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Process evaluation

Andreas von Deimling, Takahiro Ono, Mitsuaki Shirahata, David N Louis
Estimating the malignancy level of tumors is key to management, and has been part of oncology practice for the past ∼100 years. A central aspect of assessing malignancy level is based on histological "grading"-a process in which a pathologist evaluates microscopic features of a tumor and interprets those findings in light of large prognostic studies. For the diffuse astrocytic gliomas, there have been many such studies over the past century and these have proven useful in estimating prognosis for patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Xuan Shi, Huu Hao Ngo, Langtao Sang, Pengkang Jin, Xiaochang C Wang, Guanghua Wang
In this study, a pilot combined sewer system was constructed to characterize the pollutant transformation in sewer sediment. The results showed that particulate contaminants deposited from sewage could be transformed into dissolved matter by distinct pollutant transformation pathways. Although the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was varied from -80 mV to -340 mV in different region of the sediment, the fermentation was the dominant process in all regions of the sediment, which induced hydrolysis and decomposition of particulate contaminants...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Edna M S Oliveira, Francisco R Silva, Crislânia C O Morais, Thiago Mielle B F Oliveira, Carlos A Martínez-Huitle, Artur J Motheo, Cynthia C Albuquerque, Suely S L Castro
This study investigated the anodic oxidation of phenolic wastewater generated by cashew-nut processing industry (CNPI) using active (Ti/RuO2 -TiO2 ) and inactive (boron doped diamond, BDD) anodes. During electrochemical treatment, various operating parameters were investigated, such as current density, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenols, O2 production, temperature, pH, as well as current efficiency and energy consumption. After electrolysis under optimized working conditions, samples were evaluated by chromatography and toxicological tests against L...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
S R Geed, Sachin Prasad, M K Kureel, R S Singh, B N Rai
The isolated microbial Alcaligenes sp. S3 from the agricultural field was used for the biodegradation of synthetic wastewater containing atrazine. This study was conducted in an alternating aerobic-anoxic lab scale pilot plant. The performance of continuously operated pilot plant was evaluated in three different phases with varying atrazine concentration. The best performance of plant was observed in phase-II. The atrazine (200 mg/L) having COD value 1356 mg/L was used with varying flow rate and 90.56% COD removal was obtained at a flow rate of 300 mL/h on 122th day of operation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Asmaa E Kassab, Ehab M Gedawy
As we are interested in synthetizing biologically active leads with dual anticancer and antibacterial activity, we adopted biology oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) strategy to synthesize a series of novel ciprofloxacin (CP) hybrids. The National Cancer Institute (USA) selected seventeen newly synthesized compounds for anticancer evaluation against 59 different human tumor cell lines. Five compounds 3e, 3f, 3h, 3o and 3p were further studied through determination of IC50 values against the most sensitive cancer cell lines...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ulviye Günay, Gülsen Kılınç
BACKGROUND: Nursing education contains both theoretical and practical training processes. Clinical training is the basis of nursing education. The quality of clinical training is closely related to the quality of the clinical learning environment. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the transfer of theoretical knowledge into clinical practice by nursing students and the difficulties they experience during this process. METHODS: A qualitative research design was used in the study...
March 1, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Tahereh Shojaeimehr, Farshad Rahimpour, Michael Schwarze, Jens-Uwe Repke, Hamid Reza Godini, Günter Wozny
The present study evaluates the capability of ion exclusion chromatography (IEC) of short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids using a cation exchange column (8% sulfonated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer) in different experimental conditions. Since one of the prerequisites to the development of an efficient carboxylic acid separation process is to obtain the optimum operational conditions, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to develop an approach to evaluate carboxylic acids separation process in IEC columns...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Aniko Krumbholz, Martin Schönfelder, Hande Hofmann, Detlef Thieme
BACKGROUND: The endogenous glucocorticosteroid cortisol (F) and its metabolite cortisone (E) are known to be involved in stress adaption and anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects. The ratios of F to E in the matrices serum, hair and saliva are different. The shift of this ratio by the enzyme activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, which inactivates cortisol, was often discussed. The aim of our study was to calculate the contribution of the plasma protein binding (PPB) to this shift...
February 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Yaxin Qin, Guiying Li, Yanpeng Gao, Lizhi Zhang, Yong Sik Ok, Taicheng An
With the increased concentrations and kinds of refractory organic contaminants (ROCs) in aquatic environments, many previous reviews systematically summarized the applications of carbon-based materials in the adsorption and catalytic degradation of ROCs for their economically viable and environmentally friendly behavior. Interestingly, recent studies indicated that carbon-based materials in natural environment can also mediate the transformation of ROCs directly or indirectly due to their abundant persistent free radicals (PFRs)...
March 9, 2018: Water Research
Meisser Vidal Madera Anaya, Juan Victor Franco, Ángela María Merchán-Galvis, Carmen R Gallardo, Xavier Bonfill Cosp
BACKGROUND: The applicability of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on treatments for oral cancer remains unknown since there are no systematic assessments of their quality. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify and assess the quality of them. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search to identify CPGs that provided recommendations on treatments for oral cancer. The quality of each included CPG was determined using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument, by four appraisers independently...
