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miRNA biogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634583/circular-rnas-biogenesis-function-and-role-in-human-diseases
#1
REVIEW
John Greene, Anne-Marie Baird, Lauren Brady, Marvin Lim, Steven G Gray, Raymond McDermott, Stephen P Finn
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are currently classed as non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that, unlike linear RNAs, form covalently closed continuous loops and act as gene regulators in mammals. They were originally thought to represent errors in splicing and considered to be of low abundance, however, there is now an increased appreciation of their important function in gene regulation. circRNAs are differentially generated by backsplicing of exons or from lariat introns. Unlike linear RNA, the 3' and 5' ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together by covalent bonds leading to circularization...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629620/effects-of-inhibiting-vps4-support-a-general-role-for-escrts-in-extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis
#2
Charles E Jackson, Benjamin S Scruggs, Jean E Schaffer, Phyllis I Hanson
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are proposed to play important roles in intercellular communication. Two classes of EVs can be distinguished based on their intracellular origin. Exosomes are generated within endosomes and released when these fuse with the plasma membrane, whereas ectosomes bud directly from the plasma membrane. Studies of EV function have been hindered by limited understanding of their biogenesis. Components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery play essential roles in topologically equivalent processes at both the endosome and the plasma membrane and are consistently recovered in EVs, but whether they are generally required to produce EVs is still debated...
June 16, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612612/-molecular-aspects-of-thyroid-tumors-with-emphasis-on-microrna-and-their-clinical-implications
#3
M Ludvíková, I Kholová, D Kalfeřt
BACKGROUND: Central to neoplastic transformation and tumor progression is alteration of the signaling pathways that control cell proliferation and apoptosis. The key mechanisms for this neoplastic process are genetic changes (mutations of cancer-related genes) and recently identified epigenetic changes that involve DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling (which has a profound effect on the control of gene expression), and noncoding, regulatory RNA (notably, microRNA - miRNA). MiRNAs control expression of their target gene post-transcriptionally...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611354/chronic-low-dose-exposure-to-a-mixture-of-environmental-endocrine-disruptors-induces-micrornas-isomirs-deregulation-in-mouse-concomitant-with-intratesticular-estradiol-reduction
#4
Julio Buñay, Eduardo Larriba, Ricardo D Moreno, Jesús Del Mazo
Humans are environmentally exposed not only to single endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) but to mixtures that affect their reproductive health. In reproductive tissues, microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key targets of EDCs. Here, we analysed changes in the testis "miRNome" (and their biogenesis mechanism) in chronically exposed adult mice to a cocktail of five EDCs containing 0.3 mg/kg-body weight (BW)/day of each phthalate (DEHP, DBP, BBP) and 0.05 mg/kg-BW/day of each alkylphenol (NP, OP), from conception to adulthood...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599275/dicer-suppresses-cytoskeleton-remodeling-and-tumorigenesis-of-colorectal-epithelium-by-mir-324-5p-mediated-suppression-of-hmgxb3-and-wasf-2
#5
Li Na Sun, Cheng Xing, Zheng Zhi, Yao Liu, Liang-Yan Chen, Tong Shen, Qun Zhou, Yu Hong Liu, Wen Juan Gan, Jing-Ru Wang, Yong Xu, Jian Ming Li
Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs, a class of small and well-conserved noncoding RNAs, participate in many physiological and pathological processes. RNase III endonuclease DICER is one of the key enzymes for microRNA biogenesis. Here, we found that DICER was downregulated in tumor samples of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients at both mRNA and protein levels. Importantly, intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of Dicer mice got more tumors after azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598284/the-circular-rna-landscape-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-during-osteogenesis
#6
Yunfei Zheng, Xiaobei Li, Yiping Huang, Lingfei Jia, Weiran Li
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the distinct expression pattern of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) during osteogenesis. METHODS: PDLSCs were isolated and cultured in osteogenic medium. Total RNA from cells at Day 0 (D0), Day 3 (D3), Day 7 (D7), and Day 14 (D14) were extracted, and submitted to RNA-sequencing to detect the expression profiles of circRNAs, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate the expression of circRNAs and miRNAs...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594894/micrornas-upregulated-during-hiv-infection-target-peroxisome-biogenesis-factors-implications-for-virus-biology-disease-mechanisms-and-neuropathology
#7
Zaikun Xu, Eugene L Asahchop, William G Branton, Benjamin B Gelman, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) represent a spectrum neurological syndrome that affects up to 25% of patients with HIV/AIDS. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms contribute to the development of HAND symptoms including chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Among the factors linked to development of HAND is altered expression of host cell microRNAs (miRNAs) in brain. Here, we examined brain miRNA profiles among HIV/AIDS patients with and without HAND. Our analyses revealed differential expression of 17 miRNAs in brain tissue from HAND patients...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594311/a-lentiviral-vector-bearing-a-reverse-intron-demonstrates-superior-expression-of-both-proteins-and-micrornas
#8
Brigid Chiyoko Poling, Kevin Tsai, Dong Kang, Linda Ren, Edward M Kennedy, Bryan R Cullen
While lentiviral expression vectors are widely used in many facets of molecular biology, due to their ability to stably express heterologous genes in both dividing and non-dividing cells, they suffer from the disadvantage that introns inserted into the vector genome are generally rapidly lost by splicing in packaging cell lines. The presence of an intron, if achievable, has the potential to facilitate the expression of transgene cDNAs, as splicing has been extensively shown to facilitate mRNA biogenesis and function...
