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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166392/intestinal-ralstonia-pickettii-augments-glucose-intolerance-in-obesity
#1
Shanthadevi D Udayappan, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Guido J Bakker, Stefan R Havik, Hilde Herrema, Patrice D Cani, Kristien E Bouter, Clara Belzer, Julia J Witjes, Anne Vrieze, Noor de Sonnaville, Alice Chaplin, Daniel H van Raalte, Steven Aalvink, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Hans G H J Heilig, Göran Bergström, Suzan van der Meij, Bart A van Wagensveld, Joost B L Hoekstra, Frits Holleman, Erik S G Stroes, Albert K Groen, Fredrik Bäckhed, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp
An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Low grade inflammation, potentially initiated by the intestinal microbiota, has been suggested to be a driving force in the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we report that bacterial DNA is present in mesenteric adipose tissue of obese but otherwise healthy human subjects. Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that DNA from the Gram-negative species Ralstonia was most prevalent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165993/hybrid-structured-illumination-expansion-microscopy-reveals-microbial-cytoskeleton-organization
#2
Aaron R Halpern, Germain C M Alas, Tyler J Chozinski, Alexander R Paredez, Joshua C Vaughan
Recently developed tissue-hydrogel methods for specimen expansion now enable researchers to perform super-resolution microscopy with ~65 nm lateral resolution using ordinary microscopes, standard fluores-cent probes, and inexpensive reagents. Here we use the combination of specimen expansion and the optical super-resolution microscopy technique structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to extend the spatial reso-lution to ~30 nm. We apply this hybrid method, which we call ExSIM, to study the cytoskeleton of the im-portant human pathogen Giardia lamblia including the adhesive disc and flagellar axonemes...
November 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165810/insecticide-susceptibility-status-in-mexican-populations-of-stegomyia-aegypti-%C3%A2-aedes-aegypti-a-nationwide-assessment
#3
P A Kuri-Morales, F Correa-Morales, C González-Acosta, M Moreno-Garcia, R Santos-Luna, S Román-Pérez, F Salazar-Penagos, M Lombera-González, G Sánchez-Tejeda, J F González-Roldán
In Mexico, mosquito vector-borne diseases are of public health concern as a result of their impact on human morbidity and mortality. The use of insecticides against adult mosquitoes is one of the most common ways of controlling mosquito population densities. However, the use of these compounds has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance. The aim of this study was to estimate susceptibility to six pyrethroids, two carbamates and two organophosphates in Mexican populations of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes...
November 22, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165783/after-action-review-of-the-2009-10-h1n1-influenza-outbreak-response-ohio-s-public-health-system-s-performance
#4
William A Mase, Beth Bickford, Casey L Thomas, Shamika D Jones, Michael Bisesi
OBJECTIVE: In early 2009, H1N1 influenza was identified within the human population. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officials responded with focused assessment, policy development, and assurances. The response was mobilized through efforts including procurement of adequate vaccine supply, local area span of control, materials acquisition, and facilities and resource identification. METHODS: Qualitative evaluation of the assurance functions specific to the system's ability to assure safe and healthy conditions are reported...
