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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899415/the-experiences-of-caregivers-of-children-living-with-hiv-and-aids-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#1
Joseph Osafo, Birthe Loa Knizek, James Mugisha, Eugene Kinyanda
BACKGROUND: Home-based care for HIV patients is popular in contexts severely affected by the epidemic and exacts a heavy toll on caregivers. This study aimed at understanding the experiences of caregivers and their survival strategies. METHODS: A total of 18 caregivers (3 males and 15 females) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Analysis suggests that the caregivers are burdened with insecure provisions for food and difficulties in accessing health care...
September 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895231/software-related-recalls-of-health-information-technology-and-other-medical-devices-implications-for-fda-regulation-of-digital-health
#2
Jay G Ronquillo, Diana M Zuckerman
Policy Points: Medical software has become an increasingly critical component of health care, yet the regulation of these devices is inconsistent and controversial. No studies of medical devices and software assess the impact on patient safety of the FDA's current regulatory safeguards and new legislative changes to those standards. Our analysis quantifies the impact of software problems in regulated medical devices and indicates that current regulations are necessary but not sufficient for ensuring patient safety by identifying and eliminating dangerous defects in software currently on the market...
September 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895220/consumers-response-to-an-on-shelf-nutrition-labelling-system-in-supermarkets-evidence-to-inform-policy-and-practice
#3
Erin Hobin, Bryan Bollinger, Jocelyn Sacco, Eli Liebman, Lana Vanderlee, Fei Zuo, Laura Rosella, Mary L'abbe, Heather Manson, David Hammond
Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids...
September 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893755/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-an-online-menu-planning-intervention-to-improve-childcare-service-adherence-to-dietary-guidelines-a-study-protocol
#4
Sze Lin Yoong, Alice Grady, John Wiggers, Victoria Flood, Chris Rissel, Meghan Finch, Andrew Searles, David Salajan, Ruby O'Rourke, Jaqueline Daly, Karen Gilham, Fiona Stacey, Alison Fielding, Nicole Pond, Rebecca Wyse, Kirsty Seward, Luke Wolfenden
INTRODUCTION: The implementation of dietary guidelines in childcare settings is recommended to improve child public health nutrition. However, foods provided in childcare services are not consistent with guidelines. The primary aim of the trial is to assess the effectiveness of a web-based menu planning intervention in increasing the mean number of food groups on childcare service menus that comply with dietary guidelines regarding food provision to children in care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A parallel group randomised controlled trial will be undertaken with 54 childcare services that provide food to children within New South Wales, Australia...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888434/ensuring-food-safety-in-food-donations-case-study-of-the-belgian-donation-acceptation-chain
#5
E De Boeck, L Jacxsens, H Goubert, M Uyttendaele
The food donation process in Belgium is mapped and analyzed to identify bottlenecks in compliance with the legal framework and implementation of food safety management, based on literature search and interviews with stakeholders (donors, acceptors, regulators and facilitators) in Belgium and at EU level. The study revealed that the food donation/acceptation chain is far less structured and organized than the conventional food supply chain. The fragmented landscape of many small food banks and charity organizations (acceptors), often directed by and working with volunteers without training in food safety and lack of knowledge of legal food hygiene requirements is a bottleneck to generate trust among food donors and restricts the provision of perishable products in food donations...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886049/can-public-health-reconcile-profits-and-pandemics-an-analysis-of-attitudes-to-commercial-sector-engagement-in-health-policy-and-research
#6
Jeff Collin, Sarah E Hill, Mor Kandlik Eltanani, Evgeniya Plotnikova, Rob Ralston, Katherine E Smith
BACKGROUND: Public health's terms of engagement with unhealthy commodity industries (alcohol, tobacco and ultra-processed food and drinks) have become increasingly contested in policy and research. We sought to identify approaches that could attract consensus support within and across policy domains. METHODS: Using snowball sampling, we undertook an online survey of 335 health researchers, advocates and policymakers, in 40 countries, assessing responses to stated principles, claims and recommendations for engaging with unhealthy commodity industries in relation to key policy and research initiatives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875567/influence-of-neighboring-plants-on-the-dynamics-of-an-ant-acacia-protection-mutualism
#7
Todd M Palmer, Corinna Riginos, Rachel E Damiani, Natalya Morgan, John S Lemboi, James Lengingiro, Juan Carlos Ruiz-Guajardo, Robert M Pringle
Ant-plant protection symbioses, in which plants provide food and/or shelter for ants in exchange for protection from herbivory, are model systems for understanding the ecology of mutualism. While interactions between ants, host plants, and herbivores have been intensively studied, we know little about how plant-plant interactions influence the dynamics of these mutualisms-despite strong evidence that plants compete for resources, that hosting ants can be costly, and that host-plant provisioning to ants can therefore be constrained by resource availability...
