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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515296/hepatitis-c-virus-lipoviroparticles-hcv-lvp-assemble-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-and-bud-off-from-the-er-to-golgi-in-copii-vesicles
#1
Gulam H Syed, Mohsin Khan, Song Yang, Aleem Siddiqui
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists as a lipoprotein-virus hybrid lipoviroparticle (LVP). In vitro studies have demonstrated the importance of apolipoproteins in HCV secretion and infectivity leading to the notion that HCV co-opts the secretion of very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) for its egress. However, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in virus particle assembly and egress, are still elusive. Biogenesis of VLDL particle occurs in the ER followed by subsequent lipidation in the ER and Golgi. Secretion of mature VLDL particles occurs through the Golgi secretory pathway...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502770/an-atomic-structure-of-the-human-spliceosome
#2
Xiaofeng Zhang, Chuangye Yan, Jing Hang, Lorenzo I Finci, Jianlin Lei, Yigong Shi
Mechanistic understanding of pre-mRNA splicing requires detailed structural information on various states of the spliceosome. Here we report the cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the human spliceosome just before exon ligation (the C(∗) complex) at an average resolution of 3.76 Å. The splicing factor Prp17 stabilizes the active site conformation. The step II factor Slu7 adopts an extended conformation, binds Prp8 and Cwc22, and is poised for selection of the 3'-splice site. Remarkably, the intron lariat traverses through a positively charged central channel of RBM22; this unusual organization suggests mechanisms of intron recruitment, confinement, and release...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500017/tablet-based-well-being-check-for-the-elderly-development-and-evaluation-of-usability-and-acceptability
#3
Pradeep Ray, Junhua Li, Arni Ariani, Vasvi Kapadia
BACKGROUND: Many elderly people prefer to live at home independently. One of the major concerns raised by the family members is the safety and well-being of their elderly family members when living independently in a home environment. To address this issue, assistive technology solutions have been available in the market. Despite their availability and proliferation, these types of solutions are not popular with the elderly due to their intrusive nature, privacy-related issues, social stigma, and fear of losing human interaction...
May 12, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472588/the-effects-of-different-breastfeeding-training-techniques-given-for-primiparous-mothers-before-discharge-on-the-incidence-of-cracked-nipples
#4
Aysun Eksioglu, Yesim Yesil, Dilek Demir Gungor, Esin Ceber Turfan
OBJECTIVE: This research investigated the effects of different breastfeeding training techniques for primiparous mothers before discharge on the incidence of cracked nipples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a controlled intervention study that was carried out between 2015 and 2016 on 90 mothers living in İzmir. The mothers were divided into three groups: the demonstration-based training group, brochure group, and routine care-receiving group. The mothers in the "brochure group" were provided with breastfeeding training brochures...
May 4, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440273/active-matter-logic-for-autonomous-microfluidics
#5
Francis G Woodhouse, Jörn Dunkel
Chemically or optically powered active matter plays an increasingly important role in materials design, but its computational potential has yet to be explored systematically. The competition between energy consumption and dissipation imposes stringent physical constraints on the information transport in active flow networks, facilitating global optimization strategies that are not well understood. Here, we combine insights from recent microbial experiments with concepts from lattice-field theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to introduce a generic theoretical framework for active matter logic...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437693/an-assessment-of-the-social-cognitive-predictors-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-behavior-using-the-health-action-process-approach
#6
J L Martinez-Brockman, F M Shebl, N Harari, R Pérez-Escamilla
RATIONALE: In the United States rates of exclusive breastfeeding duration remain exceedingly low. Exclusive breastfeeding is a complex learned behavior that is influenced by social cognitive, interpersonal, and structural factors. Interventions are needed that address factors at multiple levels of the social-ecological model. This study was designed to examine the social cognitive predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior in a sample of low-income women attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) breastfeeding peer counseling program and enrolled in the Lactation Advice Through Texting Can Help (LATCH) study...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418803/an-ecological-momentary-assessment-of-primiparous-women-s-breastfeeding-behavior-and-problems-from-birth-to-8-weeks
#7
Jill R Demirci, Debra L Bogen
BACKGROUND: Primiparous women are at risk for early, unintended breastfeeding reduction and cessation. Breastfeeding patterns that contribute to these outcomes require further exploration. Research aim: This study aimed to describe early, "real-time" breastfeeding behaviors and perceived problems of primiparous women. METHODS: First-time mothers intending to exclusively breastfeed downloaded a commercial infant-feeding app during their postpartum hospitalization...
