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Human performance

Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Noor Mohammad Danesh, Mohammad Ramezani, Ahmad Sarreshtehdar Emrani, Khalil Abnous
Zearalenone (ZEN) toxicity is a significant risk for human beings. Thus, it is of high importance to develop sensitive, precise and inexpensive analytical methods for ZEN detection, especially in human serum. Here, a colorimetric aptasensor is presented for determination of ZEN based on nontarget-induced aptamer walker, catalytic reaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), exonuclease III (Exo III) as signal amplifier and 4-nitrophenol as colorimetric agent. Low amount of ZEN requirement and signal amplification are some of the distinct advantages of the proposed aptasensor...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with a global overview of the role of PRM in healthcare systems in Europe. Several documents and reports by WHO and the UN call for the worldwide strengthening of rehabilitation as a key health strategy of the 21st century. Therefore, further implementation of PRM in healthcare systems is crucial. Many aspects need to be considered when implementing PRM in a health system. Since PRM should be provided along the whole continuum of care, a specific phase model has been developed...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the definitions and concepts relevant for PRM. Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine is the primary medical specialty responsible for the prevention, medical diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation management of persons of all ages with disabling health conditions and their co-morbidities, specifically addressing their impairments and activity limitations in order to facilitate their physical and cognitive functioning (including behavior), participation (including quality of life) and modifying personal and environmental factors...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
P He, J R Brent, H Ding, J Yang, D J Lewis, P O'Brien, B Derby
Fully printed humidity sensors based on two-dimensional (2D) materials are described. Monolayer graphene oxide (GO) and few-layered black phosphorus (BP) flakes were dispersed in low boiling point solvents suitable for inkjet printing. The humidity sensors were fabricated by printing GO and BP sensing layers on printed silver nanoparticle electrodes. The electrical response of the GO and BP sensors to humidity levels ranges from 11 to 97% relative humidity, which revealed a high capacitance sensitivity of 4...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Elpidio Santillo, Monica Migale, Carlo Massini, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
BACKGROUND: Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer drug causing increased contractility in the myocardium and vasodilation in the vascular system. It is mainly used for the therapy of acute decompensated heart failure. Several studies on animals and humans provided evidence of the cardioprotective properties of levosimendan including preconditioning and anti-apoptotic. In view of these favorable effects, levosimendan has been tested in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for the prevention or treatment of low cardiac output syndrome...
March 21, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Sally Olderbak, Oliver Wilhelm, Andrea Hildebrandt, Jordi Quoidbach
Perception of emotion in the face is a key component of human social cognition and is considered vital for many domains of life; however, little is known about how this ability differs across the lifespan for men and women. We addressed this question with a large community sample (N = 100,257) of persons ranging from younger than 15 to older than 60 years of age. Participants were viewers of the television show "Tout le Monde Joue", and the task was presented on television, with participants responding via their mobile devices...
March 22, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
José Luis Martínez-Rodríguez, Rosalinda Gutiérrez-Hernández, Claudia Araceli Reyes-Estrada, Angelica Judith Granados-López, Tatiana Arcos-Ortega, Jesús Adrián López
The metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons by the organism forms products that cause cell death depending on the type of exposure. Benzene exposure has been linked to oxidative stress, hepatic damage, aplastic anemia and hematopoietic cancer as lymphoid and myeloid leukemia. However, there are not fast methods to evaluate chronically benzene exposure in human blood. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the correlation between oxidative damage with benzene exposure and the level of Cellular Plasma Membrane Stability (CPMS) in erythrocytes to use it as a future indicator to determine the grade of benzene intoxications...
March 22, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Justin Rashtian, John Zhang
In older women with severe diminished ovarian response (DOR), in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is much less successful due to the low number of mature oocytes collected. The objective of this study was to assess whether follicular-phase stimulation (FPS) and luteal-phase stimulation (LPS) in the same menstrual cycle (double ovarian stimulation) in older women with severe DOR will produce a higher number of oocytes compared to FPS alone. Women with DOR (n = 69; mean age = 42.4) who underwent double ovarian stimulation for IVF were included...
March 22, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Brian Garvey
According to most Evolutionary Psychologists, human moral attitudes are rooted in cognitive modules that evolved in the Stone Age to solve problems of social interaction. A crucial component of their view is that such cognitive modules remain unchanged since the Stone Age, and I question that here. I appeal to evolutionary rollback, the phenomenon where an organ becomes non-functional and eventually atrophies or disappears-e.g. cave-dwelling fish losing their eyes. I argue that even if cognitive modules evolved in the Stone Age to solve problems of social interaction, conditions since then have favoured rollback of those modules...
March 21, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Arnaud Attyé, Michael Eliezer, Maud Medici, Irène Tropres, Georges Dumas, Alexandre Krainik, Sébastien Schmerber
OBJECTIVES: A case-controlled imaging study demonstrated that saccular hydrops was specific to Meniere's disease (MD), but only present in a subset of patients. Here, we compared patients with definite MD, vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) to elucidate the relationship between saccular hydrops and extent of SNHL. METHODS: In this prospective study, we performed 3D-FLAIR sequences between 4.5 and 5.5 h after contrast media injection in patients with MD (n=20), SNHL (n=20), vertigo (n=20) and 30 healthy subjects...
March 21, 2018: European Radiology
Mirko Gerle, Tuula Peñate Medina, Aydin Gülses, Hanwen Chu, Hendrik Naujokat, Jörg Wiltfang, Yahya Açil
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, has been increasingly associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment of HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma has a better response to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy and presents a better prognosis for the patient. Defining the underlying mechanism of the difference might help in developing future treatment options and could be an important factor in personal therapy planning. Endogenously secreted acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) levels in the cellular stress caused by irradiation and cisplatin were investigated...
