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Pamela Douglas, Donna Geddes
BACKGROUND: breastfeeding optimises health outcomes for both mothers and infants. Although most women want to breastfeed, they report commencing infant formula because of nipple pain, unsettled infant behaviour, and infant growth concerns. To date, existing approaches to fit and hold ('latch and positioning') have been demonstrated not to help breastfeeding outcomes, and women report widespread dissatisfaction with the quality of support and conflicting advice they receive. Breast and nipple pain, difficulty with latching and sucking, fussing at the breast, back-arching, marathon feeds, excessively frequent feeds, poor weight gain, breast refusal, and crying due to poor satiety often signal suboptimal positional instability and impaired milk transfer, but may be misdiagnosed as medical conditions...
March 2018: Midwifery
Lei Zhang, Wenbin Zheng, Fei Xie, Aiguo Song
Some noisy nonlinear systems could be exploited to operate reliable logic operation in an optimal window of noise intensity, which is termed as logical stochastic resonance (LSR). We investigated the LSR phenomenon in bistable systems when internal noise and external noise are correlated. The LSR effect is evaluated by the success probability of the obtained desired output with various combinations of logic inputs. It is shown that the or-nor, and-nand, and Latch operations still can operate reliably with the correlated internal noise and external noise...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Seol Hui Park, Seang Ryu
PURPOSE: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis designed to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding intervention on breastfeeding rates. METHODS: Based on the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA), a systematic search was conducted using eight core electronic databases and other sources including gray literature from January 9 to 19, 2017. Two reviewers independently select the studies and assessed methodological risk of bias of studies using the Cochrane criteria...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Josefa L Martinez-Brockman, Nurit Harari, Sofia Segura-Pérez, Lori Goeschel, Valerie Bozzi, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
OBJECTIVE: Determine the impact of a 2-way text messaging intervention on time to contact between participants and their breastfeeding peer counselors (BFPCs) and on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 2 weeks and 3 months postpartum. DESIGN: Multisite, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) BFPC program. PARTICIPANTS: Low-income women (n = 174) participating in the WIC BFPC program...
January 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Mickaël Ménand, Matthieu Sollogoub, Bernard Boitrel, Stéphane Le Gac
Access to allosteric enzyme mimics that ideally associate communicating compartments for catalysis and regulation is still challenging. Whereas a sandwich "cavity-catalyst-cavity" approach, developed mainly with cyclodextrins and porphyrins, appears promising, its counterpart with hexaphyrins featuring rich conformation, aromaticity and coordination behavior has not been prospected at all. We thus developed sandwich hybrids made of two cyclodextrins triply-linked on each side of a hexaphyrin. The latter displays switchable oxidation states with interconvertible conformations (28π antiaromatic and 26π aromatic each adopting rectangular and dumbbell forms)...
January 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Brendan J Mahoney, Meiling Zhang, John S Zintsmaster, Jeffrey W Peng
Pin1 is a two-domain human protein that catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of pSer/pThr-Pro (pS/T-P) motifs in numerous cell cycle regulatory proteins. These pS/T-P motifs bind to Pin1's peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain in a catalytic pocket, between an extended catalytic loop and the PPIase domain core. Previous studies showed that post-translational phosphorylation of S71 in the catalytic loop decreases substrate binding affinity and isomerase activity. To define the origins for these effects, we investigated a phosphomimetic Pin1 mutant, S71E-Pin1, using solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Tomonari Kaji, Arthur Anker, Christian S Wirkner, A Richard Palmer
How do stunning functional innovations evolve from unspecialized progenitors? This puzzle is particularly acute for ultrafast movements of appendages in arthropods as diverse as shrimps [1], stomatopods [2], insects [3-6], and spiders [7]. For example, the spectacular snapping claws of alpheid shrimps close so fast (∼0.5 ms) that jetted water creates a cavitation bubble and an immensely powerful snap upon bubble collapse [1]. Such extreme movements depend on (1) an energy-storage mechanism (e.g., some kind of spring) and (2) a latching mechanism to release stored energy quickly [8]...
December 27, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Maarten E A Reith, Kymry T Jones, Juan Zhen, Sid Topiol
A recent study reports on five different mutations as sources of dopamine transporter (DAT) deficiency syndrome (DTDS). One of these mutations, R445C, is believed to be located on the intracellular side of DAT distal to the primary (S1) or secondary (S2) sites to which substrate binding is understood to occur. Thus, the molecular mechanism by which the R445C mutation results in DAT transport deficiency has eluded explanation. However, the recently reported X-ray structures of the endogenous amine transporters for dDAT and hSERT revealed the presence of a putative salt bridge between R445 and E428 suggesting a possible mechanism...
December 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
J L Martinez-Brockman, N Harari, R Pérez-Escamilla
Rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration among women who attend the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are dramatically lower than nonparticipants. Innovative solutions are needed to improve breastfeeding rates in this population. The Lactation Advice through Texting Can Help (LATCH) study was one such approach, designed to augment and reinforce the WIC breastfeeding peer counseling process. The purpose of the present study was to examine engagement via two-way text messaging in a sample of women attending the WIC breastfeeding peer counseling program and enrolled in LATCH...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
Garrett McKay, Julie Ann Korak, Paul R Erickson, Douglas E Latch, Kristopher McNeill, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz
The optical properties of dissolved organic matter influence chemical and biological processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Organic matter optical properties have been attributed to a charge-transfer model in which donor-acceptor complexes play a primary role. This model was evaluated by measuring the absorbance and fluorescence response of organic matter isolates to perturbations in solvent temperature, viscosity, and polarity, which affect the position and intensity of spectra for known donor-acceptor complexes of organic molecules...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Pauline Vitry, Claire Valotteau, Cécile Feuillie, Simon Bernard, David Alsteens, Joan A Geoghegan, Yves F Dufrêne
Bacterial pathogens that colonize host surfaces are subjected to physical stresses such as fluid flow and cell surface contacts. How bacteria respond to such mechanical cues is an important yet poorly understood issue. Staphylococcus aureus uses a repertoire of surface proteins to resist shear stress during the colonization of host tissues, but whether their adhesive functions can be modulated by physical forces is not known. Here, we show that the interaction of S. aureus clumping factor B (ClfB) with the squamous epithelial cell envelope protein loricrin is enhanced by mechanical force...
