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Arabella Fischer, Clemens Ortner, Thomas Hartmann, Stefan Jochberger, Klaus Ulrich Klein
Pharmacokinetic data on drug administration during lactation are often inconsistent or missing. For legal reasons medicinal drug product information generally advises to interrupt breastfeeding for 24 h after medication intake. However this is not standard of care in clinical practice as the mother should be instructed to initiate breastfeeding as soon as possible after giving birth. At the same time the medication exposure over the breast milk for the newborn should be minimized. Aim of this article is to summarize pharmacokinetic data and to give important clinical information on medications frequently administered during the lactation period...
April 24, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Garrett McKay, Julie A Korak, Paul R Erickson, Douglas E Latch, Kristopher McNeill, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nadine Besse, Samuel Rosset, Juan Jose Zarate, Elisabetta Ferrari, Luca Brayda, Herbert Shea
We present a fully latching and scalable 4 × 4 haptic display with 4 mm pitch, 5 s refresh time, 400 mN holding force, and 650 μm displacement per taxel. The display serves to convey dynamic graphical information to blind and visually impaired users. Combining significant holding force with high taxel density and large amplitude motion in a very compact overall form factor was made possible by exploiting the reversible, fast, hundred-fold change in the stiffness of a thin shape memory polymer (SMP) membrane when heated above its glass transition temperature...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Hans W Hauschild, John R Humm, Frank A Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan, Bruce Kaufman, Matthew R Maltese, Kristy B Arbogast
OBJECTIVE: The research objective was to quantify the influence of child restraint lower attachment method on head kinematics, head impact potential, and head, neck, and thorax injury metrics for a child occupant secured in a forward-facing child restraint system (FFCRS) in oblique side impacts. METHODS: Fifteen sled tests were conducted with a Q3s seated in an FFCRS secured to the center position on a production small SUV bench seat. Three lower attachment methods were evaluated: rigid ISOFIX, a flexible single loop lower anchors and tethers for children (LATCH) webbing routed through the vehicle belt path of the FFCRS, and dual flexible LATCH webbing attachments on either side of the FFCRS...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Joonnyong Lee, Jonghyun Park, Kyu Jin Lee, Minkyung Cho, Keewon Kim, Hee Chan Kim, Sun Gun Chung
Surface electromyogram (sEMG) is often used by to objectively measure muscular activity during rehabilitation exercises. sEMG is accurate, but it is unsuitable for uses outside the clinic, and patients can benefit from an unobtrusive device which can be readily used to ubiquitously measure abdominal muscle activation. In this study, we present a pressure sensor system which can be latched onto a belt to measure abdominal muscle activation. sEMG and pressure sensor output were measured in 15 healthy young males during isometric trunk flexion exercise (public trials registration number, KCT0002351), and the results were highly correlated (median R > 0...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Hang Ren, Cameron G Cheyne, Aaron M Fleming, Cynthia J Burrows, Henry S White
Measurement of single-molecule reactions can elucidate microscopic mechanisms that are often hidden from ensemble analysis. Herein, we report the acid-base titration of a single DNA duplex confined within the wild-type α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore for up to 3 h, while monitoring the ionic current through the nanopore. Modulation between two states in the current-time trace for duplexes containing the C:C mismatch in proximity to the latch constriction of α-HL is attributed to the base flipping of the C:C mismatch...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jing-Hung Wang, Alexis V Forterre, Jingjing Zhao, Daniel O Frimannsson, Alain Delcayre, Travis J Antes, Bradley Efron, Stefanie S Jeffrey, Mark D Pegram, A C Matin
This paper deals with specific targeting of the prodrug/enzyme regimen, CNOB/HChrR6, to treat a serious disease namely HER2+ve human breast cancer with minimal off-target toxicity. HChrR6 is an improved bacterial enzyme that converts CNOB into the cytotoxic drug MCHB. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) were used for mRNA-based HchrR6 gene delivery: EVs may cause minimal immune rejection, and mRNA may be superior to DNA for gene delivery. To confine HChrR6 generation and CNOB activation to the cancer, the EVHB chimeric protein was constructed...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Pamela Douglas, Donna Geddes
BACKGROUND: breastfeeding optimises health outcomes for both mothers and infants. Although most women want to breastfeed, they report commencing infant formula because of nipple pain, unsettled infant behaviour, and infant growth concerns. To date, existing approaches to fit and hold ('latch and positioning') have been demonstrated not to help breastfeeding outcomes, and women report widespread dissatisfaction with the quality of support and conflicting advice they receive. Breast and nipple pain, difficulty with latching and sucking, fussing at the breast, back-arching, marathon feeds, excessively frequent feeds, poor weight gain, breast refusal, and crying due to poor satiety often signal suboptimal positional instability and impaired milk transfer, but may be misdiagnosed as medical conditions...
March 2018: Midwifery
Lei Zhang, Wenbin Zheng, Fei Xie, Aiguo Song
Some noisy nonlinear systems could be exploited to operate reliable logic operation in an optimal window of noise intensity, which is termed as logical stochastic resonance (LSR). We investigated the LSR phenomenon in bistable systems when internal noise and external noise are correlated. The LSR effect is evaluated by the success probability of the obtained desired output with various combinations of logic inputs. It is shown that the or-nor, and-nand, and Latch operations still can operate reliably with the correlated internal noise and external noise...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Seol Hui Park, Seang Ryu
PURPOSE: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis designed to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding intervention on breastfeeding rates. METHODS: Based on the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA), a systematic search was conducted using eight core electronic databases and other sources including gray literature from January 9 to 19, 2017. Two reviewers independently select the studies and assessed methodological risk of bias of studies using the Cochrane criteria...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Josefa L Martinez-Brockman, Nurit Harari, Sofia Segura-Pérez, Lori Goeschel, Valerie Bozzi, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
OBJECTIVE: Determine the impact of a 2-way text messaging intervention on time to contact between participants and their breastfeeding peer counselors (BFPCs) and on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 2 weeks and 3 months postpartum. DESIGN: Multisite, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) BFPC program. PARTICIPANTS: Low-income women (n = 174) participating in the WIC BFPC program...
