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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098050/dairy-food-supplementation-may-reduce-malnutrition-risk-in-institutionalised-elderly
#2
Sandra Iuliano, Shirley Poon, Xiaofang Wang, Minh Bui, Ego Seeman
Malnutrition in institutionalised elderly increases morbidity and care costs. Meat and dairy foods are high-quality protein sources so adequate intakes may reduce malnutrition risk. We aimed to determine whether inadequate intakes of meat and dairy foods contribute to malnutrition in institutionalised elderly. This cross-sectional study involved 215 elderly residents (70·2 % females, mean age 85·8 years) from twenty-one aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Dietary intake was assessed using observed plate waste...
January 18, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096383/fragility-of-the-provision-of-local-public-goods-to-private-and-collective-risks
#3
Juan-Camilo Cárdenas, Marco A Janssen, Manita Ale, Ram Bastakoti, Adriana Bernal, Juthathip Chalermphol, Yazhen Gong, Hoon Shin, Ganesh Shivakoti, Yibo Wang, John M Anderies
Smallholder agricultural systems, strongly dependent on water resources and investments in shared infrastructure, make a significant contribution to food security in developing countries. These communities are being increasingly integrated into the global economy and are exposed to new global climate-related risks that may affect their willingness to cooperate in community-level collective action problems. We performed field experiments on public goods with private and collective risks in 118 small-scale rice-producing communities in four countries...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095929/the-provision-of-healthy-food-in-a-school-tuck-shop-does-it-influence-primary-school-students-perceptions-attitudes-and-behaviours-towards-healthy-eating
#4
Francette Bekker, Maritha Marais, Nelene Koen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate students' tuck shop buying behaviour, choices of lunchbox items and healthy eating perceptions and attitudes at a school with a nutritionally regulated tuck shop and a school with a conventional tuck shop. DESIGN: Mixed-methods research comprising a cross-sectional survey and focus groups. SETTING: Bloemfontein, South Africa. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected grade 2 to 7 students from a school with a nutritionally regulated tuck shop (school A; n 116) and a school with a conventional tuck shop (school B; n 141) completed a self-administered questionnaire about perceptions, attitudes, buying behaviours and lunchbox content...
January 18, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089082/backcasting-to-identify-food-waste-prevention-and-mitigation-opportunities-for-infant-feeding-in-maternity-services
#5
Yvonne Ryan-Fogarty, Genevieve Becker, Richard Moles, Bernadette O'Regan
Food waste in hospitals is of major concern for two reasons: one, healthcare needs to move toward preventative and demand led models for sustainability and two, food system sustainability needs to seek preventative measures such as diet adaptation and waste prevention. The impact of breast-milk substitute use on health services are well established in literature in terms of healthcare implications, cost and resourcing, however as a food demand and waste management issue little has been published to date. This paper presents the use of a desk based backcasting method to analyse food waste prevention, mitigation and management options within the Irish Maternity Service...
January 6, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081517/a-path-analysis-model-of-factors-influencing-children-s-requests-for-unhealthy-foods
#6
Simone Pettigrew, Michelle Jongenelis, Caroline Miller, Kathy Chapman
Little is known about the complex combination of factors influencing the extent to which children request unhealthy foods from their parents. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive model of influencing factors to provide insight into potential methods of reducing these requests. A web panel provider was used to administer a national online survey to a sample of 1302 Australian parent-child dyads (total sample n=2604). Initial univariate analyses identified potential predictors of children's requests for and consumption of unhealthy foods...
December 27, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077151/multi-strategic-intervention-to-enhance-implementation-of-healthy-canteen-policy-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Luke Wolfenden, Nicole Nathan, Lisa M Janssen, John Wiggers, Kathryn Reilly, Tessa Delaney, Christopher M Williams, Colin Bell, Rebecca Wyse, Rachel Sutherland, Libby Campbell, Christophe Lecathelinais, Chris Oldmeadow, Megan Freund, Sze Lin Yoong
BACKGROUND: Internationally, governments have implemented school-based nutrition policies to restrict the availability of unhealthy foods from sale. The aim of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention to increase implementation of a state-wide healthy canteen policy. The impact of the intervention on the energy, total fat, and sodium of children's canteen purchases and on schools' canteen revenue was also assessed. METHODS: Australian primary schools with a canteen were randomised to receive a 12-14-month, multi-strategic intervention or to a no intervention control group...