December 5, 2017: MBio
Gülümser Dolgun, Sevil İnal, Leyla Erdim, Sevda Korkut
BACKGROUND: breast milk is a natural source of nourishment, with a high level of bioefficacy that is easily digestible, easy to deliver, providing all the fluids, energy and nutrients that are needed for the optimum growth and development of a newborn. OBJECTIVE: this research aims to conduct a reliability and validity study of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) in the Turkish population. DESIGN: the research was conducted in methodological design...
November 21, 2017: Midwifery
Zainab M Yate
Background: Breastfeeding aversion and agitation (BAA) while breastfeeding is anecdotally known to occur in some women who breastfeed while pregnant or those who tandem feed a newborn and a toddler. However, it is a little-researched area and the paucity of published literature around BAA reveals a significant gap in the literature. Materials and Methods: This study presents the findings and responses of 694 women who filled in an anonymous survey questionnaire that collected data on their basic demographics and their experiences with breastfeeding...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
Hector Flores-Romero, Miguel Garcia-Porras, Gorka Basañez
Despite intensive research effort, how the paradigmatic proapoptotic protein BAX forms lethal apoptotic pores at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) remains incompletely understood. Here, we used biophysical tools and minimalist model systems to identify the specific regions in BAX driving apoptotic pore formation, and to gain more insight into underlying mechanisms. Fluorescence mapping revealed that fully active BAX adopts a BH3-in-groove dimeric conformation in MOM-like membranes, with BAX α4-α5 helices belonging to its core domain inserting deeper into the membrane lipid bilayer than BAX α6-α8 helices belonging to its latch domain...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Robyn M Powell, Monika Mitra, Suzanne C Smeltzer, Linda M Long-Bellil, Lauren D Smith, Eliana Rosenthal, Lisa I Iezzoni
BACKGROUND: The benefits of breastfeeding are well established, and breastfeeding is now widely practiced in the United States. Although increasing numbers of women with physical disabilities are having children, little information is available about breastfeeding practices among these women. Nonetheless, the children of women with physical disabilities should benefit from breastfeeding just as children of nondisabled mothers do. Research aim: This study aimed to explore the facilitators and barriers to breastfeeding among women with physical disabilities...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Kathryn Muldoon, Louise Gallagher, Denise McGuinness, Valerie Smith
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) and its clinical impact on breastfeeding, including the benefits, or otherwise, of tongue-tie release (frenotomy). As exclusive breastfeeding rates in Ireland are already considerably low (46% on discharge home from the maternity unit following birth in 2014), it is imperative to protect and support breastfeeding, including identifying the associated effects that frenotomy might have on breastfeeding variables. OBJECTIVE: To determine the associated effects of frenotomy on breastfeeding variables in infants with ankyloglossia...
November 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Eva D Korblova, Edward Guzman, Joseph E Maclennan, Matthew A Glaser, Renfan Shao, Edgardo Garcia, Yongqiang Shen, Rayshan Visvanathan, Noel A Clark, David M Walba
We have previously reported the first realization of an orthogonal ferroelectric bent-core SmAPF phase by directed design in mesogens with a single tricarbosilane-terminated alkoxy tail. Given the potentially useful electrooptic properties of this phase, including analog phase-only electrooptic index modulation with optical latching, we have been exploring its "structure space", searching for novel SmAPF mesogens. Here, we report two classes of these-the first designed to optimize the dynamic range of the index modulation in parallel-aligned cells by lowering the bend angle of the rigid core, and the second expanding the structure space of the phase by replacing the tricarbosilane-terminated alkyl tail with a polyfluorinated polyethylene glycol oligomer...
November 9, 2017: Materials
Shun-Mei Lin, A-Yeung Jang, Yong Zhi, Shuang Gao, Sangyong Lim, Jae Hyang Lim, Joon Young Song, Paul M Sullam, Joon Heang Rhee, Ho Seong Seo
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal invasive diseases as well as of severe infections in the elderly. The GBS serine rich repeat glycoprotein, Srr1, acts as a critical virulent factor by facilitating GBS invasion into the central nervous system through interaction with the fibrinogen A chain. In this study, we found that Srr1 is highly conserved in GBS clinical isolates (86.7%). Following immunization with different Srr1 truncated peptides, we demonstrated that only mice immunized with Srr1 truncates containing the latch domain were protected against GBS meningitis...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zhizhong Ren, Zhen Wang, X Edward Zhou, Huazhong Shi, Yechun Hong, Minjie Cao, Zhulong Chan, Xue Liu, H Eric Xu, Jian-Kang Zhu
Turfgrass are widely cultivated ornamental plants that have important ecological, societal and economical values. However, many turfgrass species are susceptible to drought and demand frequent irrigation thus consuming large amounts of water. With the ultimate goal of improving drought resistance in turfgrass, we identified several ABA receptors in turfgrass that are important to mediate ABA signaling and drought stress response. The ABA receptor FePYR1 from turfgrass Festuca elata was demonstrated to bind ABA as a monomer...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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