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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230976/interrogation-of-base-pairing-of-the-spiroiminodihydantoin-diastereomers-using-the-%C3%AE-hemolysin-latch
#1
Tao Zeng, Aaron M Fleming, Yun Ding, Henry S White, Cynthia J Burrows
Spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) is a hyperoxidized form of guanine (G) resulting from oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The lesion is highly mutagenic, and the stereocenter renders the two isomers with distinct behaviors in chemical, spectroscopic, enzymatic, and computational studies. In this work, the α-hemolysin (αHL) latch sensing zone was employed to investigate the base pairing properties of the Sp diastereomers embedded in a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Duplexes containing (S)-Sp consistently gave deeper current blockage, and a baseline resolution of ~0...
February 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219969/safe-storage-of-opioid-pain-relievers-among-adults-living-in-households-with-children
#2
Eileen M McDonald, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Emma E McGinty, Wendy C Shields, Colleen L Barry, Andrea C Gielen
OBJECTIVES: To describe safe storage practices and beliefs among adults who have used a prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) in the past year; to compare practices and beliefs among those living with younger (<7 years) versus older children (7-17 years). METHODS: A survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of adults reporting OPR use in the previous 12 months and who had children <18 years old living with them. We used Health Belief Model-derived items to measure beliefs...
February 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193245/early-disease-progression-of-hurler-syndrome
#3
Bridget T Kiely, Jennifer L Kohler, Hannah Y Coletti, Michele D Poe, Maria L Escolar
BACKGROUND: Newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) shows promise to improve outcomes by facilitating early diagnosis and treatment. However, diagnostic tests for MPS I are of limited value in predicting whether a child will develop severe central nervous system disease associated with Hurler syndrome, or minimal or no central nervous system involvement associated with the attenuated phenotypes (Hurler-Scheie and Scheie syndromes). Given that the optimal treatment differs between Hurler syndrome and the attenuated MPS I phenotypes, the absence of a reliable prognostic biomarker complicates clinical decision making for infants diagnosed through newborn screening...
February 14, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166054/elucidation-of-a-four-site-allosteric-network-in-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#4
Huaibin Chen, William M Marsiglia, Min-Kyu Cho, Zhifeng Huang, Jingjing Deng, Steven P Blais, Weiming Gai, Shibani Bhattacharya, Thomas A Neubert, Nathaniel J Traaseth, Moosa Mohammadi
Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is tightly regulated by protein allostery within the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. Yet the molecular determinants of allosteric connectivity in tyrosine kinase domain are incompletely understood. By means of structural (X-ray and NMR) and functional characterization of pathogenic gain-of-function mutations affecting the FGF receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase domain, we elucidated a long-distance allosteric network composed of four interconnected sites termed the 'molecular brake', 'DFG latch', 'A-loop plug', and 'αC tether'...
February 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145707/glutamine-amide-flip-elicits-long-distance-allosteric-responses-in-the-lov-protein-vivid
#5
Abir Ganguly, Walter Thiel, Brian R Crane
Light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains sense blue light through the photochemical formation of a cysteinyl-flavin covalent adduct. Concurrent protonation at the flavin N5 position alters the hydrogen bonding interactions of an invariant Gln residue that has been proposed to flip its amide side chain as a critical step in the propagation of conformational change. Traditional molecular dynamics (MD) and replica-exchange MD (REMD) simulations of the well-characterized LOV protein Vivid (VVD) demonstrate that the Gln182 amide indeed reorients by ∼180° in response to either adduct formation or reduction of the isoalloxazine ring to the neutral semiquinone, both of which involve N5 protonation...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134253/specialized-interfaces-of-smc5-6-control-hinge-stability-and-dna-association
#6
Aaron Alt, Hung Q Dang, Owen S Wells, Luis M Polo, Matt A Smith, Grant A McGregor, Thomas Welte, Alan R Lehmann, Laurence H Pearl, Johanne M Murray, Antony W Oliver
The Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) complexes: cohesin, condensin and Smc5/6 are involved in the organization of higher-order chromosome structure-which is essential for accurate chromosome duplication and segregation. Each complex is scaffolded by a specific SMC protein dimer (heterodimer in eukaryotes) held together via their hinge domains. Here we show that the Smc5/6-hinge, like those of cohesin and condensin, also forms a toroidal structure but with distinctive subunit interfaces absent from the other SMC complexes; an unusual 'molecular latch' and a functional 'hub'...