September 2017: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165716/targeting-bcr-abl-independent-tki-resistance-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-by-mtor-and-autophagy-inhibition
#5
Rebecca Mitchell, Lisa E M Hopcroft, Pablo Baquero, Elaine K Allan, Kay Hewit, Daniel James, Graham Hamilton, Arunima Mukhopadhyay, Jim O'Prey, Alan Hair, Junia V Melo, Edmond Chan, Kevin M Ryan, Véronique Maguer-Satta, Brian J Druker, Richard E Clark, Subir Mitra, Pawel Herzyk, Franck E Nicolini, Paolo Salomoni, G Vignir Helgason
Background: Imatinib and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) nilotinib and dasatinib have statistically significantly improved the life expectancy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients; however, resistance to TKIs remains a major clinical challenge. Although ponatinib, a third-generation TKI, improves outcomes for patients with BCR-ABL-dependent mechanisms of resistance, including the T315I mutation, a proportion of patients may have or develop BCR-ABL-independent resistance and fail ponatinib treatment...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165686/optimal-timing-for-blastomere-biopsy-of-8-cell-embryos-for-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis
#6
Y Kalma, L Bar-El, S Asaf-Tisser, M Malcov, A Reches, J Hasson, H Amir, F Azem, D Ben-Yosef
STUDY QUESTION: What is the optimal timing for blastomere biopsy during the 8-cell stage, at which embryos will have the best implantation potential? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fast-cleaving embryos that are biopsied during the last quarter (Q4) of the 8-cell stage and are less affected by the biopsy procedure, and their implantation potential is better than that of embryos biopsied earlier during the 8-cell stage (Q1-Q3). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Blastomer biopsy from cleavage-stage embryos is usually performed on the morning of Day 3 when the embryos are at the 6- to 8-cell stage and is still the preferred biopsy method for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogentic disorders or chromosomal translocations...
November 20, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165673/molecular-identification-of-trichophyton-benhamiae-in-strasbourg-france-a-9-year-retrospective-study
#7
Marcela Sabou, Julie Denis, Nathalie Boulanger, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Isabelle Glatz, Dan Lipsker, Philippe Poirier, Ermanno Candolfi, Valérie Letscher-Bru
Trichophyton benhamiae is a zoophilic dermatophyte transmitted to humans mostly from guinea pigs and occasionally other animals. It presents two distinct phenotypes: yellow and white. T. benhamiae was formerly known as Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae; it was considered part of the T. mentagrophytes species complex, and some authors have incorrectly described the yellow phenotype of T. benhamiae as T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae. Identification of T. benhamiae has been difficult, as it was described under more than three names, two phenotypes, and in several different possible host species...
November 17, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165615/human-herpesvirus-8-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-with-interstitial-lung-disease
#8
Marcelo Comerlato Scotta, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, Paula Renata Lima Machado, Simone Gusmão Ramos, Maria Célia Cervi, Benedito Antônio Lopes da Fonseca, Fabrizio Motta, Bento Vidal de Moura Negrini
Introduction: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi Sarcoma and interstitial pneumonitis in adults. This study aims to evaluate association between HHV-8 and interstitial lung disease in HIV-infected children. Methods: HIV-infected children with interstitial pneumonitis underwent lung biopsies in a tertiary hospital and were investigated for HHV-8, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry in lung tissue...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165614/long-term-health-in-recipients-of-transplanted-in-vitro-propagated-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#9
Callista L Mulder, Lisa A E Catsburg, Yi Zheng, Cindy M de Winter-Korver, Saskia K M van Daalen, Madelon van Wely, Steven Pals, Sjoerd Repping, Ans M M van Pelt
STUDY QUESTION: Is testicular transplantation of in vitro propagated spermatogonial stem cells associated with increased cancer incidence and decreased survival rates in recipient mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cancer incidence was not increased and long-term survival rate was not altered after transplantation of in vitro propagated murine spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in busulfan-treated recipients as compared to non-transplanted busulfan-treated controls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Spermatogonial stem cell autotransplantation (SSCT) is a promising experimental reproductive technique currently under development to restore fertility in male childhood cancer survivors...
November 18, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165562/the-diversity-of-recent-and-ancient-human-dream-a-new-microarray-for-genetic-anthropology-and-genealogy-forensics-and-personalized-medicine
#10
Eran Elhaik, Leeban Yusuf, Ainan I J Anderson, Mehdi Pirooznia, Dimitrios Arnellos, Gregory Vilshansky, Gunes Ercal, Yontao Lu, Teresa Webster, Michael L Baird, Umberto Esposito
The human population displays wide variety in demographic history, ancestry, content of DNA derived from hominins or ancient populations, adaptation, traits, copy number variation (CNVs), drug response, and more. These polymorphisms are of broad interest to population geneticists, forensics investigators, and medical professionals. Historically, much of that knowledge was gained from population survey projects. While many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, their design specifications are limited and they do not allow a full exploration of biodiversity...