May 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384091/comparison-of-breastfeeding-outcomes-between-using-the-laid-back-and-side-lying-breastfeeding-positions-in-mothers-delivering-by-cesarean-section-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Pawin Puapornpong, Kasem Raungrongmorakot, Wipada Laosooksathit, Tharangrut Hanprasertpong, Sukwadee Ketsuwan
BACKGROUND: The breastfeeding position routinely used following a cesarean section is the side-lying position. However, there have been few studies about the effect of breastfeeding positions, including laid-back position on breastfeeding outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the breastfeeding outcomes between using laid-back and side-lying breastfeeding positions in mothers delivering by cesarean section. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted...
May 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367581/drowning-in-swimming-pools-clinical-features-and-safety-recommendations-based-on-a-study-of-descriptive-records-by-emergency-medical-services-attending-to-995-calls
#9
Joanna Shi-En Chan, Marie Xin Ru Ng, Yih Yng Ng
INTRODUCTION: This study was a descriptive analysis of national ambulance case records, aimed at making practical safety recommendations in order to reduce the incidence of drowning in swimming pools. METHODS: A search was performed on a national database of descriptive summaries by first responder paramedics of all 995 calls made to the Singapore Civil Defence Force between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014. We included all cases of submersion in both public and private pools for which emergency medical services were activated...
April 3, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337898/melanin-of-the-nipple-areola-complex
#10
A Goren, M Kovacevic, T Lotti
Biological pigments or biochromes are ubiquitous in animals, plants, and simpler organisms such as fungi and bacteria. They serve a wide spectrum of functions from photosynthesis, camouflage, mimicry, photo protection from the environment to attracting mates. The human female nipple areola complex (NAC) is a highly-pigmented area. Currently, the prevailing theory as to the evolution of the pigmented human NAC is based on infant recognition of breast feeding latching zone; however, due to the protruding shape of the nipple and surrounding breast, the authors of this letter believe that the evolutionary advantage of the pigmented NAC has a direct physiological function, namely the initiation of involution at the end of the infant lactation period...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318221/crystal-structure-of-a-homogeneous-igg-fc-glycoform-with-the-n-glycan-designed-to-maximize-the-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity
#11
Chia-Lin Chen, Jen-Chi Hsu, Chin-Wei Lin, Chia-Hung Wang, Ming-Hung Tsai, Chung-Yi Wu, Chi-Huey Wong, Che Ma
N-glycosylation on IgG modulates Fc conformation and effector functions. An IgG-Fc contains a human sialo-complex type (hSCT) glycan of biantennary structure with two α2,6-sialylations and without core-fucosylation is an optimized glycoform developed to enhance the antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). hSCT modification not only enhances the binding affinity to Fc receptors in the presence of antigen but also in some cases provides gain-of-function effector activity. We used enzymatic glyco-engineering to prepare an IgG-Fc with homogeneous hSCT attached to each CH2 domain and solved its crystal structure...
March 31, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297419/radiation-leakage-dose-from-elekta-electron-collimation-system
#12
Garrett M Pitcher, Kenneth R Hogstrom, Robert L Carver
This study provided baseline data required for a greater project, whose objective was to design a new Elekta electron collimation system having significantly lighter electron applicators with equally low out-of field leakage dose. Specifically, off-axis dose profiles for the electron collimation system of our uniquely configured Elekta Infinity accelerator with the MLCi2 treatment head were measured and calculated for two primary purposes: 1) to evaluate and document the out-of-field leakage dose in the patient plane and 2) to validate the dose distributions calculated using a BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) model for out-of-field dose profiles...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278382/nipple-pain-incidence-the-predisposing-factors-the-recovery-period-after-care-management-and-the-exclusive-breastfeeding-outcome
#13
Pawin Puapornpong, Panwara Paritakul, Maysita Suksamarnwong, Siriwan Srisuwan, Sukwadee Ketsuwan
BACKGROUND: Nipple pain is the most common complaint of breastfeeding mothers during the immediate postpartum period. Persistent nipple pain is associated with low breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum. OBJECTIVE: To further explore the incidence of nipple pain, associated predisposing factors, time for recovery after management, and the impact on exclusive breastfeeding rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in this study were 1,649 singleton, pregnant women who delivered and had their 1-week follow-up at the breastfeeding clinic during the period of January 2013 to December 2015...
April 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258151/staphylococcus-aureus-sdre-captures-complement-factor-h-s-c-terminus-via-a-novel-close-dock-lock-and-latch-mechanism-for-complement-evasion
#14
Yingjie Zhang, Minhao Wu, Tianrong Hang, Chengliang Wang, Ye Yang, Weimin Pan, Jianye Zang, Min Zhang, Xuan Zhang
Complement factor H (CFH) is a soluble complement regulatory protein essential for the down-regulation of the alternative pathway on interaction with specific markers on the host cell surface. It recognizes the complement component 3b (C3b) and 3d (C3d) fragments in addition to self cell markers (i.e. glycosaminoglycans, sialic acid) to distinguish host cells that deserve protection from pathogens that should be eliminated. The Staphylococcus aureus surface protein serine-aspartate repeat protein E (SdrE) was previously reported to bind human CFH as an immune-evasion tactic...