January 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125225/dynamics-of-a-dna-mismatch-site-held-in-confinement-discriminate-epigenetic-modifications-of-cytosine
#7
Robert P Johnson, Aaron M Fleming, Rukshan T Perera, Cynthia J Burrows, Henry S White
The identification and discrimination of four epigenetic modifications to cytosine in the proposed active demethylation cycle is demonstrated at the single-molecule level, without the need for chemical pre-treatment or labeling. The wild-type protein nanopore alpha-hemolysin is used to capture individual DNA duplexes containing a single cytosine-cytosine mismatch. The mismatch is held at the latch constriction of alpha-hemolysin, which is used to monitor the kinetics of base flipping at the mismatch site. Base flipping and the subsequent interactions between the DNA and the protein are dramatically altered when one of the cytosine bases is replaced with methyl-, hydroxymethyl-, formyl-, or carboxylcytosine...
January 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078789/-breastfeeding-without-baby-a-longitudinal-qualitative-investigation-of-how-mothers-perceive-feel-about-and-practice-human-milk-expression
#8
Julia P Felice, Sheela R Geraghty, Caroline W Quaglieri, Rei Yamada, Adriana J Wong, Kathleen M Rasmussen
Most American mothers who produce human milk (HM) now pump in place of some or all feeding at the breast, and most American infants are now fed pumped HM. We aimed to investigate mothers' perceptions of, attitudes toward, and practices for pumping and providing pumped HM. Results related to pumping are reported here. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews among a diverse sample of 20 mothers who pumped, following each from pregnancy through infant HM-feeding cessation up to 1 year postpartum. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis with Atlas...
January 12, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061033/breastfeeding-infants-with-ankyloglossia-insight-into-mothers-experiences
#9
Kevin Wong, Punam Patel, Michael B Cohen, Jessica R Levi
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding difficulty from ankyloglossia can affect both the mother and baby in a breastfeeding dyad. With renewed emphasis in today's culture on breast milk, mothers may feel increasing pressure to breastfeed, and the inability for some to do so may cause significant distress. Recently, online parenting forums have seen exponential growth; these forums allow mothers to connect with peers undergoing similar life transitions. The purpose of this study was to review online discussions regarding ankyloglossia to understand mothers' experiences with breastfeeding...
January 6, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049520/perceptions-and-experiences-of-using-a-nipple-shield-among-parents-and-staff-an-ethnographic-study-in-neonatal-units
#10
Renée Flacking, Fiona Dykes
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have an immature sucking behavior and the capacity to be exclusively breastfed may be reduced for a period of weeks or months, depending on gestational age. Nipple shields have been used, not only as a device to help mothers with sore nipples, but also to facilitate the infant's latch on to the breast. However, the benefits of using nipple shields have been debated. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of using a nipple shield among parents and staff in neonatal units in Sweden and England...
January 3, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034726/comparison-of-linear-spatial-filters-for-identifying-oscillatory-activity-in-multichannel-data
#11
REVIEW
Michael X Cohen
BACKGROUND: Large-scale synchronous neural activity produces electrical fields that can be measured by electrodes outside the head, and volume conduction ensures that neural sources can be measured by many electrodes. However, most data analyses in M/EEG research are univariate, meaning each electrode is considered as a separate measurement. Several multivariate linear spatial filtering techniques have been introduced to the cognitive electrophysiology literature, but these techniques are not commonly used; comparisons across filters would be beneficial to the field...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027445/efficacy-of-an-osteopathic-treatment-coupled-with-lactation-consultations-for-infants-biomechanical-sucking-difficulties
#12
Juliette Herzhaft-Le Roy, Marianne Xhignesse, Isabelle Gaboury
BACKGROUND: Despite well-known recommendations from national and international bodies including the World Health Organization, few mothers achieve the goal of breastfeeding exclusively for 6 months. Half of mothers stop breastfeeding due to biomechanical issues in the first month, despite increasing support from lactation consultants. Osteopaths worldwide work with these babies, but there is little empirical evidence for this type of treatment. Research aim: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of an osteopathic treatment coupled with usual lactation consultations on infants' ability to latch...
February 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024377/kinetics-of-t3-dna-ligase-catalyzed-phosphodiester-bond-formation-measured-using-the-%C3%AE-hemolysin-nanopore
#13
Cherie S Tan, Jan Riedl, Aaron M Fleming, Cynthia J Burrows, Henry S White
The latch region of the wild-type α-hemolysin (α-HL) protein channel can be used to distinguish single base modifications in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) via ion channel measurements upon electrophoretic capture of dsDNA in the vestibule of α-HL. Herein, we investigated the use of the latch region to detect a nick in the phosphodiester DNA backbone. The presence of a nick in the phosphodiester backbone of one strand of the duplex results in a significant increase in both the blockade current and noise level relative to the intact duplex...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942650/qsars-for-phenols-and-phenolates-oxidation-potential-as-a-predictor-of-reaction-rate-constants-with-photochemically-produced-oxidants
#14
William A Arnold, Yan Oueis, Meghan O'Connor, Johanna E Rinaman, Miranda G Taggart, Rachel E McCarthy, Kimberley A Foster, Douglas E Latch
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for prediction of the reaction rate constants of phenols and phenolates with three photochemically produced oxidants, singlet oxygen, carbonate radical, and triplet excited state sensitizers/organic matter, are developed. The predictive variable is the one-electron oxidation potential (E1), which is calculated for each species using density functional theory. The reaction rate constants are obtained from the literature, and for singlet oxygen, are augmented with new experimental data...