November 20, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165545/successful-in-vitro-maturation-of-oocytes-a-matter-of-follicular-differentiation
#11
Alberto Maria Luciano, Marc-André Sirard
Folliculogenesis is remarkably similar in cattle and humans. In this review, we consider the known differences and provide a possible explanation for the greater success of oocyte in vitro maturation in cattle. Two different parallel processes that are critical for oocyte competence acquisition are examined. The first occurs in the follicle and in turn influences the oocyte, the second occurs within the oocyte itself and involves the gradual cessation of the transcription machinery with additional changes observable in the chromatin structure...
November 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165406/-the-significance-of-fibroblasts-in-experimental-modeling-of-proliferative-vitreoretinopathy
#12
I P Khoroshilova-Maslova, N L Leparskaya, E A Vorotelyak, A V Vasiliev
AIM: to investigate the role of heterogeneous fibroblasts in the development of epiretinal membrane in eyes with modeled proliferative vitreoretinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material for investigation were 6 eyes of 3 Chinchilla rabbits. Suspended fibroblasts (fibroblasts of the human skin - 200000 cells in 0.1 ml) were injected into the vitreous cavity via the pars plana. The animals were followed up for 1 month and then made out of the experiment. The eyes were enucleated and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for routine histological examination...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165357/new-metabolites-of-coumarin-detected-in-human-urine-using-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Letícia Paula Leonart, João Cleverson Gasparetto, Flávia Lada Degaut Pontes, Letícia Bonancio Cerqueira, Thais Martins Guimarães de Francisco, Roberto Pontarolo
Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) is a natural compound whose metabolism in humans was established in the 1970s. However, a new metabolite was recently identified in human plasma, indicating that the metabolism of coumarin has not been completely elucidated. To complement the knowledge of its metabolism, a rapid and sensitive method using UPLC-QTOF-MS was developed. A total of 12 metabolites was identified using MetaboLynxTM software, including eight metabolites not previously reported in human urine. The identified biotransformation included hydroxylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, methylation, and conjugation with N-acetylcysteine...
November 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165334/development-and-validation-of-an-on-line-water-toxicity-sensor-with-immobilized-luminescent-bacteria-for-on-line-surface-water-monitoring
#14
Marjolijn Woutersen, Bram van der Gaag, Afua Abrafi Boakye, Jan Mink, Robert S Marks, Arco J Wagenvoort, Henk A M Ketelaars, Bram Brouwer, Minne B Heringa
Surface water used for drinking water production is frequently monitored in The Netherlands using whole organism biomonitors, with for example Daphnia magna or Dreissena mussels, which respond to changes in the water quality. However, not all human-relevant toxic compounds can be detected by these biomonitors. Therefore, a new on-line biosensor has been developed, containing immobilized genetically modified bacteria, which respond to genotoxicity in the water by emitting luminescence. The performance of this sensor was tested under laboratory conditions, as well as under field conditions at a monitoring station along the river Meuse in The Netherlands...
November 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165315/an-expression-screen-for-aged-dependent-micrornas-identifies-mir-30a-as-a-key-regulator-of-aging-features-in-human-epidermis
#15
Charlotte Muther, Lara Jobeili, Maëlle Garion, Sandrine Heraud, Amélie Thepot, Odile Damour, Jérôme Lamartine
The mechanisms affecting epidermal homeostasis during aging remain poorly understood. To identify age-related microRNAs, a class of non-coding RNAs known to play a key role in the regulation of epidermal homeostasis, an exhaustive miRNA expression screen was performed in human keratinocytes from young or elderly subjects. Many microRNAs modulated by aging were identified, including miR-30a, in which both strands were overexpressed in aged cells and epidermal tissue. Stable MiR-30a over-expression strongly impaired epidermal differentiation, inducing severe barrier function defects in an organotypic culture model...
