus aureus LZ-01 which was isolated from industrial wastewater discharging site can co-resist to 6 mM Cr(VI) and 0.75 mg/ml ampicillin. Transcriptome data showed that an emrAB operon was upregulated (1.29-folds for emrA, 2.14-folds for emrB) under 0.4 mM Cr(VI) treatment. Quantitative PCR results revealed that this operon was upregulated (1...
2016: SpringerPlus
Dong Wang, Fiona B Mulvey, Jeff B Pelz, Kenneth Holmqvist
The precision of an eye-tracker is critical to the correct identification of eye movements and their properties. To measure a system's precision, artificial eyes (AEs) are often used, to exclude eye movements influencing the measurements. A possible issue, however, is that it is virtually impossible to construct AEs with sufficient complexity to fully represent the human eye. To examine the consequences of this limitation, we tested currently used AEs from three manufacturers of eye-trackers and compared them to a more complex model, using 12 commercial eye-trackers...
July 6, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Sara Cantisán, Aurora Páez-Vega, Pilar Pérez-Romero, Miguel Montejo, Elisa Cordero, Irene Gracia-Ahufinger, Cecilia Martín-Gandul, Naroa Maruri, Rocío Aguado, Rafael Solana, Julián Torre-Cisneros
The present study aimed to determine whether antiviral prevention strategies against cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection used in high-risk D+R- solid organ transplanted patients can modulate the impact of CMV replication on CD8(+) T-cell differentiation. The different CD8(+) T-cell subpopulations were measured at a single point when at least one year had elapsed since transplantation. A total of 68 D+R- patients were included, of which 33 underwent pre-emptive therapy and 35 received prophylaxis. Multivariate analysis showed that CMV replication was associated with the expansion of CD28־ EMRA CD8(+) T cells in patients managed pre-emptively but not in patients under prophylaxis (21...
August 2016: Antiviral Research
Raúl Periáñez, Kathleen M Thiessen, Sohan L Chouhan, Francesco Mancini, Emilie Navarro, Gert Sdouz, Dejan Trifunović
An intercomparison of atmospheric dispersion models has been carried out for a hypothetical accident occurring in a nuclear power plant in the center of Spain. The accident consisted of a steam generator tube rupture, and two radionuclides have been considered for the exercise: 137-Cs and 131-I. Meteorological conditions and radionuclide release rates were supplied. Models provided deposition maps, timeintegrated concentrations in air and arrival times of the plumes to specific locations. The effect of the meteorological conditions used in the modelling was clear, with different behavior of the plume with neutral stability vs...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Matthew K Theisen, Jimmy G Lafontaine Rivera, James C Liao
Stability in a metabolic system may not be obtained if incorrect amounts of enzymes are used. Without stability, some metabolites may accumulate or deplete leading to the irreversible loss of the desired operating point. Even if initial enzyme amounts achieve a stable steady state, changes in enzyme amount due to stochastic variations or environmental changes may move the system to the unstable region and lose the steady-state or quasi-steady-state flux. This situation is distinct from the phenomenon characterized by typical sensitivity analysis, which focuses on the smooth change before loss of stability...
March 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
James E Turner, Alex J Wadley, Sarah Aldred, James P Fisher, Jos A Bosch, John P Campbell
PURPOSE: This study investigated whether natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells expressing cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)-a homing molecule for endothelial cell leukocyte adhesion molecule 1, which enables transmigration to the skin-are selectively mobilized in response to acute exercise. METHODS: Nine healthy men (mean ± SD age: 22.1 ± 3.4 yr) completed two exercise sessions: high-intensity continuous cycling ("continuous exercise" at 80% V˙O2max for 20 min) and low-volume high-intensity interval exercise (at 90% V˙O2max 10 × 1 min repetitions with 1 min recovery intervals)...
July 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ekua W Brenu, Simon Broadley, Thao Nguyen, Samantha Johnston, Sandra Ramos, Don Staines, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik
Background. CD8+ T cells have putative roles in the regulation of adaptive immune responses during infection. The purpose of this paper is to compare the status of CD8+ T cells in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Methods. This preliminary investigation comprised 23 CFS/ME patients, 11 untreated MS patients, and 30 nonfatigued controls. Whole blood samples were collected from participants, stained with monoclonal antibodies, and analysed on the flow cytometer...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Çağdaş Kalkan, Irfan Soykan, Çiğdem Soydal, Elgin Özkan, Emra Kalkan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Symptoms of patients with autoimmune gastritis are not specific, and some patients may present symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying. This study aims to investigate whether any delay in gastric emptying of solid food exists in patients with autoimmune gastritis and, if so, to identify the factors that might affect delayed gastric emptying. METHODS: A total of 165 patients (106 women) diagnosed as having autoimmune gastritis were analyzed by means of a gastric emptying test...
June 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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