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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208582/nutrients-in-energy-and-one-carbon-metabolism-learning-from-metformin-users
#1
REVIEW
Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemi Cabre, Jordi Camps, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Metabolic vulnerability is associated with age-related diseases and concomitant co-morbidities, which include obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Most of the health problems we face today come from excessive intake of nutrients and drugs mimicking dietary effects and dietary restriction are the most successful manipulations targeting age-related pathways. Phenotypic heterogeneity and individual response to metabolic stressors are closely related food intake. Understanding the complexity of the relationship between dietary provision and metabolic consequences in the long term might provide clinical strategies to improve healthspan...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206675/a-multi-zoo-investigation-of-nutrient-provision-for-captive-red-crested-turacos
#2
Alexander J Hulbert, Kerry A Hunt, Paul E Rose
Turacos (Musophagidae) are common zoo birds; the 14 species of Tauraco being most often exhibited. Turacos possess unique non-structural, copper-based feather pigments, and a specialized dietary strategy. Tauraco inhabit tropical woodlands, foraging for predominantly folivorous and/or frugivorous food items. Using a study population of 16 red-crested turacos (T. erythrolophus) at seven zoos in the United Kingdom, the nutrient composition of diets from diet sheets was calculated, using Zootrition v.2.6, Saint Louis Zoo, USA for analyses of important nutrients within each diet, and compared against an example of currently available literature...
February 16, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196475/nutrition-and-dementia-care-developing-an-evidence-based-model-for-nutritional-care-in-nursing-homes
#3
Jane L Murphy, Joanne Holmes, Cindy Brooks
BACKGROUND: There is a growing volume of research to offer improvements in nutritional care for people with dementia living in nursing homes. Whilst a number of interventions have been identified to support food and drink intake, there has been no systematic research to understand the factors for improving nutritional care from the perspectives of all those delivering care in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to develop a research informed model for understanding the complex nutritional problems associated with eating and drinking for people with dementia...
February 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186839/meeting-basic-needs-social-supports-and-services-provided-by-hospice
#4
Nathan A Boucher, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Kimberly S Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Describe social goods and services for which hospices assist patients and families and the resources hospices use to do so. BACKGROUND: Basic social supports and services not routinely covered by insurers may be needed by terminally ill patients and their families. Little is known about hospices' provision of such social supports and services. METHODS: A 2014-2015 cross-sectional survey of hospices nationwide. Participating hospices had been in operation for at least 3 years and were located in any of the 50 states or District of Columbia...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176548/nutritional-adequacy-of-meals-from-an-independent-catering-facility-versus-chain-restaurants-for-young-adults
#5
Charoula Konstantia Nikolaou, Catherine Ruth Hankey, Michael Ernest John Lean
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Eating out of home has been associated with the increasing prevalence of obesity. While some chain restaurants provide nutritional information for their products, smaller independent catering facilities may not provide such information. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy of meals provided to young adults at an independent catering facility and compare them with meals provided by chain restaurants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Meals were analysed in 2014 in the UK in relation of nutrient provision to targets for macro- and micro-nutrients...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163353/can-we-be-certain-about-future-land-use-change-in-europe-a-multi-scenario-integrated-assessment-analysis
#6
I P Holman, C Brown, V Janes, D Sandars
The global land system is facing unprecedented pressures from growing human populations and climatic change. Understanding the effects these pressures may have is necessary to designing land management strategies that ensure food security, ecosystem service provision and successful climate mitigation and adaptation. However, the number of complex, interacting effects involved makes any complete understanding very difficult to achieve. Nevertheless, the recent development of integrated modelling frameworks allows for the exploration of the co-development of human and natural systems under scenarios of global change, potentially illuminating the main drivers and processes in future land system change...