December 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917833/crystal-structure-of-the-toxin-msmeg_6760-the-structural-homolog-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv2035-a-novel-type-ii-toxin-involved-in-the-hypoxic-response
#15
R Alexandra Bajaj, Mark A Arbing, Annie Shin, Duilio Cascio, Linda Miallau
The structure of Msmeg_6760, a protein of unknown function, has been determined. Biochemical and bioinformatics analyses determined that Msmeg_6760 interacts with a protein encoded in the same operon, Msmeg_6762, and predicted that the operon is a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Structural comparison of Msmeg_6760 with proteins of known function suggests that Msmeg_6760 binds a hydrophobic ligand in a buried cavity lined by large hydrophobic residues. Access to this cavity could be controlled by a gate-latch mechanism...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898210/the-role-of-early-maternal-support-in-balancing-full-time-work-and-infant-exclusive-breastfeeding-a-qualitative-study
#16
Lea Pounds, Christopher M Fisher, Debora Barnes-Josiah, Jason D Coleman, R Craig Lefebvre
INTRODUCTION: Support of others is a key factor for mothers who choose to breastfeed their infants, including those who balance work outside the home and breastfeeding. However, little research has been done to understand how maternal support during the postpartum period impacts mothers' ability to later balance work and breastfeeding, in particular full-time work and exclusive breastfeeding. The results of this qualitative study indicate that the timing of support plays a key role in mothers' ability to successfully overcome barriers during the early postpartum period, thus building maternal self-efficacy in addressing problems encountered when they return to work...
November 29, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862522/high-gene-flow-in-the-american-badger-overrides-habitat-preferences-and-limits-broadscale-genetic-structure
#17
E M Kierepka, E K Latch
Habitat associations are a function of habitat preferences and dispersal capabilities, both of which can influence how species responded to Quaternary climatic changes and contemporary habitat heterogeneity. Predicting resultant genetic structure is not always straightforward, especially in species where high dispersal potential and habitat preferences yield opposing predictions. The American badger has high dispersal capabilities that predict widespread panmixia, but avoids closed-canopy forests and clay soils, which could restrict gene flow and create ecologically based population genetic structure...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843833/effect-of-mother-infant-pair-s-latch-on-position-on-child-s-health-a-lesson-for-nursing-care
#18
Harshdeep Joshi, Pushpendra Magon, Sunil Raina
BACKGROUND: Effective breastfeeding is a function of the proper positioning of mother and baby and attachment of child to the mother's breast. Positioning of the baby's body is important for good attachment and successful breastfeeding. The study was planned to assess mother-infant pair latch on position and its impact on health status of the child. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was community-based cross-sectional study conducted among 1267 children between age group of 0-24 months in the urban and rural field practice areas of the Department of Community Medicine, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828726/early-breast-milk-pumping-intentions-among-postpartum-women
#19
Yiska Loewenberg Weisband, Sarah A Keim, Lisa M Keder, Sheela R Geraghty, Maria F Gallo
INTRODUCTION: Milk expression has become common, but little is known about women's intentions and motivations for pumping. Our objectives were to measure, among newly postpartum women, intentions related to breast milk feeding and pumping, reasons for intending to pump, and timing of pumping initiation. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a large university hospital in 2015 using a convenience sample of 100 women before their discharge following delivery, who intended to feed their infant breast milk for at least 6 months...
January 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806276/the-ph-dependent-trigger-in-diphtheria-toxin-t-domain-comes-with-a-safety-latch
#20
Mykola V Rodnin, Jing Li, Michael L Gross, Alexey S Ladokhin
Protein-side-chain protonation, coupled to conformational rearrangements, is one way of regulating physiological function caused by changes in protein environment. Specifically, protonation of histidine residues has been implicated in pH-dependent conformational switching in several systems, including the diphtheria toxin translocation (T) domain, which is responsible for the toxin's cellular entry via the endosomal pathway. Our previous studies a) identified protonation of H257 as a major component of the T domain's conformational switch and b) suggested the possibility of a neighboring H223 acting as a modulator, affecting the protonation of H257 and preventing premature conformational changes outside the endosome...
November 1, 2016: Biophysical Journal
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