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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161629/the-effects-of-felbamate-on-appetitive-and-aversive-instrumental-learning-in-adult-rats
#1
John J Orczyk, Preston E Garraghty
Antiepileptic medications are the frontline treatment for seizure conditions but are not without cognitive side effects. Previously, our laboratory reported learning deficits in phenytoin-, carbamazepine-, and valproate-treated rats. In the present experiment, the effects of felbamate (FBM) have been compared to water-treated controls (controls) using the same instrumental training tasks employed here. Rats treated with FBM displayed a deficit in acquiring a tone-signaled avoidance response, relative to controls, but this was true only if they had no prior appetitive experience...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160112/the-human-right-to-communicate-and-our-need-to-listen-learning-from-people-with-a-history-of-childhood-communication-disorder
#2
Jane McCormack, Elise Baker, Kathryn Crowe
PURPOSE: In 2013, the Australian Government Senate formed a committee for inquiry and report into the prevalence of speech, language, and communication disorders and speech pathology services in Australia. Submissions were sought from individuals and organisations. In this paper, submissions made by individuals with a history of childhood communication disorder were examined to explore their life experiences and the impact on their lives when the right to communicate could not be enacted...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160023/the-self-reference-effect-on-perception-undiminished-in-adults-with-autism-and-no-relation-to-autism-traits
#3
David M Williams, Toby Nicholson, Catherine Grainger
Memory for (and perception of) information about the self is superior to memory for (and perception of) other kinds of information. This self-reference effect (SRE) in memory appears diminished in ASD and related to the number of ASD traits manifested by neurotypical individuals (fewer traits = larger SRE). Here, we report the first experiments exploring the relation between ASD and the SRE in perception. Using a "Shapes" Task (Sui et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105, 2012), participants learned to associate three different shapes (triangle, circle, square) with three different labels representing self, a familiar other, or an unfamiliar other (e...
November 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157232/implementation-of-an-interprofessional-team-based-learning-program-involving-seven-undergraduate-health-and-social-care-programs-from-two-universities-and-students-evaluation-of-their-readiness-for-interprofessional-learning
#4
Lap Ki Chan, Fraide Ganotice, Frances Kam Yuet Wong, Chak Sing Lau, Susan M Bridges, Celia Hoi Yan Chan, Namkiu Chan, Phoebe Wing Lam Chan, Hai Yong Chen, Julie Yun Chen, Jody Kwok Pui Chu, Charlene C Ho, Jacqueline Mei Chi Ho, Tai Pong Lam, Veronica Suk Fun Lam, Qingyun Li, Jian Gang Shen, Julian Alexander Tanner, Winnie Wan Yee Tso, Arkers Kwan Ching Wong, Gordon Tin Chun Wong, Janet Yuen Ha Wong, Nai Sum Wong, Alan Worsley, Lei King Yu, Tin Pui Yum
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional learning is gaining momentum in revolutionizing healthcare education. During the academic year 2015/16, seven undergraduate-entry health and social care programs from two universities in Hong Kong took part in an interprofessional education program. Based on considerations such as the large number of students involved and the need to incorporate adult learning principles, team-based learning was adopted as the pedagogy for the program, which was therefore called the interprofessional team-based learning program (IPTBL)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156241/pre-linguistic-segmentation-of-speech-into-syllable-like-units
#5
Okko Räsänen, Gabriel Doyle, Michael C Frank
Syllables are often considered to be central to infant and adult speech perception. Many theories and behavioral studies on early language acquisition are also based on syllable-level representations of spoken language. There is little clarity, however, on what sort of pre-linguistic "syllable" would actually be accessible to an infant with no phonological or lexical knowledge. Anchored by the notion that syllables are organized around particularly sonorous (audible) speech sounds, the present study investigates the feasibility of speech segmentation into syllable-like chunks without any a priori linguistic knowledge...
