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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318221/crystal-structure-of-a-homogeneous-igg-fc-glycoform-with-the-n-glycan-designed-to-maximize-the-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity
#1
Chia-Lin Chen, Jen-Chi Hsu, Chin-Wei Lin, Chia-Hung Wang, Ming-Hung Tsai, Chung-Yi Wu, Chi-Huey Wong, Che Ma
N-glycosylation on IgG modulates Fc conformation and effector functions. An IgG-Fc contains a human sialo-complex type (hSCT) glycan of biantennary structure with two α2,6-sialylations and without core-fucosylation is an optimized glycoform developed to enhance the antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). hSCT modification not only enhances the binding affinity to Fc receptors in the presence of antigen, but also in some cases provides gain-of-function effector activity. We used enzymatic glyco-engineering to prepare an IgG-Fc with homogeneous hSCT attached to each CH2 domain, and solved its crystal structure...
March 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297419/radiation-leakage-dose-from-elekta-electron-collimation-system
#2
Garrett M Pitcher, Kenneth R Hogstrom, Robert L Carver
This study provided baseline data required for a greater project, whose objective was to design a new Elekta electron collimation system having significantly lighter electron applicators with equally low out-of field leakage dose. Specifically, off-axis dose profiles for the electron collimation system of our uniquely configured Elekta Infinity accelerator with the MLCi2 treatment head were measured and calculated for two primary purposes: 1) to evaluate and document the out-of-field leakage dose in the patient plane and 2) to validate the dose distributions calculated using a BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) model for out-of-field dose profiles...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278382/nipple-pain-incidence-the-predisposing-factors-the-recovery-period-after-care-management-and-the-exclusive-breastfeeding-outcome
#3
Pawin Puapornpong, Panwara Paritakul, Maysita Suksamarnwong, Siriwan Srisuwan, Sukwadee Ketsuwan
BACKGROUND: Nipple pain is the most common complaint of breastfeeding mothers during the immediate postpartum period. Persistent nipple pain is associated with low breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum. OBJECTIVE: To further explore the incidence of nipple pain, associated predisposing factors, time for recovery after management, and the impact on exclusive breastfeeding rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in this study were 1,649 singleton, pregnant women who delivered and had their 1-week follow-up at the breastfeeding clinic during the period of January 2013 to December 2015...
March 9, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258151/staphylococcus-aureussdre-captures-the-factor-h-c-terminus-via-a-novel-close-dock-lock-and-latch-mechanism-for-complement-evasion
#4
Yingjie Zhang, Minhao Wu, Tianrong Hang, Chengliang Wang, Ye Yang, Weimin Pan, Jianye Zang, Min Zhang, Xuan Zhang
Complement factor H (CFH) is a soluble complement regulatory protein essential for the downregulation of the alternative pathway upon interaction with specific markers on host cell surface. It recognizes the complement component 3b (C3b) and 3d (C3d) fragments in addition to self cell markers (i.e. glycosaminoglycans (GAG), sialic acid) to distinguish host cells that deserve protection from pathogens that need elimination. The Staphylococcus aureus surface protein serine-aspartate repeat protein E (SdrE) was previously reported to bind human CFH as an immune-evasion tactic...
March 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248335/external-cavity-lasing-pumped-stimulated-brillouin-scattering-in-a-high-q-microcavity
#5
Kaijun Che, Deyu Tang, Changlei Guo, Huiying Xu, Changyan Ren, Pan Zhang, Shuisen Jiang, Lujian Chen, Dan Zhang, Zhiping Cai
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a microcavity is usually realized by employing a wavelength tunable external cavity diode laser (TECDL) as the pump source. In this Letter, we report the observation of SBS in a high Q microcavity based on a TECDL-free scheme. The microcavity is employed as a mode-reflecting mirror for constructing a fiber-ring laser and, simultaneously, pumped by the fiber-ring lasing with intrinsic resonance latching. Several regimes are observed in a microcavity with a diameter of ∼215  μm, such as single lasing pumped SBS and multiple regular lasing pumped SBSs (single or cascaded)...
March 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244514/aqueous-singlet-oxygen-reaction-kinetics-of-furfuryl-alcohol-effect-of-temperature-ph-and-salt-content
#6
Elena Appiani, Rachele Ossola, Douglas E Latch, Paul R Erickson, Kristopher McNeill
The rate constant for the reaction between furfuryl alcohol (FFA) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) in aqueous solution was measured as a function of temperature, pH and salt content employing both steady-state photolysis (β value determination) and time-resolved singlet oxygen phosphorescence methods. The latter provided more precise and reproducible data. The reaction rate constant, krxn,FFA, had a relatively small temperature dependence, no pH dependence and showed a small increase in the presence of high salt concentrations (+19% with 1 M NaCl)...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238320/-oxytocin-administration-during-spontaneous-labour-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-guidelines-short-text
#7
C Dupont, M Carayol, C Le Ray, C Barasinski, R Beranger, A Burguet, A Chantry, C Chiesa, B Coulm, A Evrard, C Fischer, L Gaucher, C Guillou, F Leroy, E Phan, A Rousseau, V Tessier, F Vendittelli, C Deneux-Tharaux, D Riethmuller
OBJECTIVES: To define the different stages of spontaneous labour. To determine the indications, modalities of use and the effects of administering synthetic oxytocin. And to describe undesirable maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with the use of synthetic oxytocin. METHOD: A systematic review was carried out by searching Medline database and websites of obstetrics learned societies until March 2016. RESULTS: The 1st stage of labor is divided in a latence phase and an active phase, which switch at 5cm of cervical dilatation...
