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Karen E Elkind-Hirsch, Martha S Paterson, Donna Shaler, Hanh C Gutowski
OBJECTIVE: Our pilot study examined the effectiveness of sitagliptin-metformin (SITA-MET), metformin (MET), and placebo (P) therapy on fasting and post-glucose challenge glucose levels in postpartum women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Prediabetic women (N = 36, age 18 to 42 years) with recent GDM were randomized to P (one pill twice a day), MET (1,000 mg twice a day), or SITA-MET (50 mg SITA, 1,000 mg MET twice a day) for 16 weeks in a single-blind fashion...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Jennifer L Reed, Christie A Cole, Madeleine C Ziss, Heather E Tulloch, Jennifer Brunet, Heather Sherrard, Robert D Reid, Andrew L Pipe
A disconcerting proportion of Canadian nurses are physically inactive and report poor cardiovascular health. Web-based interventions incorporating feedback and group features may represent opportune, convenient, and cost-effective methods for encouraging physical activity (PA) in order to improve the levels of PA and cardiovascular health of nurses. The purpose of this parallel-group randomized trial was to examine the impact of an intervention providing participants with feedback from an activity monitor coupled with a web-based individual, friend or team PA challenge, on the PA and cardiovascular health of nurses working in a cardiovascular setting...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Alessandra Prioreschi, Lukhanyo H Nyati, Alastair van Heerden, Richard J Munthali, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen M Tollman, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Brian Houle, David B Dunger, Shane A Norris
BACKGROUND: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. AIMS: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
A M Adeoye, O Adebayo, M Nwosu, A Adebiyi, M O Owolabi, B O Tayo, B L Salako, A Ogunniyi, R S Cooper
Background: Studies differ on which anthropometric measure of adiposity shows good correlation with cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of common epidemiological measures of adiposity as a correlate of elevated blood pressure in an African population. Methodology: The study was carried out between June 2009 and December 2011 at the medical out-patient department of a tertiary healthcare center in Nigeria. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between blood pressure and body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist circumference (WC)...
December 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Yaqoot Fatima, Suhail A R Doi, Abdullah Al Mamun
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore if there is a causal association between adolescence sleep problems and overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob) in young adults. METHODS: Youth self-reports were used to explore if adolescence (mean age 13.90 years, SD ±0.32) sleep problems lead to general Ow/Ob, computed from body mass index (n = 1075), or abdominal Ow/Ob, computed from waist circumference and waist to height ratio (n = 1179), in young adults (mean age 20.65 years, SD±0...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Noushin Mohammadifard, Awat Feizi, Sayyed Morteza Safavi
PURPOSE: There are epidemiologic studies indicating a positive correlation between high sodium and low potassium intake and body mass index. Therefore, this study was conducted in a cross-sectional sample of Iranian children and adolescents to evaluate the link between 24-h urinary Na:K ratio and risk of obesity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 374 participants aged 11-18 years were included. One 24-h urine sample was collected by each participant to estimate Na:K ratio...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Erin E Centeio, Nate McCaughtry, E Whitney G Moore, Noel Kulik, Alex Garn, Jeffrey Martin, Bo Shen, Cheryl L Somers, Mariane Fahlman
Obesity among children is highly prevalent and can lead to risk factors for chronic disease in adulthood. Key organizations have called on schools to play a larger role by increasing children's physical activity and nutrition by adopting an overall culture of health. This study examined the impact of a socioecological theory driven school-wide nutrition and physical activity intervention on 5th graders' central adiposity and obesity level. In 2015-2016, in the Midwest region of U.S., four treatment and two control schools, including 628 (377 treatment) 5th grade children participated in an eight-month intervention...
March 13, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Meike Traub, Romy Lauer, Tibor Kesztyüs, Olivia Wartha, Jürgen Michael Steinacker, Dorothea Kesztyüs
BACKGROUND: Regular breakfast and well-balanced soft drink, and screen media consumption are associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren. The aim of this research is the combined examination of these three parameters as influencing factors for longitudinal weight development in schoolchildren in order to adapt targeted preventive measures. METHODS: In the course of the Baden-Württemberg Study, Germany, data from direct measurements (baseline (2010) and follow-up (2011)) at schools was available for 1733 primary schoolchildren aged 7...
March 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Karsten Königstein, Denis Infanger, Christopher Klenk, Timo Hinrichs, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Benjamin Hafner, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness in normal weight individuals, and this has not been examined in obese individuals. It is unclear whether an altered body composition acts as a modifier of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness. We examined the association between peak oxygen uptake and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and analysed whether body composition attenuates this association in obese middle-aged individuals...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Ana Henriques, Vânia Teixeira, Hugo Fv Cardoso, Ana Azevedo
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the association between short stature and increased sitting height ratio (SHR) - indicators of stunting - and obesity markers in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of the EPIPorto cohort. Weight, height, sitting height and waist circumference were measured. Obesity was assessed for men and women through BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Short stature (women, <152 cm; men, <164 cm) and high SHR (women, ≥54·05 %; men, ≥53·25 %) were taken as stunting measures...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Jin-Chun Lu, Jun Jing, Li Chen, Yi-Feng Ge, Rui-Xiang Feng, Yuan-Jiao Liang, Bing Yao
BACKGROUND: Many factors may lead to sperm DNA damage. However, it is little known that the correlations of sperm DNA damage with obesity-associated markers, and reproductive hormones and lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma. METHODS: In our prospective study, a total of 1 010 subfertile men, aged from 18 to 50 years old, were enrolled from August 2012 through June 2015. Their obesity-associated markers, semen parameters, sperm acrosomal enzyme activity, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and reproductive hormones and lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma were detected...