September 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854599/mitochondrial-genome-assemblies-of-elysia-timida-and-elysia-cornigera-and-the-response-of-mitochondrion-associated-metabolism-during-starvation
#8
Cessa Rauch, Gregor Christa, Jan de Vries, Christian Woehle, Sven B Gould
Some sacoglossan sea slugs sequester functional plastids (kleptoplasts) from their food, which continue to fix CO2 in a light dependent manner inside the animals. In plants and algae, plastid and mitochondrial metabolism are linked in ways that reach beyond the provision of energy-rich carbon compounds through photosynthesis, but how slug mitochondria respond to starvation or alterations in plastid biochemistry has not been explored. We assembled the mitochondrial genomes of the plastid-sequestering sea slugs Elysia timida and Elysia cornigera from RNA-Seq data that was complemented with standard sequencing of mitochondrial DNA through primer walking...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844891/implementing-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-benchmarks-for-nutrition-education-for-children-child-care-providers-perspectives
#9
Dipti A Dev, Virginia Carraway-Stage, Daniel J Schober, Brent A McBride, Car Mun Kok, Samantha Ramsay
BACKGROUND: National childhood obesity prevention policies recommend that child-care providers educate young children about nutrition to improve their nutrition knowledge and eating habits. Yet, the provision of nutrition education (NE) to children in child-care settings is limited. OBJECTIVE: Using the 2011 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks for NE in child care as a guiding framework, researchers assessed child-care providers' perspectives regarding delivery of NE through books, posters, mealtime conversations, hands-on learning, and sensory exploration of foods to young children (aged 2 to 5 years)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837945/creating-plant-molecular-factories-for-industrial-and-nutritional-isoprenoid-production
#10
REVIEW
Marilise Nogueira, Eugenia Ma Enfissi, Juliana Almeida, Paul D Fraser
Chemical refining is a highly efficient process that has driven industrialisation and globalisation. However, dwindling fuel reserves and climatic fluctuation are now imposing key societal and economic challenges to health and welfare provision, agriculture, manufacturing outputs and energy. Plants are potentially exploitable 'green' chemical factories, with vast chemical diversity that can be used for the discovery and production of food, feed, medicines and biomaterials. Despite notable advances, plant based production under real-life scenarios remains, in most cases, economically uncompetitive when compared to inherently non-sustainable petrochemical based processes...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836373/evaluation-of-a-smartphone-nutrition-and-physical-activity-application-to-provide-lifestyle-advice-to-pregnant-women-the-snapp-randomised-trial
#11
Jodie M Dodd, Jennie Louise, Courtney Cramp, Rosalie M Grivell, Lisa J Moran, Andrea R Deussen
Our objective was to evaluate the impact of a smartphone application as an adjunct to face-to-face consultations in facilitating dietary and physical activity change among pregnant women. This multicentre, nested randomised trial involved pregnant women with a body mass index ≥18.5 kg/m(2) , with a singleton pregnancy between 10 and 20 weeks' gestation, and participating in 2 pregnancy nutrition-based randomised trials across metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. All women participating in the SNAPP trial received a comprehensive dietary, physical activity, and behavioural intervention, as part of the GRoW or OPTIMISE randomised trials...
August 24, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831923/the-food-and-drug-addiction-epidemic-targeting-dopamine-homeostasis
#12
Kenneth Blum, Panayotis K Thanos, Gene-Jack Wang, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Edward Justin Modestino, Eric R Braverman, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
Obesity is damaging the lives of more than 300 million people worldwide and maintaining a healthy weight using popular weight loss tactics remains a very difficult undertaking. Managing the obesity problem seems within reach, as better understanding develops, of the function of our genome in drug/nutrient responses. Strategies indicated by this understanding of nutriepigenomics and neurogenetics in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome and obesity include moderation of mRNA expression by DNA methylation, and inhibition of histone deacetylation...
August 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822850/an-assessment-of-food-safety-information-provision-for-uk-chemotherapy-patients-to-reduce-the-risk-of-foodborne-infection
#13
E W Evans, E C Redmond
OBJECTIVES: Given the increased risk of foodborne infection to cancer patients receiving chemotherapy treatment, and the risk of listeriosis reportedly five-times greater to this immunocompromised patient group, there is a need to ensure the implementation of domestic food safety practices among chemotherapy patients and their family caregivers. However, information regarding the adequacy of resources to inform and enable patients to implement domestic food safety practices to reduce the risk of foodborne infection is limited...