March 10, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Julia K Nussbacher, Gene W Yeo
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) interact with primary, precursor, and mature microRNAs (miRs) to influence mature miR levels, which in turn affect critical aspects of human development and disease. To understand how RBPs contribute to miR biogenesis, we analyzed human enhanced UV crosslinking followed by immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) datasets for 126 RBPs to discover miR-encoding genomic loci that are statistically enriched for RBP binding. We find that 92% of RBPs interact directly with at least one miR locus, and that some interactions are cell line specific despite expression of the miR locus in both cell lines evaluated...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Lily Wei Chen, Chien-Jung Huang, Wen-Hui Tu, Chia-Ju Lu, Yi-Chen Sun, Szu-Yuan Lin, Wei-Li Chen
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether lyophilized human platelet lysate (HPL) powder can preserve the growth factor concentrations and epitheliotrophic properties of liquid HPL, and potentially be used as a clinically-friendly treatment option. METHODS: Two commercialized liquid HPLs, UltraGRO TM (Helios, Atlanta, GA) and PLTMax (Mill Creek, Rochester, MI), were obtained and converted to lyophilized powder. After redissolution, lyophilized powder HPLs were compared with liquid HPLs, as well as human peripheral serum (HPS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) in liquid or redissolved lyophilized powder forms...
2018: PloS One
Sherine Ismail, Mohamed Osman, Rayf Abulezz, Hani Alhamdan, K H Mujtaba Quadri
Pharmacists possess pivotal competencies and expertise in developing clinical pathways (CPs). We present a tertiary care facility experience of pharmacists vis-a-vis interprofessional collaboration for designing and implementing CPs. We participated in the development of CPs as leading members of a collaborative team of healthcare professionals. We reviewed literature, aligning it with hospital formulary and institutional standards, and participated in weekly team meetings for six months. Several tools and services were adapted to guide prescribing and standardization of care through time-bound order sets...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Fabrizia Caiazzo, Vittorio Alfieri
In the framework of Additive Manufacturing of metals, Directed Energy Deposition of steel powder over flat surfaces and edges has been investigated in this paper. The aims are the repair and overhaul of actual, worn-out, high price sensitive metal components. A full-factorial experimental plan has been arranged, the results have been discussed in terms of geometry, microhardness and thermal affection as functions of the main governing parameters, laser power, scanning speed and mass flow rate; dilution and catching efficiency have been evaluated as well to compare quality and effectiveness of the process under conditions of both flat and edge depositions...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Idan Steinberg, Gil Tamir, Israel Gannot
Solid malignant tumors are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Many times complete removal is not possible and alternative methods such as focused hyperthermia are used. Precise control of the hyperthermia process is imperative for the successful application of such treatment. To that end, this research presents a fast method that enables the estimation of deep tissue heat distribution by capturing and processing the transient temperature at the boundary based on a bio-heat transfer model. The theoretical model is rigorously developed and thoroughly validated by a series of experiments...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jan Endrikat, Susan Dohanish, Nicolas Schleyer, Susanne Schwenke, Sheela Agarwal, Thomas Balzer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to critically assess the evaluation and categorization process for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) based on reports received by Bayer from 2006 to 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 779 NSF reports received by Bayer globally from 2006 to 2016 were included in the analysis. Arlington Medical Resources provided gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) market share. Reports were conservatively categorized based on the Cowper/Girardi criteria...
March 16, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Giovanna Ginestra, Ramona D'amico, Carlo Bisignano, Giuseppina Mandalari, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola
BACKGROUND: Colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), the most common pathogen isolated mainly in patients with cystic fibrosis, is particularly difficult to eradicate and is associated with acceleration of decline in lung function and with poorer prognosis. PA LPS is recognized by toll like receptors 4 (TLR4) and has been shown to induce lung inflammation in vivo. In addition, regulation of this process is essential for proper pathogen clearance and to prevent excessive inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage...
March 15, 2018: Shock
Kathleen Rea, Uyen Le-Jenkins, Carolyn Rutledge
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 40% of healthcare-acquired infections. This study explored the addition of cloud-based software technology to an established nursing quality improvement program to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Unit-based nurse champions evaluated peers' evidence-based catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention practices using manual, paper-based feedback. That process achieved reduced rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection over 18 months...
March 15, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
Simon Badger, Christian Brønnum-Hansen, Heribertus Bayu Hartanto, Tiziano Peraro
We compute the leading-color contributions to five-gluon scattering at two loops in massless QCD. The integrands of all independent helicity amplitudes are evaluated using d-dimensional generalized unitarity cuts and finite field reconstruction techniques. Numerical evaluation of the integral basis is performed with sector decomposition methods to obtain the first benchmark results for all helicity configurations of a 2→3 scattering process in QCD.
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Stefan Ilic, Usha Pandey Kadel, Yasemin Basdogan, John A Keith, Ksenija D Glusac
Thermodynamic hydricities (ΔGH- ) in acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide have been calculated and experimentally measured for several metal-free hydride donors: NADH analogs (BNAH, CN-BNAH, Me-MNAH, HEH), methylene tetrahydromethanopterin analogs (BIMH, CAFH), acridine derivatives (Ph-AcrH, Me2 N-AcrH, T-AcrH, 4OH, 2OH, 3NH) and a triarylmethane derivative (6OH). The calculated hydricity values, obtained using density functional theory, showed a reasonably good match (within 3 kcal/mol) with the experimental values, obtained using "potential-pKa" and "hydride-transfer" methods...
March 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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