March 14, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Jéssica Cumpian-Silva, Ana Elisa Madalena Rinaldi, Camila Medeiros da Silva Mazzeti, Wolney Lisboa Conde
The study aims to describe body phenotypes estimated by multivariate technique for the assessment of nutritional status in adolescence during the process of sexual maturation. The sample consisted of 833 schoolchildren 10 to 15 years of age, selected by complex sampling in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Body phenotypes were defined by principal components analysis (PCA) based on anthropometric data (body mass, height, skinfolds, and waist circumference), body composition (phase angle measurement by bioelectric impedance), biochemical parameters (triglycerides, glucose, total/LDL cholesterol ratio, hemoglobin), and sexual maturation (self-classification of stages of pubic hair and breasts or genitals)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Eliane Cristina de Andrade Gonçalves, Heloyse Elaine Gimenes Nunes, Diego Augusto Santos Silva
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate different clusters of anthropometric indicators (body mass index | BMI |, waist circumference | WC |, waist-to-height ratio | WHtR |, triceps skinfold |TR SF|, subscapular skinfold |SE SF|, sum of the triceps and subscapular skinfolds | ΣTR + SE |, and sum of the triceps, subscapular and suprailiac folds | ΣTR + SE + SI|) associated with the VO2max levels in adolescents. METHODS: The study included 1,132 adolescents (aged 14-19 years) enrolled in public schools of São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in the 2014 academic year...
2018: PloS One
Abdul-Mutala Fuseini, Mohammad Hossein Rahimi, Mehdi Mollahosseini, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Zhila Maghbooli, Khadijeh Mirzaei
OBJECTIVE: The role of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in the development of obesity has been debated globally. The relationship with body shape and fat distribution was examined in this cross-sectional association study among apparently healthy Iranian adults. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A study population of 265 (126 males and 139 females) aged 18-55 years participated in this cross-sectional study from the communities of Tehran based on cluster sampling...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Silvia Bel-Serrat, Mirjam M Heinen, John Mehegan, Sarah O'Brien, Nazih Eldin, Celine M Murrin, Cecily C Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Existing evidence on the role of sociodemographic variables as risk factors for overweight and obesity in school-aged children is inconsistent. Furthermore, findings seem to be influenced by the obesity definition applied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if school sociodemographic indicators were associated with weight status in Irish primary schoolchildren and whether this association was sensitive to different obesity classification systems. METHODS: A nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 7542 Irish children (53...
March 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Agnieszka Dmitruk, Jan Czeczelewski, Ewa Czeczelewska, Jolanta Golach, Urszula Parnicka
Background: Menopause, also referred to as climacterium, is a period of multiple changes in the structure and functions of a woman organism. Objective: Determination of differences in body composition and fatty tissue distribution in women from groups discriminated based on their menstrual status. Material and Methods: The survey covered 312 women aged 38-75 years. Menstrual status of the surveyed women was established according to WHO guidelines based on answers to a questionnaire, and three groups were discriminated: women in the premenopausal period (group 1), in the perimenopausal period (group 2), and in the postmenopausal period (group 3)...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Yosuke Inoue, Annie Green Howard, Amanda L Thompson, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to how the association between urbanisation and abdominal adiposity changes over the course of economic development in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey waves 1993-2011 (seven waves). A mixed linear model was used to investigate the association between community-level urbanisation with waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; an indicator of abdominal adiposity). We incorporated interaction terms between urbanisation and study waves to understand how the association changed over time...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
R Ivanovs, A Kivite, D Ziedonis, I Mintale, J Vrublevska, E Rancans
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Globally, there is a growing interest in understanding and addressing modifiable psychosocial risk factors, particularly depression and anxiety, to prevent CVDs and to reduce morbidity and mortality. Despite the high premature mortality rate from CVDs in Latvia, this is the first Latvian study to examine the association of depression and anxiety with CVD morbidity in a primary care population...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Karen J Arroyo, Gabriela Ramos-Torres, Edward Mezones-Holguin, Juan E Blümel, Germán Barón, Ascanio Bencosme, Zully Benítez, Luz M Bravo, Andrés Calle, Daniel Flores, María T Espinoza, Gustavo Gómez, José A Hernández-Bueno, Mabel Martino, Selva Lima, Alvaro Monterrosa, Desiree Mostajo, Eliana Ojeda, William Onatra, Hugo Sánchez, Konstantinos Tserotas, María S Vallejo, Silvina Witis, María C Zúñiga, Peter Chedraui
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and anxiety in middle-aged women. METHODS: We carried out a secondary analysis of data from a multicenter study of women between 40 and 59 years old from 11 Latin America countries. Anxiety was assessed using the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale. WHtR was calculated according to World Health Organization standards and categorized in tertiles: upper, middle, and lower using 0...
March 5, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Fitsum Eyayu Tarekegne, Mojgan Padyab, Julia Schröders, Jennifer Stewart Williams
Objective: The objective is to identify and describe the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of adults, aged 50 years and over, who self-reported having been diagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus (DM) in Ghana and South Africa. Research design and methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 1. Information on sociodemographic factors, health states, risk factors and chronic conditions is captured from questionnaires administered in face-to-face interviews...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
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