January 11, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077115/local-mandate-improves-equity-of-paid-sick-leave-coverage-seattle-s-experience
#8
Jennifer L Romich
BACKGROUND: Paid sick leave allows workers to take time off work for personal or family health needs, improving health and potentially limiting infectious diseases. The U.S. has no national sick leave mandate, and many American workers - particularly those at lower income levels - have no right to paid time off for their own or family members' health needs. This article reports on outcomes of a local mandate, the City of Seattle Paid Sick and Safe Time Ordinance, which requires certain employers to provide paid sick leave to eligible workers...
January 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070624/-food-supplements-legal-requirements-borderline-issues-and-other-aspects
#9
Pia Noble
Food supplements are classified as foods. They are concentrated sources of vitamins and minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. Their purpose is to supplement the normal diet. Food supplements have to comply with the applicable legal provisions of the food law. In order to ensure the health protection of consumers, food supplements that will be put on the market must be safe. For food supplements, regulations exist at the EU level as well as at the national level. Specific requirements are regulated in the Ordinance on Food Supplements, with which the European Directive on Food Supplements was transposed into German law...
January 9, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065195/programming-maternal-and-child-overweight-and-obesity-in-the-context-of-undernutrition-current-evidence-and-key-considerations-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#10
Lindsay M Jaacks, Justine Kavle, Abigail Perry, Albertha Nyaku
The goals of the present targeted review on maternal and child overweight and obesity were to: (i) understand the current situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with regard to recent trends and context-specific risk factors; and (ii) building off this, identify entry points for leveraging existing undernutrition programmes to address overweight and obesity in LMIC. Trends reveal that overweight and obesity are a growing problem among women and children in LMIC; as in Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, where the prevalence among urban women is approaching 50 %...
January 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063850/patient-education-about-the-affordable-care-act-contraceptive-coverage-requirement-increases-interest-in-using-long-acting-reversible-contraception
#11
Julia C Durante, Elisabeth J Woodhams
BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires health insurance to cover all Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptives at no cost to patients, including highly effective long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Our objective was to determine whether a brief educational intervention about these provisions would increase interest in LARC use. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey of women seeking contraceptive care in an urban outpatient obstetrics/gynecology clinic...
January 4, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062061/a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-and-prospective-cohort-studies-of-eicosapentaenoic-and-docosahexaenoic-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-coronary-heart-disease-risk
#12
Dominik D Alexander, Paige E Miller, Mary E Van Elswyk, Connye N Kuratko, Lauren C Bylsma
OBJECTIVE: To conduct meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to estimate the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) on coronary heart disease (CHD), and to conduct meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies to estimate the association between EPA+DHA intake and CHD risk. METHODS: A systematic literature search of Ovid/Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from January 1, 1947, to November 2, 2015, was conducted; 18 RCTs and 16 prospective cohort studies examining EPA+DHA from foods or supplements and CHD, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, coronary death, and angina, were identified...
January 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051336/social-big-data-analysis-of-information-spread-and-perceived-infection-risk-during-the-2015-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-outbreak-in-south-korea
#13
Juyoung Song, Tae Min Song, Dong-Chul Seo, Dal-Lae Jin, Jung Sun Kim
We investigated online diffusion of information, spread of fear, and perceived risk of infection to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) as cases of MERS spread rapidly and dozens of fatalities occurred in South Korea in May-June of 2015. This study retrieved 8,671,695 MERS-related online documents from May 20 to June 18, 2015, from 171 Korean online channels and analyzed such documents by using multilevel models and data mining with Apriori algorithm association analysis. We used R software (version 3.2...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034737/strategies-used-by-overweight-and-obese-low-income-mothers-to-feed-their-families-in-urban-brazil
#14
Priscila de Morais Sato, Ramiro Fernandes Unsain, Joel Gittelsohn, João Gabriel Sanches Tavares da Silva, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Perez, Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare strategies adopted by overweight and obese low-income mothers living in different vulnerable contexts to deal with food constraints and feed their families. DESIGN: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed with exploratory content analysis and the number of segments per theme was used to compare neighborhoods. SETTING: Three low-income neighborhoods in Santos, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of 21 overweight or obese mothers...