January 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Mickaël Ménand, Matthieu Sollogoub, Bernard Boitrel, Stéphane Le Gac
Access to allosteric enzyme mimics that ideally associate communicating compartments for catalysis and regulation is still challenging. Whereas a sandwich "cavity-catalyst-cavity" approach, developed mainly with cyclodextrins and porphyrins, appears promising, its counterpart with hexaphyrins featuring rich conformation, aromaticity, and coordination behavior has not been prospected at all. We thus developed sandwich hybrids made of two cyclodextrins triply linked on each side of a hexaphyrin. The latter displays switchable oxidation states with interconvertible conformations (28π antiaromatic and 26π aromatic, each adopting rectangular and dumbbell forms)...
January 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Brendan J Mahoney, Meiling Zhang, John S Zintsmaster, Jeffrey W Peng
Pin1 is a two-domain human protein that catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro (pS/T-P) motifs in numerous cell-cycle regulatory proteins. These pS/T-P motifs bind to Pin1's peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain in a catalytic pocket, between an extended catalytic loop and the PPIase domain core. Previous studies showed that post-translational phosphorylation of S71 in the catalytic loop decreases substrate binding affinity and isomerase activity. To define the origins for these effects, we investigated a phosphomimetic Pin1 mutant, S71E-Pin1, using solution NMR...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Tomonari Kaji, Arthur Anker, Christian S Wirkner, A Richard Palmer
How do stunning functional innovations evolve from unspecialized progenitors? This puzzle is particularly acute for ultrafast movements of appendages in arthropods as diverse as shrimps [1], stomatopods [2], insects [3-6], and spiders [7]. For example, the spectacular snapping claws of alpheid shrimps close so fast (∼0.5 ms) that jetted water creates a cavitation bubble and an immensely powerful snap upon bubble collapse [1]. Such extreme movements depend on (1) an energy-storage mechanism (e.g., some kind of spring) and (2) a latching mechanism to release stored energy quickly [8]...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Maarten E A Reith, Kymry T Jones, Juan Zhen, Sid Topiol
A recent study reports on five different mutations as sources of dopamine transporter (DAT) deficiency syndrome (DTDS). One of these mutations, R445C, is believed to be located on the intracellular side of DAT distal to the primary (S1) or secondary (S2) sites to which substrate binding is understood to occur. Thus, the molecular mechanism by which the R445C mutation results in DAT transport deficiency has eluded explanation. However, the recently reported X-ray structures of the endogenous amine transporters for dDAT and hSERT revealed the presence of a putative salt bridge between R445 and E428 suggesting a possible mechanism...
December 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
J L Martinez-Brockman, N Harari, R Pérez-Escamilla
Rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration among women who attend the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are dramatically lower than nonparticipants. Innovative solutions are needed to improve breastfeeding rates in this population. The Lactation Advice through Texting Can Help (LATCH) study was one such approach, designed to augment and reinforce the WIC breastfeeding peer counseling process. The purpose of the present study was to examine engagement via two-way text messaging in a sample of women attending the WIC breastfeeding peer counseling program and enrolled in LATCH...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
Garrett McKay, Julie A Korak, Paul R Erickson, Douglas E Latch, Kristopher McNeill, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz
The optical properties of dissolved organic matter influence chemical and biological processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Dissolved organic matter optical properties have been attributed to a charge-transfer model in which donor-acceptor complexes play a primary role. This model was evaluated by measuring the absorbance and fluorescence response of organic matter isolates to changes in solvent temperature, viscosity, and polarity, which affect the position and intensity of spectra for known donor-acceptor complexes of organic molecules...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Pauline Vitry, Claire Valotteau, Cécile Feuillie, Simon Bernard, David Alsteens, Joan A Geoghegan, Yves F Dufrêne
Bacterial pathogens that colonize host surfaces are subjected to physical stresses such as fluid flow and cell surface contacts. How bacteria respond to such mechanical cues is an important yet poorly understood issue. Staphylococcus aureus uses a repertoire of surface proteins to resist shear stress during the colonization of host tissues, but whether their adhesive functions can be modulated by physical forces is not known. Here, we show that the interaction of S. aureus clumping factor B (ClfB) with the squamous epithelial cell envelope protein loricrin is enhanced by mechanical force...
December 5, 2017: MBio
Gülümser Dolgun, Sevil İnal, Leyla Erdim, Sevda Korkut
BACKGROUND: breast milk is a natural source of nourishment, with a high level of bioefficacy that is easily digestible, easy to deliver, providing all the fluids, energy and nutrients that are needed for the optimum growth and development of a newborn. OBJECTIVE: this research aims to conduct a reliability and validity study of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) in the Turkish population. DESIGN: the research was conducted in methodological design...
February 2018: Midwifery
Zainab M Yate
Background: Breastfeeding aversion and agitation (BAA) while breastfeeding is anecdotally known to occur in some women who breastfeed while pregnant or those who tandem feed a newborn and a toddler. However, it is a little-researched area and the paucity of published literature around BAA reveals a significant gap in the literature. Materials and Methods: This study presents the findings and responses of 694 women who filled in an anonymous survey questionnaire that collected data on their basic demographics and their experiences with breastfeeding...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
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