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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030428/a-retractable-lid-in-lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase-provides-a-structural-mechanism-for-activation-by-apolipoprotein-a-i
#1
Kelly A Manthei, Joomi Ahn, Alisa Glukhova, Wenmin Yuan, Christopher Larkin, Taylor D Manett, Louise Chang, James A Shayman, Milton J Axley, Anna Schwendeman, John J G Tesmer
Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a key role in reverse cholesterol transport by transferring an acyl group from phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol, promoting the maturation of high density lipoproteins (HDL) from discoidal to spherical particles. LCAT is activated through an unknown mechanism by apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and other mimetic peptides that form a belt around HDL. Here we report the crystal structure of LCAT with an extended lid that blocks access to the active site, consistent with an inactive conformation...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978404/switching-on-btk-one-domain-at-a-time
#2
Christopher Agnew, Natalia Jura
BTK kinase activity is controlled by multiple inhibitory domains, whose coordinated mechanism of action is poorly understood. In this issue of Structure,Joseph et al. (2017) use solution-based approaches to characterize conformational changes associated with the binding of each inhibitory tether, revealing a multi-step activation process and a previously unknown C-terminal autoinhibitory latch.
October 3, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945411/ultrastable-artificial-binding-pairs-as-a-supramolecular-latching-system-a-next-generation-chemical-tool-for-proteomics
#3
Kyeng Min Park, James Murray, Kimoon Kim
In this Commentary, we discuss cucurbit[7]uril-based ultrastable artificial binding pairs as a supramolecular latching system and how we envision this becoming important tools in proteomics. The limitations of current proteomic techniques are described with an emphasis on the lack of tools to answer questions about the complex and dynamic nature of the proteome. Our thoughts as to how artificial ultrastable binding pairs may be able to address these questions are given especially when they are combined with existing methods...
March 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930483/breastfeeding-characteristics-of-late-preterm-infants-in-a-kangaroo-mother-care-unit
#4
Melissa Pike, Alta Kritzinger, Esedra Krüger
OBJECTIVE: To describe the breastfeeding characteristics of late-preterm infants (LPIs) in a kangaroo mother care (KMC) unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 20-bed KMC unit, the breastfeeding of 73 purposively-selected LPIs' (mean gestational age: 34.8 weeks) was observed once-off, using the Preterm Infant Breastfeeding Behavior Scale. Participants' mean age was 9.5 days, mean number of days in the unit was 3.1 days, and mean number of days breastfeeding was 7.5 on observation...
September 20, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879823/first-time-mothers-breast-feeding-maintenance-role-of-experiences-and-changes-in-maternal-perceptions
#5
Ellen J Schafer, Shelly Campo, Tarah T Colaizy, Pamela J Mulder, Patrick Breheny, Sato Ashida
OBJECTIVE: Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions. DESIGN: Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions...
September 7, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878793/activation-of-aba-receptors-gene-ghpyl9-11a-is-positively-correlated-with-cotton-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#6
Chengzhen Liang, Yan Liu, Yanyan Li, Zhigang Meng, Rong Yan, Tao Zhu, Yuan Wang, Shujing Kang, Muhammad Ali Abid, Waqas Malik, Guoqing Sun, Sandui Guo, Rui Zhang
The sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) by its receptors, pyrabactin resistance-like proteins (PYLs), is considered a most important factor in activating the ABA signal pathway in response to abiotic stress. However, it is still unknown which PYL is the crucial ABA receptor mediating response to drought stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Here, we reported the identification and characterization of highly induced ABA receptor GhPYL9-11A in response to drought in cotton. It is observed that GhPYL9-11A was highly induced by ABA treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874469/fibrinogen-activates-the-capture-of-human-plasminogen-by-staphylococcal-fibronectin-binding-proteins
#7
Philippe Herman-Bausier, Giampiero Pietrocola, Timothy J Foster, Pietro Speziale, Yves F Dufrêne
Invasive bacterial pathogens can capture host plasminogen (Plg) and allow it to form plasmin. This process is of medical importance as surface-bound plasmin promotes bacterial spread by cleaving tissue components and favors immune evasion by degrading opsonins. In Staphylococcus aureus, Plg binding is in part mediated by cell surface fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs), but the underlying molecular mechanism is not known. Here, we use single-cell and single-molecule techniques to demonstrate that FnBPs capture Plg by a sophisticated activation mechanism involving fibrinogen (Fg), another ligand found in the blood...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867612/achieving-a-graded-immune-response-btk-adopts-a-range-of-active-inactive-conformations-dictated-by-multiple-interdomain-contacts
#8
Raji E Joseph, Thomas E Wales, D Bruce Fulton, John R Engen, Amy H Andreotti
Capturing the functionally relevant forms of dynamic, multidomain proteins is extremely challenging. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a kinase essential for B and mast cell function, has stubbornly resisted crystallization in its full-length form. Here, nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry show that BTK adopts a closed conformation in dynamic equilibrium with open, active conformations. BTK lacks the phosphotyrosine regulatory tail of the SRC kinases, yet nevertheless achieves a phosphotyrosine-independent C-terminal latch...