May 4, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248335/external-cavity-lasing-pumped-stimulated-brillouin-scattering-in-a-high-q-microcavity
#15
Kaijun Che, Deyu Tang, Changlei Guo, Huiying Xu, Changyan Ren, Pan Zhang, Shuisen Jiang, Lujian Chen, Dan Zhang, Zhiping Cai
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a microcavity is usually realized by employing a wavelength tunable external cavity diode laser (TECDL) as the pump source. In this Letter, we report the observation of SBS in a high Q microcavity based on a TECDL-free scheme. The microcavity is employed as a mode-reflecting mirror for constructing a fiber-ring laser and, simultaneously, pumped by the fiber-ring lasing with intrinsic resonance latching. Several regimes are observed in a microcavity with a diameter of ∼215  μm, such as single lasing pumped SBS and multiple regular lasing pumped SBSs (single or cascaded)...
March 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244514/aqueous-singlet-oxygen-reaction-kinetics-of-furfuryl-alcohol-effect-of-temperature-ph-and-salt-content
#16
Elena Appiani, Rachele Ossola, Douglas E Latch, Paul R Erickson, Kristopher McNeill
The rate constant for the reaction between furfuryl alcohol (FFA) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) in aqueous solution was measured as a function of temperature, pH and salt content employing both steady-state photolysis (β value determination) and time-resolved singlet oxygen phosphorescence methods. The latter provided more precise and reproducible data. The reaction rate constant, krxn,FFA, had a relatively small temperature dependence, no pH dependence and showed a small increase in the presence of high salt concentrations (+19% with 1 M NaCl)...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238320/-oxytocin-administration-during-spontaneous-labour-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-guidelines-short-text
#17
C Dupont, M Carayol, C Le Ray, C Barasinski, R Beranger, A Burguet, A Chantry, C Chiesa, B Coulm, A Evrard, C Fischer, L Gaucher, C Guillou, F Leroy, E Phan, A Rousseau, V Tessier, F Vendittelli, C Deneux-Tharaux, D Riethmuller
OBJECTIVES: To define the different stages of spontaneous labour. To determine the indications, modalities of use and the effects of administering synthetic oxytocin. And to describe undesirable maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with the use of synthetic oxytocin. METHOD: A systematic review was carried out by searching Medline database and websites of obstetrics learned societies until March 2016. RESULTS: The 1st stage of labor is divided in a latence phase and an active phase, which switch at 5cm of cervical dilatation...
January 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230976/interrogation-of-base-pairing-of-the-spiroiminodihydantoin-diastereomers-using-the-%C3%AE-hemolysin-latch
#18
Tao Zeng, Aaron M Fleming, Yun Ding, Henry S White, Cynthia J Burrows
Spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) is a hyperoxidized form of guanine (G) resulting from oxidation by reactive oxygen species. The lesion is highly mutagenic, and the stereocenter renders the two isomers with distinct behaviors in chemical, spectroscopic, enzymatic, and computational studies. In this work, the α-hemolysin (αHL) latch sensing zone was employed to investigate the base pairing properties of the Sp diastereomers embedded in a double-stranded DNA. Duplexes containing (S)-Sp consistently gave deeper current blockage, and a baseline resolution of ∼0...
March 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219969/safe-storage-of-opioid-pain-relievers-among-adults-living-in-households-with-children
#19
Eileen M McDonald, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Emma E McGinty, Wendy C Shields, Colleen L Barry, Andrea C Gielen
OBJECTIVES: To describe safe storage practices and beliefs among adults who have used a prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) in the past year; to compare practices and beliefs among those living with younger (<7 years) versus older children (7-17 years). METHODS: A survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of adults reporting OPR use in the previous 12 months and who had children <18 years old living with them. We used Health Belief Model-derived items to measure beliefs...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193245/early-disease-progression-of-hurler-syndrome
#20
Bridget T Kiely, Jennifer L Kohler, Hannah Y Coletti, Michele D Poe, Maria L Escolar
BACKGROUND: Newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) shows promise to improve outcomes by facilitating early diagnosis and treatment. However, diagnostic tests for MPS I are of limited value in predicting whether a child will develop severe central nervous system disease associated with Hurler syndrome, or minimal or no central nervous system involvement associated with the attenuated phenotypes (Hurler-Scheie and Scheie syndromes). Given that the optimal treatment differs between Hurler syndrome and the attenuated MPS I phenotypes, the absence of a reliable prognostic biomarker complicates clinical decision making for infants diagnosed through newborn screening...
February 14, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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