August 17, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818660/environmental-effects-are-stronger-than-human-effects-on-mammalian-predator-prey-relationships-in-arid-australian-ecosystems
#14
Benjamin L Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M Engeman, Allan Lisle, Luke K-P Leung
Climate (drought, rainfall), geology (habitat availability), land use change (provision of artificial waterpoints, introduction of livestock), invasive species (competition, predation), and direct human intervention (lethal control of top-predators) have each been identified as processes driving the sustainability of threatened fauna populations. We used a systematic combination of empirical observational studies and experimental manipulations to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these process on a model endangered rodent, dusky hopping-mice (Notomys fuscus)...
August 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818397/life-cycle-inventory-and-mass-balance-of-municipal-food-waste-management-systems-decision-support-methods-beyond-the-waste-hierarchy
#15
Joel Edwards, Maazuza Othman, Enda Crossin, Stewart Burn
When assessing the environmental and human health impact of a municipal food waste (FW) management system waste managers typically rely on the principles of the waste hierarchy; using metrics such as the mass or rate of waste that is 'prepared for recycling,' 'recovered for energy,' or 'sent to landfill.' These metrics measure the collection and sorting efficiency of a waste system but are incapable of determining the efficiency of a system to turn waste into a valuable resource. In this study a life cycle approach was employed using a system boundary that includes the entire waste service provision from collection to safe end-use or disposal...
August 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813473/the-availability-of-pharmacies-in-the-united-states-2007-2015
#16
Dima Mazen Qato, Shannon Zenk, Jocelyn Wilder, Rachel Harrington, Darrell Gaskin, G Caleb Alexander
IMPORTANCE: Despite their increasingly important role in health care delivery, little is known about the availability, and characteristics, of community pharmacies in the United States. OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine trends in the availability of community pharmacies and pharmacy characteristics (24-hour, drive-up, home delivery, e-prescribing, and multilingual staffing) associated with access to prescription medications in the U.S. between 2007 and 2015; and (2) to determine whether and how these patterns varied by pharmacy type (retail chains, independents, mass retailers, food stores, government and clinic-based) and across counties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812123/-promoting-a%C3%A2-balanced-diet-and-physical-activity-among-children-conditions-for-the-successful-implementation-and-maintenance-of-multi-level-interventions-and-policies-results-of-two-qualitative-case-studies
#17
Berit Steenbock, Saskia Muellmann, Hajo Zeeb, Claudia R Pischke
BACKGROUND: To date, conditions for successfully implementing and maintaining multi-level interventions and policies for the promotion of a balanced diet and physical activity are not well understood from the perspective of stakeholders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to examine which factors are regarded as facilitating or impeding introduction, implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies from the standpoint of stakeholders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of one multi-level intervention (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS [IDEFICS] for the prevention of childhood obesity, n = 4) and one policy (Federal state offices coordinating networks for the provision of healthy food options in schools, n = 3) were analysed using qualitative content analysis...
August 15, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811750/availability-of-a-sports-dietitian-may-lead-to-improved-performance-and-recovery-of-ncaa-division-i-baseball-athletes
#18
Michael V Hull, Jonathan Neddo, Andrew R Jagim, Jonathan M Oliver, Mike Greenwood, Margaret T Jones
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to survey dietary habits (DH) and nutrient timing (NT) practices of baseball student-athletes (mean ± SD; 20.7 ± 1.4 yr.) from three NCAA Division I institutions, and examine the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) in regard to nutrition practices. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and Pearson X(2) analyses were run. Responses on 10 DH and 5 NT items differed (p ≤ 0.10) between athletes who sought dietary planning from a SD (n = 36) versus those who consulted a strength and conditioning coach (SCC, n = 42)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794520/iran-s-land-suitability-for-agriculture
#19
Mohsen B Mesgaran, Kaveh Madani, Hossein Hashemi, Pooya Azadi
Increasing population has posed insurmountable challenges to agriculture in the provision of future food security, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region where biophysical conditions are not well-suited for agriculture. Iran, as a major agricultural country in the MENA region, has long been in the quest for food self-sufficiency, however, the capability of its land and water resources to realize this goal is largely unknown. Using very high-resolution spatial data sets, we evaluated the capacity of Iran's land for sustainable crop production based on the soil properties, topography, and climate conditions...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783757/improving-food-environments-and-tackling-obesity-a-realist-systematic-review-of-the-policy-success-of-regulatory-interventions-targeting-population-nutrition
#20
Jana Sisnowski, Jackie M Street, Tracy Merlin
BACKGROUND: This systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42015025276) employs a realist approach to investigate the effect of "real-world" policies targeting different aspects of the food environment that shape individual and collective nutrition. OBJECTIVES: We were interested in assessing intermediate outcomes along the assumed causal pathway to "policy success", in addition to the final outcome of changed consumption patterns. DATA SOURCES: We performed a search of 16 databases through October 2015, with no initial restriction by language...
2017: PloS One
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