March 21, 2018: Medical Oncology
Sijo Francis, Ebey P Koshy, Beena Mathew
Plant-extract mediated nanoparticles synthesis is a viable alternative to chemical reduction techniques. Here, we report the microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by the phytoreducer Stereospermum suaveolens for the first time. The formation of the nascent silver and gold nanoparticles is confirmed by their intense surface plasmon resonance peaks at 431 and 585 nm in UV-visible spectroscopy. The poly phenolic and alcoholic functional groups present in the aqueous root bark extract that performed the bioreduction processes have been detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
March 21, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Rafal Tokarz, Stephen Sameroff, Teresa Tagliafierro, Komal Jain, Simon H Williams, D Moses Cucura, Ilia Rochlin, Javier Monzon, Giovanna Carpi, Danielle Tufts, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Jory Brinkerhoff, W Ian Lipkin
Ticks carry a wide range of known human and animal pathogens and are postulated to carry others with the potential to cause disease. Here we report a discovery effort wherein unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to characterize the virome of 2,021 ticks, including Ixodes scapularis ( n = 1,138), Amblyomma americanum ( n = 720), and Dermacentor variabilis ( n = 163), collected in New York, Connecticut, and Virginia in 2015 and 2016. We identified 33 viruses, including 24 putative novel viral species...
March 2018: MSphere
Abigail L Lind, Fang Yun Lim, Alexandra A Soukup, Nancy P Keller, Antonis Rokas
Biosynthesis of many ecologically important secondary metabolites (SMs) in filamentous fungi is controlled by several global transcriptional regulators, like the chromatin modifier LaeA, and tied to both development and vegetative growth. In Aspergillus molds, asexual development is regulated by the BrlA > AbaA > WetA transcriptional cascade. To elucidate BrlA pathway involvement in SM regulation, we examined the transcriptional and metabolic profiles of Δ brlA , Δ abaA , and Δ wetA mutant and wild-type strains of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus ...
March 2018: MSphere
Alessandra Vecchione, Francesco Celandroni, Diletta Mazzantini, Sonia Senesi, Antonella Lupetti, Emilia Ghelardi
Recent guidelines indicate that oral probiotics, living microorganisms able to confer a health benefit on the host, should be safe for human consumption, when administered in a sufficient amount, and resist acid and bile to exert their beneficial effects (e.g., metabolic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, competitive). This study evaluated quantitative and qualitative aspects and the viability in simulated gastric and intestinal juices of commercial probiotic formulations available in Italy. Plate counting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used to enumerate and identify the contained organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
You-Jung Lee, Chung-Hoon Kim, Do-Young Kim, Jun-Woo Ahn, Sung-Hoon Kim, Hee-Dong Chae, Byung-Moon Kang
Objective: To compare human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-administered natural cycle with spontaneous ovulatory cycle in patients undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FTET) in natural cycles. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the clinical outcome of a total of 166 consecutive FTET cycles that were performed in either natural cycle controlled by HCG for ovulation triggering (HCG group, n=110) or natural cycle with spontaneous ovulation (control group, n=56) in 166 infertile patients between January 2009 and November 2013...
March 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Min-Jeong Kim, Jin Ju Kim, Sunmie Kim
Objectives: To identify the specific human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes from HPV-other type on an HPV DNA chip test by sequencing. Methods: Among 13,600 women undergoing a routine gynecology examination including Pap smear and/or HPV test by DNA chip test in the healthcare system at Gangnam Center from July 2012 to February 2013, we prospectively collected and performed sequencing for a total of 351 consecutive cervicovaginal samples consisting of 180 samples that tested positive for HPV-other type and 171 samples that tested positive for either high-risk HPV or low-risk HPV...
March 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Jeffrey S Kruk, Sandra Bermeo, Kristen K Skarratt, Stephen J Fuller, Gustavo Duque
Background: Use of antidepressant medications has been linked to detrimental impacts on bone mineral density and osteoporosis; however, the cellular basis behind these observations remains poorly understood. The effect does not appear to be homogeneous across the whole class of drugs and may be linked to affinity for the serotonin transporter system. In this study, we hypothesized that antidepressants have a class- and dose-dependent effect on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, which may affect bone metabolism...
February 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
Adele Repossi, Elisa Zironi, Teresa Gazzotti, Andrea Serraino, Giampiero Pagliuca
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a metal complex composed of a central cobalt ion bonded to six ligands. It is essential for major biological functions such as protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, the maintenance of the central nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. Since mammals cannot synthesize cobalamin, dietary intake represents the only natural source for humans. Dairy products can provide significant levels of cobalamin; moreover, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) panel has set the recommended intake at 4 μg/day for adults...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Sarath Chandra Veerla, Da Reum Kim, Sung Yun Yang
Background: Controlled drug delivery system is highly important for not only prolonged the efficacy of drug but also cellular development for tissue engineering. A number of biopolymer composites and nanostructured carriers behave been used for the controlled drug delivery of therapeutics. Recently, in vitro microfluidic devices that mimic the human body have been developed for drug-delivery applications. Methods: A microfluidic channel was fabricated via a two-step process: (i) polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and curing agent were poured with a 10:2 mass ratio onto an acrylic mold with two steel pipes, and (ii) calcium alginate beads were synthesized using sodium alginate and calcium chloride solutions...
2018: Biomaterials Research
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