October 3, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855320/performance-morphology-and-control-of-power-amplified-mandibles-in-the-trap-jaw-ant-myrmoteras-hymenoptera-formicidae
#9
Fredrick J Larabee, Wulfila Gronenberg, Andrew V Suarez
Trap-jaw ants are characterized by high-speed mandibles used for prey capture and defense. Power-amplified mandibles have independently evolved at least four times among ants, with each lineage using different structures as a latch, spring and trigger. We examined two species from the genus Myrmoteras (subfamily Formicinae), whose morphology is unique among trap-jaw ant lineages, and describe the performance characteristics, spring-loading mechanism and neuronal control of Myrmoteras strikes. Like other trap-jaw ants, Myrmoteras latch their jaws open while the large closer muscle loads potential energy in a spring...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846727/latching-dynamics-in-neural-networks-with-synaptic-depression
#10
Carlos Aguilar, Pascal Chossat, Martin Krupa, Frédéric Lavigne
Prediction is the ability of the brain to quickly activate a target concept in response to a related stimulus (prime). Experiments point to the existence of an overlap between the populations of the neurons coding for different stimuli, and other experiments show that prime-target relations arise in the process of long term memory formation. The classical modelling paradigm is that long term memories correspond to stable steady states of a Hopfield network with Hebbian connectivity. Experiments show that short term synaptic depression plays an important role in the processing of memories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817934/mannose-surfaces-exhibit-self-latching-water-structuring-and-resilience-to-chaotropes-implications-for-pathogen-virulence
#11
Hashanthi K Abeyratne-Perera, Preethi L Chandran
Several viral and fungal pathogens, including HIV, SARS, Dengue, Ebola, and Cryptococcus neoformans, display a preponderance of mannose residues on their surface, particularly during the infection cycle or in harsh environments. The innate immune system, on the other hand, abounds in mannose receptors which recognize mannose residues on pathogens and trigger their phagocytosis. We pose the question if there is an advantage for pathogens to display mannose on their surface, despite these residues being recognized by the immune system...
August 30, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800437/beyond-the-latch-a-new-approach-to-breastfeeding
#12
Betty Ann Robinson, Gweneth Hartrick Doane
Health professionals supporting breastfeeding play an important role in women successfully achieving their breastfeeding goals. Instrumental knowledge has dominated health professionals' breastfeeding education and practice. Because breastfeeding is a contextual and embodied experience, a relational orientation is required to identify effective strategies to support women. A relational inquiry approach to breastfeeding practice offers a practical way to support women to better achieve their breastfeeding goals within the complexities of their own lives...
August 1, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766913/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-text-message-intervention-used-as-an-adjunct-tool-by-wic-breastfeeding-peer-counsellors-the-latch-pilot
#13
Nurit Harari, Marjorie S Rosenthal, Valerie Bozzi, Lori Goeschel, Teshika Jayewickreme, Chukwuma Onyebeke, Michele Griswold, Rafael Perez-Escamilla
Breastfeeding rates among mothers in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are lower than for other mothers in the United States. The objective of this study was to test the acceptability and feasibility of the Lactation Advice thru Texting Can Help intervention. Mothers were enrolled at 18-30 weeks gestation from two WIC breastfeeding peer counselling (PC) programmes if they intended to breastfeed and had unlimited text messaging, more than fifth-grade literacy level, and fluency in English or Spanish...