November 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155839/performance-of-thigh-mounted-triaxial-accelerometer-algorithms-in-objective-quantification-of-sedentary-behaviour-and-physical-activity-in-older-adults
#6
Jorgen A Wullems, Sabine M P Verschueren, Hans Degens, Christopher I Morse, Gladys L Onambélé
Accurate monitoring of sedentary behaviour and physical activity is key to investigate their exact role in healthy ageing. To date, accelerometers using cut-off point models are most preferred for this, however, machine learning seems a highly promising future alternative. Hence, the current study compared between cut-off point and machine learning algorithms, for optimal quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensities in the elderly. Thus, in a heterogeneous sample of forty participants (aged ≥60 years, 50% female) energy expenditure during laboratory-based activities (ranging from sedentary behaviour through to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) was estimated by indirect calorimetry, whilst wearing triaxial thigh-mounted accelerometers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155703/modeling-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-toxicity-and-neurodegeneration-in-adult-zebrafish-brain
#7
Prabesh Bhattarai, Alvin Kuriakose Thomas, Mehmet Ilyas Cosacak, Christos Papadimitriou, Violeta Mashkaryan, Yixin Zhang, Caghan Kizil
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease in which accumulation of toxic amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptides leads to synaptic degeneration, inflammation, neuronal death, and learning deficits. Humans cannot regenerate lost neurons in the case of AD in part due to impaired proliferative capacity of the neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and reduced neurogenesis. Therefore, efficient regenerative therapies should also enhance the proliferation and neurogenic capacity of NSPCs. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a regenerative organism, and we can learn the basic molecular programs with which we could design therapeutic approaches to tackle AD...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154858/visuospatial-function-predicts-one-week-motor-skill-retention-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#8
Jennapher Lingo VanGilder, Caitlin R Hengge, Kevin Duff, Sydney Y Schaefer
Motor learning declines with aging, such that older adults retain less motor skill after practice compared to younger adults. However, it remains unclear if these motor learning declines are related to normal cognitive changes associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to examine which cognitive domains would best predict the amount of retention on a motor task one week after training in cognitively intact older adults. Twenty-one adults ages 65-84 years old were assessed with Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, which assesses five cognitive domains (immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention)...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154809/facilitated-acquisition-of-the-classically-conditioned-eyeblink-response-in-active-duty-military-expressing-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms
#9
Justin D Handy, Pelin Avcu, Nora Ko, Alejandro Ortiz, Michael J Doria, Richard J Servatius
OBJECTIVE: Learning diathesis models underscore the role of hyper-conditioning in the development of PTSD following trauma exposure. Eyeblink classical conditioning is one method of examining associative learning biases independent of fear and threat produced by trauma. Facilitated learning is apparent in individuals self-expressing PTSD symptoms, as well as behaviorally inhibited (BI) temperament, a vulnerability factor for PTSD. Here, we examine eyeblink conditioning in active duty military personnel and relate learning with PTSD symptomology...
November 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154439/verbal-short-term-memory-shows-a-specific-association-with-receptive-but-not-productive-vocabulary-measures-in-down-syndrome
#10
S Majerus, K Barisnikov
BACKGROUND: Verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity has been considered to support vocabulary learning in typical children and adults, but evidence for this link is inconsistent for studies in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was explore the role of processing demands on the association between verbal STM and vocabulary measures in DS, by comparing receptive vocabulary measures with high STM processing demands to productive vocabulary measures with low STM processing demands...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153873/comparison-of-behavioural-activation-with-guided-self-help-for-treatment-of-depression-in-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Andrew Jahoda, Richard Hastings, Chris Hatton, Sally-Ann Cooper, Dave Dagnan, Ruiqi Zhang, Alex McConnachie, Nicola McMeekin, Kim Appleton, Rob Jones, Katie Scott, Lauren Fulton, Rosie Knight, Dawn Knowles, Chris Williams, Andrew Briggs, Ken MacMahon, Helen Lynn, Ian Smith, Gail Thomas, Craig Melville
BACKGROUND: Psychological therapies are first-line interventions for depression, but existing provision is not accessible for many adults with intellectual disabilities. We investigated the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a behavioural activation intervention (BeatIt) for people with intellectual disabilities and depression. BeatIt was compared with a guided self-help intervention (StepUp). METHODS: We did a multicentre, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial with follow-up at 4 months and 12 months after randomisation...
November 13, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153754/effects-of-combined-physical-and-cognitive-exercises-on-cognition-and-mobility-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a%C3%A2-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, Hyuntae Park, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Joe Verghese, Takao Suzuki
IMPORTANCE: Although participation in physical and cognitive activities is encouraged to reduce the risk of dementia, the preventive efficacy of these activities for patients with mild cognitive impairment is unestablished. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cognitive and mobility effects of a 40-week program of combined cognitive and physical activity with those of a health education program. DESIGN: A randomized, parallel, single-blind controlled trial...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153386/new-normative-data-from-the-spanish-language-version-of-the-repeatable-battery-for-the-assessment-of-neuropsychological-status-rbans-form-a
#13
S Muntal, E Doval, D Badenes, L Casas-Hernanz, N Cerulla, N Calzado, M Aguilar
INTRODUCTION: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is frequently used in clinical practice to evaluate cognitive function. It is quick to administer (20-30minutes) and is not influenced by a learning effect. The RBANS includes 4 parallel versions and has a high discriminative ability. Our study provides normative data from the RBANS-E (Spanish-language version of RBANS form A) for a Spanish population aged 20 to 89 years. METHODS: The study included 609 subjects aged 20 to 89 years...
