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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785612/water-forests-people-the-swedish-experience-in-building-resilient-landscapes
#1
Mats Eriksson, Lotta Samuelson, Linnéa Jägrud, Eskil Mattsson, Thorsten Celander, Anders Malmer, Klas Bengtsson, Olof Johansson, Nicolai Schaaf, Ola Svending, Anna Tengberg
A growing world population and rapid expansion of cities increase the pressure on basic resources such as water, food and energy. To safeguard the provision of these resources, restoration and sustainable management of landscapes is pivotal, including sustainable forest and water management. Sustainable forest management includes forest conservation, restoration, forestry and agroforestry practices. Interlinkages between forests and water are fundamental to moderate water budgets, stabilize runoff, reduce erosion and improve biodiversity and water quality...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784068/play-behaviour-fear-responses-and-activity-levels-in-commercial-broiler-chickens-provided-with-preferred-environmental-enrichments
#2
M Baxter, C L Bailie, N E O'Connell
There is currently a lack of research investigating the effectiveness of commercial broiler enrichments, and in particular the ability of these additions to create opportunities for positive welfare. One aim of this study was to investigate whether offering broiler chickens enrichments that have recently been found to be preferred leads to increased levels of activity. A second aim was to investigate the emotional effects of provision of these enrichments by assessing levels of fearfulness and play-like activity...
May 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783265/-international-experience-in-the-legal-regulation-of-the-circulation-of-medicines-through-the-prism-of-the-law-of-the-world-trade-organization
#3
Olena V Pasechnyk, Nataliia V Hendel
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The development of international legal cooperation in the field of health has largely been driven by the trade interests of states. The aim: The article analyzes the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Using the historical legal method has allowed to analyze the genesis of legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768609/-evaluation-of-the-national-school-food-program-review-of-the-literature
#4
Dixis Figueroa Pedraza, Nadinne Lívia Silva de Melo, Franciely Albuquerque Silva, Erika Morganna Neves Araujo
The National School Food Program (PNAE) constitutes an important strategy for the promotion of healthy eating. The objective was to perform a brief analysis of evaluative research on the PNAE. It involved a search of the literature from 2010 to 2015 in the Bireme and Scielo databases. Twelve articles were selected linked to the area, eight of which analyzed the insertion of the nutritionist in the PNAE; seven, to buy food from family farms; five, the implementation of School Food Councils; five, the compilation of menus; and four, funding destined for the PNAE...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764666/relevance-of-wild-and-managed-bees-for-human-well-being
#5
REVIEW
Alexandra-Maria Klein, Virginie Boreux, Felix Fornoff, Anne-Christine Mupepele, Gesine Pufal
Wild and managed bees provide pollination services to both crops and wild plants, and a variety of other services from which humans benefit. We summarize the most important and recent findings on bees as providers of provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services. With comprehensive literature searches, we first identified ten important bee species for global pollination of crops, which include wild and managed honey bees, bumble bees, orchard-, cucumber- and longhorn bees. We second summarized bee-dependent ecosystem services to show how bees substantially contribute to food security, medical resources, soil formation or spiritual practices, highlighting their wide range of benefits for human well-being and to identify future research needs...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759959/health-care-professionals-attitudes-toward-and-experiences-of-using-a-culture-sensitive-smartphone-app-for-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-qualitative-study
#6
Lisa Garnweidner-Holme, Therese Hoel Andersen, Mari Wastvedt Sando, Josef Noll, Mirjam Lukasse
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among women of different ethnic backgrounds provides new challenges for health care professionals, who often find it difficult to provide information about the management of this disease to such individuals. Mobile health (mHealth) may act as a useful tool for blood sugar control and care process enhancement. However, little is known about health care professionals' experiences and attitudes toward the use of mHealth for women with GDM...