August 1, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760928/parkin-promotes-proteasomal-degradation-of-misregulated-bax
#14
Zeynep Cakir, Kathrin Funk, Joachim Lauterwasser, Franziska Todt, Ralf M Zerbes, Aline Oelgeklaus, Atsushi Tanaka, Martin van der Laan, Frank Edlich
The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 protein BAX commits human cells to apoptosis by permeabilizing the outer mitochondrial membrane. BAX activation has been suggested to require the separation of helix α5 from α6 and thus the 'latch' from the 'core' domain among other conformational changes. Here we show that conformational changes in this region impair BAX translocation to the mitochondria and retrotranslocation back into the cytosol and therefore BAX inhibition, but not activation. Redirecting misregulated BAX to the mitochondria revealed an alternative mechanism of BAX inhibition...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719783/making-sense-of-studies-that-claim-benefits-of-frenotomy-in-the-absence-of-classic-tongue-tie
#15
Pamela Douglas
By performing an in-depth analysis of one high profile example, this article aims to help breastfeeding support professionals understand the methodological flaws that characterize recent studies claiming to show the efficacy of frenotomy for the diagnoses of posterior tongue-tie and upper lip-tie. The example study does not address definitional confusion or control for the effects of the passage of time. It does not consider the effects of caring attention, validation, and lactation consultant support. It also does not consider the extensive research over the past three decades that has established that reflux in the first 6 months of life is benign, even though increased reflux frequency may correlate with unsettled infant behavior...
August 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710905/administration-of-fortifier-by-finger-feeder-during-breastfeeding-in-preterm-infants
#16
Margarita Thanhaeuser, Alexandra Kreissl, Claudia Lindtner, Sophia Brandstetter, Angelika Berger, Nadja Haiden
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acceptance, adherence, and feasibility of fortifier administration by finger feeder during breastfeeding and to determine weight, length, and head circumference gains after discharge for preterm infants. DESIGN: Observational pilot study. SETTING: A Level III NICU and its outpatient clinic in Vienna, Austria. PARTICIPANTS: Infants born at younger than 34 weeks gestation were included. METHODS: Mothers were screened in a tertiary NICU and trained by certified lactation consultants to administer fortifier with a finger feeder during breastfeeding...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700719/stair-negotiation-made-easier-using-novel-interactive-energy-recycling-assistive-stairs
#17
Yun Seong Song, Sehoon Ha, Hsiang Hsu, Lena H Ting, C Karen Liu
Here we show that novel, energy-recycling stairs reduce the amount of work required for humans to both ascend and descend stairs. Our low-power, interactive, and modular steps can be placed on existing staircases, storing energy during stair descent and returning that energy to the user during stair ascent. Energy is recycled through event-triggered latching and unlatching of passive springs without the use of powered actuators. When ascending the energy-recycling stairs, naive users generated 17.4 ± 6.9% less positive work with their leading legs compared to conventional stairs, with the knee joint positive work reduced by 37...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686755/what-s-eating-you-chiggers
#18
Megan E Hohenberger, Dirk M Elston
Belonging to the Trombiculidae family of mites, chigger specifically refers to the larval stage of the mite's life cycle when it is able to bite its host. Although humans act as an accidental host, chiggers will latch on to the skin and their feeding process leads to localized inflammation and irritation. In most cases, these pruritic erythematous papules and papulovesicles are self-healing within a couple weeks, so only symptomatic relief is required as necessary by means of topical antipruritics, oral antihistamines, topical corticosteroids, or an intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection in severe instances...
June 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680082/visualizing-temperature-mediated-activation-of-gelsolin-and-its-deactivation-by-pip2-a-saxs-based-study
#19
Maulik D Badmalia, Shikha Singh, Renu Garg, Ashish
This is the first report describing temperature based initiation of gelsolin's F-actin depolymerization activity, even in absence of free Ca(2+) or low pH. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and circular dichroism (CD) studies revealed that temperature in the range of 30-40 °C is capable of opening the G1 domain alone, as remaining domains are held together by the Ca(2+)-sensitive C-tail latch without any loss in the secondary structural content. Full opening of all domains of tail-less gelsolin, and retention of closed shape for G2-G6 gelsolin merely by heating, further substantiated our findings...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665944/molecular-mechanics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesin-cna-and-the-inhibition-of-bacterial-adhesion-by-stretching-collagen
#20
Ali Madani, Kiavash Garakani, Mohammad R K Mofrad
Bacterial adhesion to collagen, the most abundant protein in humans, is a critical step in the initiation and persistence of numerous bacterial infections. In this study, we explore the collagen binding mechanism of the multi-modular cell wall anchored collagen adhesin (CNA) in Staphylococcus aureus and examine how applied mechanical forces can modulate adhesion ability. The common structural-functional elements and domain organization of CNA are present across over 50 genera of bacteria. Through the use of molecular dynamics models and normal mode analysis, we shed light on the CNA's structural and conformational dynamics and its interactions with collagen that lead to collagen binding...
2017: PloS One
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