January 2017: Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230976/interrogation-of-base-pairing-of-the-spiroiminodihydantoin-diastereomers-using-the-%C3%AE-hemolysin-latch
#8
Tao Zeng, Aaron M Fleming, Yun Ding, Henry S White, Cynthia J Burrows
Spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) is a hyperoxidized form of guanine (G) resulting from oxidation by reactive oxygen species. The lesion is highly mutagenic, and the stereocenter renders the two isomers with distinct behaviors in chemical, spectroscopic, enzymatic, and computational studies. In this work, the α-hemolysin (αHL) latch sensing zone was employed to investigate the base pairing properties of the Sp diastereomers embedded in a double-stranded DNA. Duplexes containing (S)-Sp consistently gave deeper current blockage, and a baseline resolution of ∼0...
March 9, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219969/safe-storage-of-opioid-pain-relievers-among-adults-living-in-households-with-children
#9
Eileen M McDonald, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Emma E McGinty, Wendy C Shields, Colleen L Barry, Andrea C Gielen
OBJECTIVES: To describe safe storage practices and beliefs among adults who have used a prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) in the past year; to compare practices and beliefs among those living with younger (<7 years) versus older children (7-17 years). METHODS: A survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of adults reporting OPR use in the previous 12 months and who had children <18 years old living with them. We used Health Belief Model-derived items to measure beliefs...
February 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193245/early-disease-progression-of-hurler-syndrome
#10
Bridget T Kiely, Jennifer L Kohler, Hannah Y Coletti, Michele D Poe, Maria L Escolar
BACKGROUND: Newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) shows promise to improve outcomes by facilitating early diagnosis and treatment. However, diagnostic tests for MPS I are of limited value in predicting whether a child will develop severe central nervous system disease associated with Hurler syndrome, or minimal or no central nervous system involvement associated with the attenuated phenotypes (Hurler-Scheie and Scheie syndromes). Given that the optimal treatment differs between Hurler syndrome and the attenuated MPS I phenotypes, the absence of a reliable prognostic biomarker complicates clinical decision making for infants diagnosed through newborn screening...
February 14, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166054/elucidation-of-a-four-site-allosteric-network-in-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#11
Huaibin Chen, William M Marsiglia, Min-Kyu Cho, Zhifeng Huang, Jingjing Deng, Steven P Blais, Weiming Gai, Shibani Bhattacharya, Thomas A Neubert, Nathaniel J Traaseth, Moosa Mohammadi
Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is tightly regulated by protein allostery within the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. Yet the molecular determinants of allosteric connectivity in tyrosine kinase domain are incompletely understood. By means of structural (X-ray and NMR) and functional characterization of pathogenic gain-of-function mutations affecting the FGF receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase domain, we elucidated a long-distance allosteric network composed of four interconnected sites termed the 'molecular brake', 'DFG latch', 'A-loop plug', and 'αC tether'...
February 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145707/glutamine-amide-flip-elicits-long-distance-allosteric-responses-in-the-lov-protein-vivid
#12
Abir Ganguly, Walter Thiel, Brian R Crane
Light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains sense blue light through the photochemical formation of a cysteinyl-flavin covalent adduct. Concurrent protonation at the flavin N5 position alters the hydrogen bonding interactions of an invariant Gln residue that has been proposed to flip its amide side chain as a critical step in the propagation of conformational change. Traditional molecular dynamics (MD) and replica-exchange MD (REMD) simulations of the well-characterized LOV protein Vivid (VVD) demonstrate that the Gln182 amide indeed reorients by ∼180° in response to either adduct formation or reduction of the isoalloxazine ring to the neutral semiquinone, both of which involve N5 protonation...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134253/specialized-interfaces-of-smc5-6-control-hinge-stability-and-dna-association
#13
Aaron Alt, Hung Q Dang, Owen S Wells, Luis M Polo, Matt A Smith, Grant A McGregor, Thomas Welte, Alan R Lehmann, Laurence H Pearl, Johanne M Murray, Antony W Oliver
The Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) complexes: cohesin, condensin and Smc5/6 are involved in the organization of higher-order chromosome structure-which is essential for accurate chromosome duplication and segregation. Each complex is scaffolded by a specific SMC protein dimer (heterodimer in eukaryotes) held together via their hinge domains. Here we show that the Smc5/6-hinge, like those of cohesin and condensin, also forms a toroidal structure but with distinctive subunit interfaces absent from the other SMC complexes; an unusual 'molecular latch' and a functional 'hub'...