May 14, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752204/medication-abortion-potential-for-improved-patient-access-through-pharmacies
#7
Sarah Raifman, Megan Orlando, Sally Rafie, Daniel Grossman
OBJECTIVES: To discuss the potential for improving access to early abortion care through pharmacies in the United States. SUMMARY: Despite the growing use of medications to induce termination of early pregnancy, pharmacist involvement in abortion care is currently limited. The Food and Drug Administration's Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for Mifeprex® (mifepristone 200 mg), the principal drug used in early medication abortion, prohibits the dispensing of the drug by prescription at pharmacies...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743126/selective-flowers-to-attract-and-enhance-telenomus-laeviceps-hymenoptera-scelionidae-a-released-biocontrol-agent-of-mamestra-brassicae-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#8
G Barloggio, L Tamm, P Nagel, H Luka
The importance of the right food source for the survival and reproduction of certain insect species is well documented. In the case of biocontrol agents, this is even more important in order to reach a high predation or parasitation performance. The egg parasitoid Telenomus laeviceps (Förster, 1861) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is a promising candidate for mass release as a biological control agent of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). However, adult T. laeviceps need a sugar-rich food source to increase their parasitation performance and produce a good amount of female offspring...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738792/energy-homeostasis-and-running-wheel-activity-during-pregnancy-in-the-mouse
#9
S R Ladyman, K M Carter, D R Grattan
Pregnancy and lactation are metabolically challenging states, where the mother must supply all the energy requirements for the developing fetus and growing pups respectively. The aim of the current study was to characterize many aspects of energy homeostasis before and during pregnancy in the mouse, and to examine the role of voluntary activity on changes in energy expenditure during pregnancy. In a secondary aim, we evaluate measures of energy homeostasis during pregnancy in mice that successfully reared their litter or in mice that went on to abandon their litter, to determine if an impairment in pregnancy-induced adaptation of energy homeostasis might underlie the abandonment of pups soon after birth...
May 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720930/national-nutrition-surveys-in-europe-a-review-on-the-current-status-in-the-53-countries-of-the-who-european-region
#10
Holly L Rippin, Jayne Hutchinson, Charlotte E L Evans, Jo Jewell, Joao J Breda, Janet E Cade
Objectives: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the coverage of national nutrition surveys in the 53 countries monitored by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and identify gaps in provision, (2) to describe relevant survey attributes and (3) to check whether energy and nutrients are reported with a view to providing information for evidence-based nutrition policy planning. Design: Dietary survey information was gathered using three methods: (1) direct email to survey authors and other relevant contacts, (2) systematic review of literature databases and (3) general web-based searches...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718436/non-pharmacotherapeutic-interventions-in-travellers-diarrhoea-td
#11
Derek P Evans
Background: This is a review of some of the non-pharmacotherapeutic interventions in travellers diarrhoea (TD) looking particularly at the role of pre and probiotics, the evidence behind water purification and the impact of advice given and its adherence by travellers. Method: A systematic review of the research completed under section using the listed key words and searched using the databases of Google Scholar, Journal of Travel Medicine, QxMD, ReadCube and The Knowledge Network...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717681/relative-contributions-of-recommended-food-environment-policies-to-improve-population-nutrition-results-from-a-delphi-study-with-international-food-policy-experts
#12
Rewena Mahesh, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Clare Dominick, Boyd Swinburn
OBJECTIVE: To determine weightings for the relative contributions of nineteen widely recommended good practice food environment policies to improve population nutrition, based on evidence of effectiveness and expert ratings, to facilitate benchmarking of the implementation of food environment policies globally. DESIGN: A two-round Delphi study was performed in 2015, whereby international food policy experts (n Round1 27, n Round2 21) compared effectiveness of all possible pairs of policy domains and good practice policies within domains to improve population nutrition according to the Saaty scale (1 to 9)...
May 2, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710645/do-we-have-to-choose-between-feeding-the-human-population-and-conserving-nature-modelling-the-global-dependence-of-people-on-ecosystem-services
#13
Victor Cazalis, Michel Loreau, Kirsten Henderson
The ability of the human population to continue growing depends strongly on the ecosystem services provided by nature. Nature, however, is becoming more and more degraded as the number of individuals increases, which could potentially threaten the future well-being of the human population. We use a dynamic model to conceptualise links between the global proportion of natural habitats and human demography, through four categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, regulating, cultural recreational and informational) to investigate the common future of nature and humanity in terms of size and well-being...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707218/the-generic-drug-user-fee-amendments-an-economic-perspective
#14
Ernst R Berndt, Rena M Conti, Stephen J Murphy
Since the vast majority of prescription drugs consumed by Americans are off patent ('generic'), their regulation and supply is of wide interest. We describe events leading up to the US Congress's 2012 passage of the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments (GDUFA I) as part of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). Under GDUFA I, generic manufacturers agreed to pay approximately $300 million in fees each year of the five-year program. In exchange, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) committed to performance goals...
