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miRNA biogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546213/tudor-sn-mediated-endonucleolytic-decay-of-human-cell-micrornas-promotes-g1-s-phase-transition
#1
Reyad A Elbarbary, Keita Miyoshi, Jason R Myers, Peicheng Du, John M Ashton, Bin Tian, Lynne E Maquat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. The pathways that mediate mature miRNA decay are less well understood than those that mediate miRNA biogenesis. We found that functional miRNAs are degraded in human cells by the endonuclease Tudor-SN (TSN). In vitro, recombinant TSN initiated the decay of both protein-free and Argonaute 2-loaded miRNAs via endonucleolytic cleavage at CA and UA dinucleotides, preferentially at scissile bonds located more than five nucleotides away from miRNA ends...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542522/a-mutation-in-porcine-pre-mir-15b-alters-the-biogenesis-of-mir-15b-16-1-cluster-and-strand-selection-of-mir-15b
#2
Wenyang Sun, Jing Lan, Lei Chen, Jinjie Qiu, Zonggang Luo, Mingzhou Li, Jinyong Wang, Jiugang Zhao, Tinghuan Zhang, Xi Long, Jie Chai, Zunqiang Yan, Zongyi Guo, Shuangbao Gun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in translational regulation of the messenger RNA molecules. Sequence variations in the genes encoding miRNAs could influence their biogenesis and function. MiR-15b plays an important role in cellular proliferation, apoptosis and the cell cycle. Here, we report the identification of a C58T mutation in porcine pre-miR-15b. Through in vitro and in vivo experiments, we determined that this mutation blocks the transition from pri-miRNA to pre-miRNA, alters the strand selection between miR-15b-5p and miR-15b-3p, and obstructs biogenesis of the downstream miR-16-1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540674/microrna-expression-protein-participants-in-microrna-regulation
#3
Valeria M King, Glen M Borchert
MiRNAs are ~20 nt small RNAs that regulate networks of proteins using a seed region of nucleotides 2-8 to complement the 3' UTR of target mRNAs. The biogenesis and function of miRNAs as translational repressors is facilitated by protein counterparts that process primary and precursor miRNAs to maturity (Drosha/DCGR8 and Dicer/TRBP respectively) and incorporate miRNAs into the protein complex RISC to recognize and repress target mRNAs (RISC proteins: Ago/TRBP1/TRBP2/DICER). Similarly, siRNAs through comparable mechanisms are loaded into the protein complex RITS to heterochromatin formation of DNA and suppress transcription of particular genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534948/dual-strands-of-pre-mir%C3%A2-150-mir%C3%A2-150%C3%A2-5p-and-mir%C3%A2-150%C3%A2-3p-act-as-antitumor-mirnas-targeting-spock1-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#4
Atsushi Okato, Takayuki Arai, Satoko Kojima, Keiichi Koshizuka, Yusaku Osako, Tetsuya Idichi, Akira Kurozumi, Yusuke Goto, Mayuko Kato, Yukio Naya, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Naohiko Seki
Analysis of our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature in human cancers has shown that guide and passenger strands of pre-miR‑150, i.e., miR‑150‑5p and miR‑150‑3p, are significantly downregulated in cancer tissues. In miRNA biogenesis, the passenger strand of miRNA is degraded and is thought to have no functions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of miR‑150‑5p and miR‑150‑3p in naïve prostate cancer (PCa) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529450/mir-696-regulates-c2c12-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-by-targeting-cntfr%C3%AE
#5
Han Wang, Lei Shi, Tingting Liang, BinBin Wang, WangJun Wu, Guosheng Su, Julong Wei, Pinghua Li, Ruihua Huang
Micro-696 (miR-696) has been previously known as an exercise related miRNA, which has a profound role in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis of skeletal muscle. However, its role in skeletal myoblast proliferation and differentiation is still unclear. In this study, we found that miR-696 expressed highly in skeletal muscle and reduced during C2C12 myoblasts differentiation. MiR-696 overexpression repressed C2C12 myoblast proliferation and myofiber formation, while knockdown of endogenous miR-696 expression showed opposite results...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523344/role-of-g3bp1-in-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-microrna-15b-and-microrna-23a-biogenesis-in-endothelial-cells
#6
Hoi-Hin Kwok, Po-Ying Poon, Kylie Hin-Man Mak, Lin-Yao Zhang, Pei Liu, Huoming Zhang, Nai-Ki Mak, Patrick Ying-Kit Yue, Ricky Ngok-Shun Wong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in regulating various normal cellular responses. Recent studies revealed that the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway is subject to sophisticated regulation. Hormonal control of miRNA biogenesis by androgen and estrogen has been demonstrated, but the direct effects of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on miRNA biogenesis are unknown. This study revealed the role of GR in miRNA maturation. We showed that two GR agonists, dexamethasone and ginsenoside-Rg1 rapidly suppressed the expression of mature miR-15b, miR-23a, and miR-214 in human endothelial cells...