January 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125225/dynamics-of-a-dna-mismatch-site-held-in-confinement-discriminate-epigenetic-modifications-of-cytosine
#14
Robert P Johnson, Aaron M Fleming, Rukshan T Perera, Cynthia J Burrows, Henry S White
The identification and discrimination of four epigenetic modifications to cytosine in the proposed active demethylation cycle is demonstrated at the single-molecule level, without the need for chemical pre-treatment or labeling. The wild-type protein nanopore alpha-hemolysin is used to capture individual DNA duplexes containing a single cytosine-cytosine mismatch. The mismatch is held at the latch constriction of alpha-hemolysin, which is used to monitor the kinetics of base flipping at the mismatch site. Base flipping and the subsequent interactions between the DNA and the protein are dramatically altered when one of the cytosine bases is replaced with methyl-, hydroxymethyl-, formyl-, or carboxylcytosine...
January 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078789/-breastfeeding-without-baby-a-longitudinal-qualitative-investigation-of-how-mothers-perceive-feel-about-and-practice-human-milk-expression
#15
Julia P Felice, Sheela R Geraghty, Caroline W Quaglieri, Rei Yamada, Adriana J Wong, Kathleen M Rasmussen
Most American mothers who produce human milk (HM) now pump in place of some or all feeding at the breast, and most American infants are now fed pumped HM. We aimed to investigate mothers' perceptions of, attitudes toward, and practices for pumping and providing pumped HM. Results related to pumping are reported here. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews among a diverse sample of 20 mothers who pumped, following each from pregnancy through infant HM-feeding cessation up to 1 year postpartum. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis with Atlas...
January 12, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061033/breastfeeding-infants-with-ankyloglossia-insight-into-mothers-experiences
#16
Kevin Wong, Punam Patel, Michael B Cohen, Jessica R Levi
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding difficulty from ankyloglossia can affect both the mother and baby in a breastfeeding dyad. With renewed emphasis in today's culture on breast milk, mothers may feel increasing pressure to breastfeed, and the inability for some to do so may cause significant distress. Recently, online parenting forums have seen exponential growth; these forums allow mothers to connect with peers undergoing similar life transitions. The purpose of this study was to review online discussions regarding ankyloglossia to understand mothers' experiences with breastfeeding...
March 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049520/perceptions-and-experiences-of-using-a-nipple-shield-among-parents-and-staff-an-ethnographic-study-in-neonatal-units
#17
Renée Flacking, Fiona Dykes
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have an immature sucking behavior and the capacity to be exclusively breastfed may be reduced for a period of weeks or months, depending on gestational age. Nipple shields have been used, not only as a device to help mothers with sore nipples, but also to facilitate the infant's latch on to the breast. However, the benefits of using nipple shields have been debated. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of using a nipple shield among parents and staff in neonatal units in Sweden and England...
January 3, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034726/comparison-of-linear-spatial-filters-for-identifying-oscillatory-activity-in-multichannel-data
#18
REVIEW
Michael X Cohen
BACKGROUND: Large-scale synchronous neural activity produces electrical fields that can be measured by electrodes outside the head, and volume conduction ensures that neural sources can be measured by many electrodes. However, most data analyses in M/EEG research are univariate, meaning each electrode is considered as a separate measurement. Several multivariate linear spatial filtering techniques have been introduced to the cognitive electrophysiology literature, but these techniques are not commonly used; comparisons across filters would be beneficial to the field...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027445/efficacy-of-an-osteopathic-treatment-coupled-with-lactation-consultations-for-infants-biomechanical-sucking-difficulties
#19
Juliette Herzhaft-Le Roy, Marianne Xhignesse, Isabelle Gaboury
BACKGROUND: Despite well-known recommendations from national and international bodies including the World Health Organization, few mothers achieve the goal of breastfeeding exclusively for 6 months. Half of mothers stop breastfeeding due to biomechanical issues in the first month, despite increasing support from lactation consultants. Osteopaths worldwide work with these babies, but there is little empirical evidence for this type of treatment. Research aim: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of an osteopathic treatment coupled with usual lactation consultations on infants' ability to latch...
February 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024377/kinetics-of-t3-dna-ligase-catalyzed-phosphodiester-bond-formation-measured-using-the-%C3%AE-hemolysin-nanopore
#20
Cherie S Tan, Jan Riedl, Aaron M Fleming, Cynthia J Burrows, Henry S White
The latch region of the wild-type α-hemolysin (α-HL) protein channel can be used to distinguish single base modifications in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) via ion channel measurements upon electrophoretic capture of dsDNA in the vestibule of α-HL. Herein, we investigated the use of the latch region to detect a nick in the phosphodiester DNA backbone. The presence of a nick in the phosphodiester backbone of one strand of the duplex results in a significant increase in both the blockade current and noise level relative to the intact duplex...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
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