November 15, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151803/cognitive-consequences-of-trilingualism
#14
Scott R Schroeder, Viorica Marian
Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. Approach: A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Data and Analysis: Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks...
2017: International Journal of Bilingualism: Cross-disciplinary, Cross-linguistic Studies of Language Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150595/notch1-signaling-activation-contributes-to-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Ming Tu, Penglei Zhu, Shaobo Hu, Wei Wang, Zhipeng Su, Jiaqing Guan, Chongran Sun, Weiming Zheng
BACKGROUND Neural stem cells are reported to exist in the hippocampus of adult mammals and are important sources of neurons for repair. The Notch1 signaling pathway is considered as one of the important regulators of neural stem cells, but its role in adult brains is unclear. We aimed to describe the role of Notch1 signaling in the adult rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS The model rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: sham, sham-TBI, sham-Ad-TBI, and NICD-Ad-TBI...
November 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149906/forebrain-specific-conditional-silencing-of-staufen2-alters-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#16
Stefan M Berger, Iván Fernández-Lamo, Kai Schönig, Sandra M Fernández Moya, Janina Ehses, Rico Schieweck, Stefano Clementi, Thomas Enkel, Sascha Grothe, Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Inmaculada Segura, José María Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart, Michael A Kiebler, Dusan Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Dendritic messenger RNA (mRNA) localization and subsequent local translation in dendrites critically contributes to synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Little is known, however, about the contribution of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to these processes in vivo. RESULTS: To delineate the role of the double-stranded RBP Staufen2 (Stau2), we generate a transgenic rat model, in which Stau2 expression is conditionally silenced by Cre-inducible expression of a microRNA (miRNA) targeting Stau2 mRNA in adult forebrain neurons...
November 17, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148343/lessons-learned-from-the-affordable-care-act-the-premium-subsidy-design-may-promote-adverse-selection
#17
Ilana Graetz, Caitlin N McKillop, Cameron M Kaplan, Teresa M Waters
Since 2014, average premiums for health plans available in the Affordable Care Act marketplaces have increased. We examine how premium price changes affected the amount consumers pay after subsidies for the lowest-cost bronze and silver plans available by age in the federally facilitated exchanges. Between 2015 and 2016, benchmark plan premiums increased in 83.3% of counties. Overall, rising benchmark premiums were associated with lower average after-subsidy premiums for the lowest-cost bronze and silver plans for older subsidy-eligible adults, but with higher after-subsidy premiums for younger adults purchasing the same plans, regardless of income...
May 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147958/ginsenoside-rg1-decreases-oxidative-stress-and-down-regulates-akt-mtor-signalling-to-attenuate-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-and-senescence-of-neural-stem-cells-induced-by-d-galactose
#18
Linbo Chen, Hui Yao, Xiongbin Chen, Ziling Wang, Yue Xiang, Jieyu Xia, Ying Liu, Yaping Wang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. The suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by an increase of oxidative stress is closely related to cognitive impairment. Neural stem cells which persist in the adult vertebrate brain keep up the production of neurons over the lifespan. The balance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants is important for function and surviving of neural stem cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most active components of Panax ginseng, and many studies suggest that ginsenosides have antioxidant properties...
November 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147492/alterations-in-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-aberrant-protein-s-nitrosylation-and-associated-spatial-memory-loss-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-mice
#19
Aneeqa Noor, Saadia Zahid
Objectives: Epidemiological and biochemical studies conducted over the past two decades have established a strong link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the exact mechanisms through which aberrations in insulin signaling associated with T2DM contribute to cognitive decline are not yet known. Materials and Methods: In an effort to explore possible molecular links between T2DM and AD, the present study investigated the status of neurodegeneration, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and nitrosative stress induced protein S-nitrosylation in streptozotocin (STZ) induced mice models of T2DM...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146140/patient-experiences-of-dietary-management-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-focus-group-study
#20
Jaimon T Kelly, Katrina L Campbell, Tammy Hoffmann, Dianne P Reidlinger
OBJECTIVE: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) contend with complex dietary recommendations. The challenge in practice is for clinicians to provide individualized support with the frequency and consistency required to sustain dietary changes. This study aimed to describe the experiences of patients with managing dietary recommendations, including their perspectives on the potential to use telehealth to support dietary management in CKD. DESIGN: Focus group study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
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