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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426640/announcement-sleep-awareness-week-april-23-29-2017
#1
(no author information available yet)
Sleep Awareness Week, the National Sleep Foundation's annual campaign to educate the public about the importance of sleep in health and safety, will be observed April 23-29, 2017. The amount of sleep a person needs changes with age. Adults need ≥7 hours each night to promote optimal health and well-being (1); children and adolescents require even more sleep. Sleep needs decrease from 12-16 hours of sleep per 24 hours (including naps) for infants aged 4-12 months to 8-10 hours of sleep for teenagers aged 13-18 years (2)...
April 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426522/patient-safety-culture-survey-in-pediatric-complex-care-settings-a-factor-analysis
#2
Amanda J Hessels, Meghan Murray, Bevin Cohen, Elaine L Larson
OBJECTIVES: Children with complex medical needs are increasing in number and demanding the services of pediatric long-term care facilities (pLTC), which require a focus on patient safety culture (PSC). However, no tool to measure PSC has been tested in this unique hybrid acute care-residential setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture tool slightly modified for use in the pLTC setting. METHODS: Factor analyses were performed on data collected from 239 staff at 3 pLTC in 2012...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#3
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425742/comparing-and-validating-methods-of-reading-instruction-using-behavioural-and-neural-findings-in-an-artificial-orthography
#4
J S H Taylor, Matthew H Davis, Kathleen Rastle
There is strong scientific consensus that emphasizing print-to-sound relationships is critical when learning to read alphabetic languages. Nevertheless, reading instruction varies across English-speaking countries, from intensive phonic training to multicuing environments that teach sound- and meaning-based strategies. We sought to understand the behavioral and neural consequences of these differences in relative emphasis. We taught 24 English-speaking adults to read 2 sets of 24 novel words (e.g., /buv/, /sig/), written in 2 different unfamiliar orthographies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424766/the-need-for-hematology-nurse-education-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-community-case-study-in-tanzania
#5
Julie M Buser
Hematology-related diseases, such as anemia, malaria, sickle cell disease (SCD), and blood cancers, have differing rates of survival between high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Nurses in LMICs have an unmet need for specialty training and education to address hematology and hemato-oncology disorders. A gap in the literature exists about hematology nurse education and clinical service demands in LMICs. This community case study documents a collaborative hematology and basic hemato-oncology education program to sustainably strengthen nurse capacity at a national referral hospital and university in Tanzania...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424634/when-the-second-language-takes-the-lead-neurocognitive-processing-changes-in-the-first-language-of-adult-attriters
#6
Kristina Kasparian, Karsten Steinhauer
Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424565/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-still-lots-to-learn-and-a-need-for-standardized-data-collection-instruments
#7
T J Marrie, G J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
Background. Large studies of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are frequently lacking detailed clinical information. Methods. A population-based 15-year study of IPD in Northern Alberta. Results. 2435 patients with a mean age of 54.2 years formed the study group. Males outnumbered females and Aboriginal and homeless persons were overrepresented. High rates of smoking, excessive alcohol use, and illicit drug use were seen. Almost all (87%) had a major comorbidity and 15% had functional limitations prior to admission...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424025/selective-reminding-of-prospective-memory-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Joshua D McKeever, Maria T Schultheis, Tiffanie Sim, Jessica Goykhman, Kristina Patrick, Dawn M Ehde, Steven Paul Woods
OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with prospective memory (PM) deficits, which may increase the risk of poor functional/health outcomes such as medication non-adherence. This study examined the potential benefits of selective reminding to enhance PM functioning in persons with MS. METHOD: Twenty-one participants with MS and 22 healthy adults (HA) underwent a neuropsychological battery including a Selective Reminding PM (SRPM) experimental procedure...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423993/lateralization-of-motor-reactions-and-formation-of-behavioural-tactics-during-learning-in-the-eight-arm-radial-maze-in-adolescent-and-adult-rats
#9
Natalia Kurzina, Irina Aristova, Anna Volnova
The problem of motor lateralization in ontogenesis is important for understanding adaptation development. In our experiment adolescent (P28-P30) and adult (P120) rats were trained in an eight-arm radial maze and their motor behaviour compared during training. During learning, the adult rats typically started by moving either left or right direction in the central arena in choosing the way in the maze. The adult rats also developed behavioural tactics to enter maze arms at 45° or 90° relative to the previously visited arm...
April 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423919/joint-attention-difficulties-in-autistic-adults-an-interactive-eye-tracking-study
#10
Nathan Caruana, Heidi Stieglitz Ham, Jon Brock, Alexandra Woolgar, Nadine Kloth, Romina Palermo, Genevieve McArthur
Joint attention - the ability to coordinate attention with a social partner - is critical for social communication, learning and the regulation of interpersonal relationships. Infants and young children with autism demonstrate impairments in both initiating and responding to joint attention bids in naturalistic settings. However, little is known about joint attention abilities in adults with autism. Here, we tested 17 autistic adults and 17 age- and nonverbal intelligence quotient-matched controls using an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in which participants initiated and responded to joint attention bids with an on-screen avatar...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421528/postnatal-lps-challenge-impacts-escape-learning-and-expression-of-plasticity-factors-mmp9-and-timp1-in-rats-effects-of-repeated-training
#11
Alexander Trofimov, Tatyana Strekalova, Niall Mortimer, Olga Zubareva, Alexander Schwarz, Evgeniy Svirin, Aleksei Umriukhin, Andrei Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Victor Klimenko
Bacterial intoxication associated with inflammatory conditions during development can impair brain functions, in particular evolutionarily novel forms of memory, such as explicit learning. Little is known about the dangers of early-life inflammation on more basic forms of learning, for example, the acquisition of motor escape abilities, which are generally better preserved under pathological conditions. To address this limitation in knowledge, an inflammatory response was elicited in Wistar pups by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections (25 μg/kg) on postnatal days P15, P18 and P21...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421465/the-role-of-the-molecular-clock-in-skeletal-muscle-and-what-it-is-teaching-us-about-muscle-bone-crosstalk
#12
REVIEW
Lance A Riley, Karyn A Esser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes what has been learned about the interaction between skeletal muscle and bone from mouse models in which BMAL1, a core molecular clock protein has been deleted. Additionally, we highlight several genes which change following loss of BMAL1. The protein products from these genes are secreted from muscle and have a known effect on bone homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Circadian rhythms have been implicated in regulating systems homeostasis through a series of transcriptional-translational feedback loops termed the molecular clock...