November 19, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165156/total-arsenic-and-speciation-analysis-of-saliva-and-urine-samples-from-individuals-living-in-a-chronic-arsenicosis-area-in-china
#16
Dapeng Wang, Yasuyo Shimoda, Sanxiang Wang, Zhenghui Wang, Jian Liu, Xing Liu, Huanyu Jin, Fenfang Gao, Jian Tong, Kenzo Yamanaka, Jie Zhang, Yan An
BACKGROUND: It is generally acknowledged that the determination of harmful chemical compounds excreted into saliva is useful for assessing their exposure levels. The aim of the present study was to compare the total arsenic and its species in saliva and urine samples collected from the people residing in an arsenic-contaminated area of China and to further verify the feasibility of using salivary arsenic as a new biomarker of arsenic exposure. METHODS: Total arsenic and speciation analyses in urine and saliva samples among 70 residents exposed to arsenic from drinking water in Shanxi, China were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP/MS)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165122/decreased-blood-pressure-associated-with-in-vehicle-exposure-to-carbon-monoxide-in-korean-volunteers
#17
Geon-Woo Lee, Mun-Joo Bae, Ji-Yeon Yang, Jung-Woo Son, Jae-Lim Cho, Sang-Gyu Lee, Bo-Mi Jang, Hyun-Woo Lee, Jong-Soon Lim, Dong-Chun Shin, Young-Wook Lim
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the primary components of emissions from light-duty vehicles, and reportedly comprises 77% of all pollutants emitted in terms of concentration. Exposure to CO aggravates cardiovascular disease and causes other health disorders. The study was aimed to assess the negative effects by injecting different amounts of CO concentration directly to human volunteers boarding in the car. METHODS: Human volunteers were exposed to CO concentrations of 0, 33...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164963/amorphous-silica-nanoparticles-induce-malignant-transformation-and-tumorigenesis-of-human-lung-epithelial-cells-via-p53-signaling
#18
Caixia Guo, Ji Wang, Man Yang, Yang Li, Shuxiang Cui, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
Rapid development and deployment of engineered nanomaterials, such as amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in various commercial and biomedical applications have raised concerns about their potential adverse health effects, especially their chronic effects which have not been well addressed. In this study, human lung epithelial cells, BEAS-2B were continuously exposed to amorphous SiNPs, 5 μg/mL for 40 passages. We demonstrated here that prolonged exposure of BEAS-2B cells to amorphous SiNPs induced malignant transformation as indicated by enhanced cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and increased cell migration...
November 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164713/importance-of-oil-overlay-for-production-of-porcine-embryos-in-vitro
#19
REVIEW
C A Martinez, E A Martinez, M A Gil
Technologies to edit the zygote genome have revolutionized biomedical research not only for the creation of animal models for the study of human disease but also for the generation of functional human cells and tissues through interspecies blastocyst complementation technology. The pig is the ideal species for these purposes due to its great similarity in anatomy and physiology to humans. Emerging biotechnologies require the use of oocytes and/or embryos of good quality, which might be obtained using in vitro production (IVP) techniques...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164623/pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-the-two-major-active-metabolites-of-metamizole-dipyrone-in-cats-following-three-different-routes-of-administration
#20
B Lebkowska-Wieruszewska, T W Kim, B Chea, H Owen, A Poapolathep, M Giorgi
This study was performed to determine pharmacokinetic profiles of the two active metabolites of the analgesic drug metamizole (dipyrone, MET), 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAA), and 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), after intravenous (i.v., intramuscular (i.m.), and oral (p.o.) administration in cats. Six healthy mixed-breed cats were administered MET (25 mg/kg) by i.v., i.m., or p.o. routes in a crossover design. Adverse clinical signs, namely salivation and vomiting, were detected in all groups (i.v. 67%, i.m. 34%, and p...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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