February 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163319/diet-diversity-growth-and-adiposity-in-healthy-breastfed-infants-fed-homemade-complementary-foods
#7
E Mok, C A Vanstone, S Gallo, P Li, E Constantin, H A Weiler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infant complementary feeding is important for establishing food preferences. Few studies exist on the effects of infant complementary feeding choices (food preparation methods) on dietary intake, growth or adiposity. We examined whether provision of homemade complementary food is associated with the development of dietary diversity, nutrient intakes and quality of infant growth. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Secondary analysis of feeding practices from a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation in 132 healthy breastfed 1-month old infants from Montréal, Canada...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158953/immigrant-women-s-food-choices-in-pregnancy-perspectives-from-women-of-chinese-origin-in-canada
#8
Gina Marie Awoko Higginbottom, Helen Valianatos, Janki Shankar, Jalal Safipour, Christina Davey
OBJECTIVE: Following migration, pregnant immigrant women may encounter social, cultural, and economic challenges that negatively affect their food choices and subsequent health outcomes. Culturally appropriate health care is crucial during the perinatal period to ensure the health of immigrant mothers and their children. This project aims to explore and understand how the health beliefs and practices of Chinese immigrant women affect their food choices during the perinatal period. DESIGN: This qualitative study used the methodology of focused ethnography...
February 3, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155816/crisis-affected-populations-and-tuberculosis
#9
Dominik Zenner
By definition, humanitarian crises can severely affect human health, directly through violence or indirectly through breakdown of infrastructure or lack of provision for basic human needs, such as safe shelter, food, clean water, and suitable clothing. After the initial phase, these indirect effects are the most important determinants of morbidity and mortality in humanitarian emergencies, and infectious diseases are among the most significant causes of ill health. Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in humanitarian emergencies varies depending on a number of factors, including the country background epidemiology, but will be elevated compared with precrisis levels...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149681/an-examination-of-factors-potentially-influencing-birth-distributions-in-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana
#10
Zuofu Xiang, Wanji Yang, Xiaoguang Qi, Hui Yao, Cyril C Grueter, Paul A Garber, Baoguo Li, Ming Li
Many species of primates are considered seasonal breeders, but the set of factors, such as food availability, day length and temperature, that influence the timing of reproductive events for both wild and captive individuals remains unclear. Here, we examine the role of factors in shaping breeding patterns in Rhinopithecus roxellana, a temperate colobine primate. We used circular statistics to describe and compare the patterns of reproductive seasonality among individuals in 13 captive groups and two free ranging but provisioned groups at various locations throughout China...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135192/evacuation-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-was-associated-with-poor-dietary-intake-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#11
Wen Zhang, Tetsuya Ohira, Masafumi Abe, Kenji Kamiya, Shunichi Yamashita, Seiji Yasumura, Akira Ohtsuru, Maeda Masaharu, Mayumi Harigane, Naoko Horikoshi, Yuriko Suzuki, Hirooki Yabe, Michiko Yuuki, Masato Nagai, Hideto Takahashi, Hironori Nakano
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the relationship between living arrangements and dietary intake among evacuees after disasters. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between living arrangements and dietary intake using the data of a large-scale cohort survey of evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. METHODS: 73,433 residents in evacuation zones responded to the Fukushima Health Management Survey questionnaire. Subjects were excluded if they did not report their living conditions or were missing more than three pieces of information about dietary intake...
January 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126033/cultural-significance-of-termites-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
Arnold van Huis
BACKGROUND: The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. Termites constitute 10% of all animal biomass in the tropics. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termites are utilized, perceived and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116057/contrasting-behavior-between-two-populations-of-an-ice-obligate-predator-in-east-antarctica
#13
Karine Heerah, Mark Hindell, Virginia Andrew-Goff, Iain Field, Clive R McMahon, Jean-Benoît Charrassin
The Austral autumn-winter is a critical period for capital breeders such as Weddell seals that must optimize resource acquisition and storage to provision breeding in the subsequent spring. However, how Weddell seals find food in the winter months remains poorly documented. We equipped adult Weddell seals after their annual molt with satellite-relayed data loggers at two sites in East Antarctica: Dumont D'Urville (n = 12, DDU) and Davis (n = 20). We used binomial generalized mixed-effect models to investigate Weddell seals' behavioral response (i...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112717/fundamental-species-traits-explain-provisioning-services-of-tropical-american-palms
#14
Rodrigo Cámara-Leret, Søren Faurby, Manuel J Macía, Henrik Balslev, Bastian Göldel, Jens-Christian Svenning, W Daniel Kissling, Nina Rønsted, C Haris Saslis-Lagoudakis
The well-being of the global human population rests on provisioning services delivered by 12% of the Earth's ∼400,000 plant species(1). Plant utilization by humans is influenced by species traits(2-4), but it is not well understood which traits underpin different human needs(5). Here, we focus on palms (Arecaceae), one of the most economically important plant groups globally(6), and demonstrate that provisioning services related to basic needs, such as food and medicine, show a strong link to fundamental functional and geographic traits...