May 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522613/dehydration-stress-extends-mrna-3-untranslated-regions-with-noncoding-rna-functions-in-arabidopsis
#7
Hai-Xi Sun, Yan Li, Qi-Wen Niu, Nam-Hai Chua
The 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of mRNAs play important roles in the regulation of mRNA localization, translation and stability. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) generates mRNAs with different 3' UTRs, but the involvement of this process in stress response has not yet been clarified. Here, we report that a subset of stress-related genes exhibits 3' UTR extensions of their mRNAs during dehydration stress. These extended 3' UTRs have characteristics of long noncoding RNAs and likely do not interact with miRNAs...
May 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507561/deletion-extents-are-not-the-cause-of-clinical-variability-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-does-the-interaction-between-dgcr8-and-mirna-cnvs-play-a-major-role
#8
Veronica Bertini, Alessia Azzarà, Annalisa Legitimo, Roberta Milone, Roberta Battini, Rita Consolini, Angelo Valetto
In humans, the most common genomic disorder is the hemizygous deletion of the chromosome 22q11.2 region, that results in the "22q11.2 deletion syndrome" (22q11.2DS). A peculiarity of 22q11.2DS is its great phenotypic variability that makes this pathology a classic example of a syndrome with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. The reasons for this variability have not been elucidated yet, and the molecular substrates underlying the different clinical features of 22q11.2DS are still debated. A cohort of 21 patients has been analyzed by array CGH in order to detect some of the genetic differences that may influence this variability...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505260/evolution-of-two-short-interspersed-elements-in-callorhinchus-milii-chondrichthyes-holocephali-and-related-elements-in-sharks-and-the-coelacanth
#9
Andrea Luchetti, Federico Plazzi, Barbara Mantovani
Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons. Although they usually show fast evolutionary rates, in some instances highly conserved domains (HCDs) have been observed in elements with otherwise divergent sequences and from distantly related species. Here we document the life history of two HCD-SINE families in the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii, one specific to the holocephalan lineage (CmiSINEs) and another one (SacSINE1-CM) with homologous elements in sharks and the coelacanth (SacSINE1s, LmeSINE1s)...
May 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494721/m6a-modification-and-implications-for-micrornas
#10
Ayse Elif Erson-Bensan, Oguzhan Begik
RNA is chemically modified with over 100 distinct reactions. Among these reactions, methylation is probably the most extensively studied modification on the RNA molecule. Studies suggest methylation of Adenine residues (m6A) to be widespread in the transcriptome with potentially important roles in biological processes. Here, we review recent literature on m6A modification and potential implications for microRNA (miRNA) mediated gene expression regulation. These implications involve miRNA biogenesis, mRNA-miRNA interactions and m6A target selection...
May 10, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487436/protective-effect-of-let-7-mirna-family-in-regulating-inflammation-in-diabetes-associated-atherosclerosis
#11
Eoin Brennan, Bo Wang, Aaron McClelland, Muthukumar Mohan, Mariam Marai, Ophelie Beuscart, Sinda Derouiche, Stephen Gray, Raelene Pickering, Chris Tikellis, Monica de Gaetano, Mary Barry, Orina Belton, Syed Tasadaque Ali-Shah, Patrick Guiry, Karin Am Jandeleit-Dahm, Mark E Cooper, Catherine Godson, Phillip Kantharidis
The let-7 miRNA family play a key role in modulating inflammatory responses. Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction are critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, including in the setting of diabetes. Here we report that let-7 levels are decreased in diabetic human carotid plaques and in a model of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis (DAA), the diabetic ApoE(-/-) mouse. In vitro, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced vascular SMC and EC activation was associated with reduced let-7 miRNA expression, via Lin28b, a negative regulator of let-7 biogenesis...
May 9, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471013/oligonucleotide-addressed-covalent-3-terminal-derivatization-of-small-rna-strands-for-enrichment-and-visualization
#12
Aleksandr Osipenko, Alexandra Plotnikova, Milda Nainytė, Viktoras Masevičius, Saulius Klimašauskas, Giedrius Vilkaitis
The HEN1 RNA 2'-O-methyltransferase plays important roles in the biogenesis of small non-coding RNAs in plants and proved a valuable tool for selective transfer of functional groups from cofactor analogues onto miRNA and siRNA duplexes in vitro. Herein, we demonstrate the versatile HEN1-mediated methylation and alkylation of small RNA strands in heteroduplexes with a range of complementary synthetic DNA oligonucleotides carrying user-defined moieties such as internal or 3'-terminal extensions or chemical reporter groups...