December 26, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031809/interpopulation-resource-partitioning-of-lesser-frigatebirds-and-the-influence-of-environmental-context
#15
Rowan Mott, Ashley Herrod, Rohan H Clarke
Conspecific individuals inhabiting nearby breeding colonies are expected to compete strongly for food resources owing to the constraints imposed by shared morphology, physiology, and behavior on foraging strategy. Consequently, colony-specific foraging patterns that effectively partition the available resources may be displayed. This study aimed to determine whether intraspecific resource partitioning occurs in two nearby colonies of Lesser Frigatebirds (Fregata ariel). A combination of stable isotope analysis and GPS tracking was used to assess dietary and spatial partitioning of foraging resources during the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027630/complementary-food-supplementation-with-a-small-quantity-of-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-prevents-stunting-in-6-12-month-old-infants-in-rural-west-madura-island-indonesia
#16
Nurul Muslihah, Ali Khomsan, Dodik Briawan, Hadi Riyadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stunting during childhood is a common public health problem in Indonesia. Complementary food supplementation with a small quantity of lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) can promote growth and prevent undernutrition. This study investigated the effects of the daily provision of SQ-LNSs and biscuits on linear growth and reduction in the incidence of stunting among infants in rural Indonesia. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A 6-month, non-randomised, controlled trial was conducted on 168 infants who received 20 g of SQ-LNSs, 3 pieces of biscuits, or no intervention...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026894/by-their-own-devices-invasive-argentine-ants-have-shifted-diet-without-clear-aid-from-symbiotic-microbes
#17
Yi Hu, David A Holway, Piotr Łukasik, Linh Chau, Adam D Kay, Edward G LeBrun, Katie A Miller, Jon G Sanders, Andrew V Suarez, Jacob A Russell
The functions and compositions of symbiotic bacterial communities often correlate with host ecology. Yet cause-and-effect relationships, and the order of symbiont versus host change, remain unclear in the face of ancient symbioses and conserved host ecology. Several groups of ants exemplify this challenge, as their low-nitrogen diets and specialized symbioses appear conserved and ancient. To address whether nitrogen-provisioning symbionts might be important in the early stages of ant trophic shifts we studied bacteria from the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile-an invasive species that has transitioned toward greater consumption of sugar-rich, nitrogen-poor foods in parts of its introduced range...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019052/increased-pollinator-habitat-enhances-cacao-fruit-set-and-predator-conservation
#18
Samantha J Forbes, Tobin D Northfield
The unique benefits of wild pollinators to the productivity of agricultural crops have become increasingly recognized in recent decades. However, declines in populations of wild pollinator species, largely driven by the conversion of natural habitat to agricultural land and broad spectrum pesticide use often lead reductions in the provision of pollination services and crop production. With growing evidence that targeted pollinator conservation improves crop yield and/or quality, particularly for pollination specialist crops, efforts are increasing to substitute agriculturally intensive practices with those that alleviate some of the negative impacts of agriculture on pollinators and the pollination services they provide, in part through the provision of suitable pollinator habitat...
December 26, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004607/comparison-of-food-colour-regulations-in-the-eu-and-the-us-a-review-of-current-provisions
#19
Sari Lehto, Maria Buchweitz, Alexandra Klimm, Raphaela Straßburger, Cato Bechtold, Franz Ulberth
This review describes the European Union and the US regulations applicable to food colours. Despite the different regulatory frameworks, the overall approach is similar, based on well-established risk-assessment procedures and risk-management measures. However, differences impacting free movement of goods can be found in the details and implementation of regulations. Using additives approved only in the US or in the EU implies that producers aiming to export need to adjust their product composition to the export market...
January 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992679/incomplete-and-incorrect-epinephrine-auto-injector-training-to-food-allergic-patients-by-pharmacists-in-the-netherlands
#20
J Saleh-Langenberg, S de Vries, E Bak, B J Kollen, B M J Flokstra-de Blok, A E J Dubois
BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of anaphylaxis in the community relies on early and correct use of epinephrine auto-injectors (EAI). In the Netherlands pharmacists supply EAIs to patients and have a crucial role in instructing patients in how and when to use EAI. However, there are currently no data in Europe on the quality of such instruction provided by pharmacists. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food allergy among pharmacists in the Netherlands, and to investigate the quality of EAI instructions and demonstrations to patients by pharmacists...
December 19, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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