May 2018: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695018/compliance-on-mandatory-data-reporting-in-registered-obstetrics-trials
#15
Jake X Checketts, M Blake Evans, Abha H Athale, Omar M Jawhar, Micah R Wright, Kristine Bryant, Matt Vassar
BACKGROUND:  The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Amendments Act established a legal mandate requiring registration of certain drug, device, and biologics trials in ClinicalTrials.gov prior to patient enrollment. One provision of the act requires investigators to report trial results in ClinicalTrials.gov within 1 year of completion. Preliminary evidence suggests that overall compliance rates are inadequate, and rates specific to obstetrics have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE:  The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of compliance for mandatory reporting of results from obstetrics trials to ClinicalTrials...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693620/plasma-tryptophan-large-neutral-amino-acids-ratio-in-domestic-dogs-is-affected-by-a-single-meal-with-high-carbohydrates-level
#16
Angelo Gazzano, Asahi Ogi, Beatrice Torracca, Chiara Mariti, Lucia Casini
Aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma ratio between l-tryptophan (TRP) and five large neutral amino acids (isoleucine + leucine + phenylalanine + tyrosine + valine) (5LNAAs) after a single meal with high carbohydrates level. Five female Labrador Retrievers were involved. Each dog was fed three different meals: M1 (a mix of puffed rice, minced meat and olive oil), M2 (puffed rice and olive oil) and M3 (commercial dry food usually consumed) once in the morning per day for 30 days. Blood was collected right before the first meal (t0) and after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h...
April 25, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690952/refinement-of-perioperative-feeding-in-a-mouse-model-of-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy
#17
Carolyn M Doerning, Lisa A Burlingame, Alfor G Lewis, Andriy Myronovych, Randy J Seeley, Patrick A Lester
Provision of liquid enteral nutrition (LEN) during the perioperative period is standard practice for rodents undergoingbariatric surgery, yet these diets are associated with several challenges, including coagulation of the liquid diet within thedelivery system and decreased postoperative consumption. We investigated the use of a commercially available high-caloriedietary gel supplement (DG) as an alternative food source for mice during the perioperative period. C57BL/6J male mice werefed high-fat diet for 8 to 10 wk prior to surgery...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678494/household-food-waste-collection-building-service-networks-through-neighborhood-expansion
#18
William R Armington, Roger B Chen
In this paper we develop a residential food waste collection analysis and modeling framework that captures transportation costs faced by service providers in their initial stages of service provision. With this framework and model, we gain insights into network transportation costs and investigate possible service expansion scenarios faced by these organizations. We solve a vehicle routing problem (VRP) formulated for the residential neighborhood context using a heuristic approach developed. The scenarios considered follow a narrative where service providers start with an initial neighborhood or community and expands to incorporate other communities and their households...
April 17, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677133/modified-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-cereals-and-their-products-metabolism-occurrence-and-toxicity-an-updated-review
#19
REVIEW
Marcin Bryła, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Edyta Ksieniewicz-Woźniak, Krystyna Szymczyk, Renata Jędrzejczak
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to humans, animals and plants. Under the influence of various factors, mycotoxins may undergo modifications of their chemical structure. One of the methods of mycotoxin modification is a transformation occurring in plant cells or under the influence of fungal enzymes. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the natural occurrence of the most important trichothecenes and zearalenone in cereals/cereal products, their metabolism, and the potential toxicity of the metabolites...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664035/out-of-pocket-expenditure-for-hospitalization-in-haryana-state-of-india-extent-determinants-financial-risk-protection
#20
Deepshikha Sharma, Shankar Prinja, Arun Kumar Aggarwal, Pankaj Bahuguna, Atul Sharma, Saroj Kumar Rana
Background & objectives: India aspires to achieve universal health coverage, which requires ensuring financial risk protection (FRP). This study was done to assess the extent of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure and FRP for hospitalization in Haryana State, India. Further, the determinants for FRP were also evaluated. Methods: Data collected as a part of a household level survey conducted in Haryana 'Concurrent Evaluation of National Rural Health Mission: Haryana Health Survey' were analyzed...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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