April 18, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420657/a-neural-basis-for-password-based-species-recognition-in-an-avian-brood-parasite
#13
Kathleen S Lynch, Annmarie Gaglio, Elizabeth Tyler, Joseph Coculo, Matthew I M Louder, Mark E Hauber
Obligate avian brood parasites are raised by heterospecific hosts and therefore, lack critical early exposure to relatives and other conspecifics. Yet, young brood parasites readily recognize and affiliate with others of their own species upon independence. One solution to this social recognition paradox is the ontogenetic password mechanism utilized by obligate parasitic brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), whereby conspecific identification is initially mediated through the cowbird chatter, a non-learned vocal cue...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420601/what-older-people-like-to-play-genre-preferences-and-acceptance-of-casual-games
#14
Alvin Chesham, Patric Wyss, René Martin Müri, Urs Peter Mosimann, Tobias Nef
BACKGROUND: In recent computerized cognitive training studies, video games have emerged as a promising tool that can benefit cognitive function and well-being. Whereas most video game training studies have used first-person shooter (FPS) action video games, subsequent studies found that older adults dislike this type of game and generally prefer casual video games (CVGs), which are a subtype of video games that are easy to learn and use simple rules and interfaces. Like other video games, CVGs are organized into genres (eg, puzzle games) based on the rule-directed interaction with the game...
April 18, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419474/using-advances-from-cognitive-behavioral-models-of-anxiety-to-guide-treatment-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#15
Rachel K Narr, Bethany A Teachman
This case features an adult male with moderate social anxiety disorder and mild depressive symptoms who showed an initial positive response to an earlier experience of cognitive behavior therapy, but then relapsed when he started avoiding social situations again because of continuing beliefs that experiencing anxiety was unacceptable. His treatment at our clinic focused on shifting unhelpful thinking about the likelihood and consequences of becoming anxious and reengaging in avoided social situations so he could learn to tolerate negative affect and uncertainty...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419115/properties-of-the-cuticular-proteins-of-anopheles-gambiae-as-revealed-by-serial-extraction-of-adults
#16
Yihong Zhou, Majors J Badgett, Lynne Billard, John Hunter Bowen, Ron Orlando, Judith H Willis
How cuticular proteins (CPs) interact with chitin and with each other in the cuticle remains unresolved. We employed LC-MS/MS to identify CPs from 5-6 day-old adults of Anopheles gambiae released after serial extraction with PBS, EDTA, 2-8M urea, and SDS as well as those that remained unextracted. Results were compared to published data on time of transcript abundance, localization of proteins within structures and within the cuticle, as well as properties of individual proteins, length, pI, percent histidine, tyrosine, glutamine, and number of AAP[A/V/L] repeats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419062/single-center-study-investigating-foreign-language-acquisition-at-school-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-uni-or-bilateral-cochlear-implants-in-the-swiss-german-population
#17
Renske Beeres-Scheenstra, Claudia Ohnsorg, Claudia Candreia, Sybille Heinzmann, Susana Castellanos, Nicola De Min, Thomas E Linder
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate foreign language acquisition at school in cochlear implant patients. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: CI center. PATIENTS: Forty three cochlear implants (CI) patients (10-18 yr) were evaluated. CI nonusers and patients with CI-explantation, incomplete datasets, mental retardation, or concomitant medical disorders were excluded. INTERVENTION(S): Additional data (type of schooling, foreign language learning, and bilingualism) were obtained with questionnaires...
April 17, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416391/ultrasound-guided-out-of-plane-versus-in-plane-transpectoral-left-axillary-vein-cannulation
#18
Madan Mohan Maddali, Nishant Ram Arora, Nilay Chatterjee
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to compare the frequency of first-attempt successful axillary vein cannulation by the Seldinger technique using out-of-plane ultrasound guidance versus in-plane imaging. Between the two ultrasound imaging planes, this study also compared the number of attempts that were necessary for the cannulation of the left axillary vein along with the number of needle redirections that had to be done for final cannulation of the vein. Incidence of complications and the number of times the procedure was abandoned also were compared between the two imaging planes...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415910/transfer-of-training-in-simple-addition
#19
Yalin Chen, Jamie I D Campbell
In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e...
April 18, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415903/the-impact-of-emotion-on-numerical-estimation-a-developmental-perspective
#20
Emily A Lewis, Alexandra Zax, Sara Cordes
Recent literature has revealed underestimation effects in numerical judgments when adult participants are presented with emotional stimuli (as opposed to neutral; Baker, Rodzon, & Jordan, 2013; Young & Cordes, 2013). Whether these numerical biases emerge early in development however, or instead reflect overt, learned responses to emotional stimuli across development is unclear. Moreover, reported links between numerical acuity and mathematics achievement (e.g., Halberda, Mozzacco & Feigenson, 2008) point to the importance of exploring how numerical approximation abilities in childhood may be influenced in real-world affective contexts...
April 18, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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