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469844/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-regulation-of-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Xiaoxu Chen, Xueliang Li, Jiayin Guo, Pengfei Zhang, Wenxian Zeng
Mammalian spermatogenesis contains three continuous and organized processes, by which spermatogonia undergo mitosis and differentiate to spermatocytes, follow on meiosis to form haploid spermatids and ultimately transform into spermatozoa. These processes require an accurately, spatially and temporally regulated gene expression patterns. The microRNAs are a novel class of post-transcriptional regulators. Cumulating evidences have demonstrated that microRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific or stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469300/bladder-cancer-micro-rnas-as-biomolecules-for-prognostication-and-surveillance
#14
REVIEW
Nilay Mitash, Swasti Tiwari, Shalini Agnihotri, Anil Mandhani
INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer (BC) has varied clinical behavior in terms of recurrence and progression. Current pathological characteristics are insufficient to prognosticate the outcome of a given treatment. Cellular metabolic regulatory molecules, such as micro RNA (miRNA), could be a potential biomarker to prognosticate the treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for publications from 1990 to 2016, related to miRNA biogenesis, its function, and role in the pathogenesis of bladder as well as other cancers...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467117/evaluation-of-compound-optical-interference-in-high-content-screening
#15
Glorymar Ibáñez, Paul A Calder, Constantin Radu, Bhavneet Bhinder, David Shum, Christophe Antczak, Hakim Djaballah
Compound optical interference remains an inherent problem in chemical screening and has been well documented for biochemical assays and less so for automated microscopy-based assays. It has also been the assumption that the latter should not suffer from such interference because of the washing steps involved in the process, thus eliminating the residual nonspecific compound effects. Instead, these compounds may have no relevance to the actual target, and as such, compound optical interference contributes to a number of false-positives, resulting in a high attrition rate during subsequent follow-up studies...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466845/genetic-variation-and-rna-structure-regulate-microrna-biogenesis
#16
Noemi Fernandez, Ross A Cordiner, Robert S Young, Nele Hug, Sara Macias, Javier F Cáceres
MiRNA biogenesis is highly regulated at the post-transcriptional level; however, the role of sequence and secondary RNA structure in this process has not been extensively studied. A single G to A substitution present in the terminal loop of pri-mir-30c-1 in breast and gastric cancer patients had been previously described to result in increased levels of mature miRNA. Here, we report that this genetic variant directly affects Drosha-mediated processing of pri-mir-30c-1 in vitro and in cultured cells. Structural analysis of this variant revealed an altered RNA structure that facilitates the interaction with SRSF3, an SR protein family member that promotes pri-miRNA processing...
May 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461238/functional-analysis-of-microrna-pathway-genes-in-the-somatic-gonad-and-germ-cells-during-ovulation-in-c-elegans
#17
Carmela Rios, David Warren, Benjamin Olson, Allison L Abbott
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play critical roles in animal development and physiology, though functions for most miRNAs remain unknown. Worms with reduced miRNA biogenesis due to loss of Drosha or Pasha/DGCR8 activity are sterile and fail to ovulate, indicating that miRNAs are required for the process of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Starting with this penetrant sterile phenotype and using new strains created to perform tissue specific RNAi, we characterized the roles of the C...
June 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456604/herpesviruses-hijack-host-exosomes-for-viral-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Sara Sadeghipour, Rommel A Mathias
Herpesviruses are remarkable pathogens possessing elaborate mechanisms to seize various host cellular components for immune evasion, replication, and virion egress. As viruses are dependent upon their hosts, investigating this intricate interplay has revealed that the exosome pathway is utilised by alpha (Herpes Simplex Virus 1), beta (Human Cytomegalovirus, and Human Herpesvirus 6) and gamma (Epstein-Barr Virus, and Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus) herpesviruses. Virions and exosomes share similar properties and functions...
April 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455989/polymorphisms-of-pri-mir-219-1-are-associated-with-the-susceptibility-and-prognosis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-a-northeast-chinese-population
#19
Chang Zheng, Xuelian Li, Lingzi Xia, Xue Fang, Xiaowei Quan, Zhihua Yin, Yuxia Zhao, Baosen Zhou
Occurrence and development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a complex process affected both by gene and environment. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs' (miRNAs) biogenesis influenced the expression of mature miRNAs, further had an impact on risk of NSCLC. Our study focused on the correlation between rs213210, rs421446 or rs107822 polymorphisms in pri-miR-219-1 and susceptibility or prognosis of NSCLC in Chinese. A case-control study of 405 new-diagnosis patients and 405 controls was performed...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453394/expression-of-mir-23a-by-apoptotic-regulators-in-human-cancer-a-review
#20
Rabih Roufayel, Seifedine Kadry
MicroRNAs play fundamental roles in mammalian development, differentiation and cellular homeostasis by regulating essential processes such as proliferation, migration, metabolism, migration and cell death. These small non-coding RNAs are also responsible in RNA silencing, and in many developmental and pathological processes. Not surprisingly, miR-23a misexpression contributes to numerous diseases including cancer where certain miRNA genes have been classified as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Since a single microRNA is capable of targeting a large number of mRNA sequences, de-regulated miRNA expression has the ability to alter various transcripts and activate a wide range of cancer-related pathways...
April 28, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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