January 23, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112087/tackling-the-climate-targets-set-by-the-paris-agreement-cop-21-green-leadership-empowers-public-hospitals-to-overcome-obstacles-and-challenges-in-a-resource-constrained-environment
#15
E Weimann, B Patel
The healthcare sector itself contributes to climate change, the creation of hazardous waste, use of toxic metals such as mercury, and water and air pollution. To mitigate the effect of healthcare provision on the deteriorating environment and avoid creating further challenges for already burdened health systems, Global Green Hospitals was formed as a global network. Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), as the leading academic hospital in Africa, joined the network in 2014. Since then, several projects have been initiated to reduce the amount of general waste, energy consumption and food waste, and create an environmentally friendlier and more sustainable hospital in a resource-constrained public healthcare setting...
December 21, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110519/examining-the-nutritional-quality-of-food-and-beverage-consumed-at-melbourne-aquatic-and-recreation-centres
#16
Tara Boelsen-Robinson, Alexandra Chung, Marianne Khalil, Evelyn Wong, Ariana Kurzeme, Anna Peeters
OBJECTIVE: Examine the nutritional quality of food and beverages consumed across a sample of community aquatic and recreation centres in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: Interviewer-administered surveys of randomly selected patrons attending four aquatic and recreation centres were conducted to ascertain food and beverage items consumed over two data collection periods (May-June 2014, January-February 2015). We selected centres in and around metropolitan Melbourne with a sit-down cafeteria and children's swimming classes...
January 22, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110326/behavioural-responses-of-yunnan-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-bieti-to-tourists-in-a-provisioned-monkey-group-in-baimaxueshan-nature-reserve
#17
Wancai Xia, Baoping Ren, Yanhong Li, Jie Hu, Xinming He, Ali Krzton, Ming Li, Dayong Li
The appearance of tourists brings about behavioural changes in some primates. Primate behavioural responses to human activities can reflect their survival strategy. Little is known about how the behaviour of Rhinopithecus bieti changes in the presence of tourists. Here we provide the first detailed description of interactions between a provisioned group of R. bieti and tourists at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve from July 2012 to June 2013. We found that R. bieti had different response rates to the 5 most common human actions (shout, photograph, offer food, clap, and wave)...
January 21, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107817/can-calculation-of-energy-expenditure-based-on-co2-measurements-replace-indirect-calorimetry
#18
Taku Oshima, Séverine Graf, Claudia-Paula Heidegger, Laurence Genton, Jérôme Pugin, Claude Pichard
BACKGROUND: Methods to calculate energy expenditure (EE) based on CO2 measurements (EEVCO2) have been proposed as a surrogate to indirect calorimetry. This study aimed at evaluating whether EEVCO2 could be considered as an alternative to EE measured by indirect calorimetry. METHODS: Indirect calorimetry measurements conducted for clinical purposes on 278 mechanically ventilated ICU patients were retrospectively analyzed. EEVCO2 was calculated by a converted Weir's equation using CO2 consumption (VCO2) measured by indirect calorimetry and assumed respiratory quotients (RQ): 0...
January 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098050/dairy-food-supplementation-may-reduce-malnutrition-risk-in-institutionalised-elderly
#20
Sandra Iuliano, Shirley Poon, Xiaofang Wang, Minh Bui, Ego Seeman
Malnutrition in institutionalised elderly increases morbidity and care costs. Meat and dairy foods are high-quality protein sources so adequate intakes may reduce malnutrition risk. We aimed to determine whether inadequate intakes of meat and dairy foods contribute to malnutrition in institutionalised elderly. This cross-sectional study involved 215 elderly residents (70·2 % females, mean age 85·8 years) from twenty-one aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Dietary intake was assessed using observed plate waste...
January 18, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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