June 8, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586645/the-protein-phosphatase-4-and-smek1-complex-dephosphorylates-hyl1-to-promote-mirna-biogenesis-by-antagonizing-the-mapk-cascade-in-arabidopsis
#9
Chuanbin Su, Ziwei Li, Jinping Cheng, Lei Li, Songxiao Zhong, Li Liu, Yun Zheng, Binglian Zheng
Phosphorylation plays an essential role in microRNA (miRNA) processing by regulating co-factors of the miRNA biogenesis machinery. HYL1 (Hyponastic Leaves 1), a core co-factor in plant miRNA biogenesis, is a short-lived phosphoprotein. However, the precise balance and regulatory mechanism of the stability and phosphorylation of HYL1 remain unclear. Here, we show that a highly conserved PP4 (Protein Phosphatase 4) and SMEK1 (Suppressor of MEK 1) complex dephosphorylates HYL1 to promote miRNA biogenesis, by antagonizing the MAPK cascade in Arabidopsis...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584122/an-exportin-1-dependent-microrna-biogenesis-pathway-during-human-cell-quiescence
#10
Ivan Martinez, Karen E Hayes, Jamie A Barr, Abby D Harold, Mingyi Xie, Syed I A Bukhari, Shobha Vasudevan, Joan A Steitz, Daniel DiMaio
The reversible state of proliferative arrest known as "cellular quiescence" plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and stem cell biology. By analyzing the expression of miRNAs and miRNA-processing factors during quiescence in primary human fibroblasts, we identified a group of miRNAs that are induced during quiescence despite markedly reduced expression of Exportin-5, a protein required for canonical miRNA biogenesis. The biogenesis of these quiescence-induced miRNAs is independent of Exportin-5 and depends instead on Exportin-1...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573140/colorectal-cancer-from-the-genetic-model-to-posttranscriptional-regulation-by-noncoding-rnas
#11
REVIEW
María Antonia Lizarbe, Jorge Calle-Espinosa, Eva Fernández-Lizarbe, Sara Fernández-Lizarbe, Miguel Ángel Robles, Nieves Olmo, Javier Turnay
Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in developed countries and, despite the improvements achieved in its treatment options, remains as one of the main causes of cancer-related death. In this review, we first focus on colorectal carcinogenesis and on the genetic and epigenetic alterations involved. In addition, noncoding RNAs have been shown to be important regulators of gene expression. We present a general overview of what is known about these molecules and their role and dysregulation in cancer, with a special focus on the biogenesis, characteristics, and function of microRNAs...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557556/regulating-the-regulators-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-genetic-association-study-of-microrna-biogenesis-pathways
#12
Umit Karakas, Ozlem Izci Ay, Mustafa Ertan Ay, Wei Wang, Mehmet Ali Sungur, Kenan Çevik, Gurbet Dogru, Mehmet Emin Erdal
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent complex psychiatric disorders in children as well as adults. ADHD impacts not only the affected individuals but also their families and social and professional networks. The clinical and diagnostic criteria for ADHD remain imprecise, in part, due to lack of robust biomarkers. ADHD comprises multiple subsets of diseases that present a shared set of downstream clinical findings, while displaying extensive molecular heterogeneity. This calls for innovation in diagnostic strategies that can help establish an ADHD diagnosis unequivocally as well as guiding precision medicine in this common mental health disorder...
June 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554761/roles-of-micrornas-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-of-gastric-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Yu Yan, Ruifen Wang, Wenbin Guan, Meng Qiao, Lifeng Wang
Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a key component of the tumor microenvironment (TME). They play critical roles in the occurrence and development of gastric cancer (GC) through controlling various cytokines secretion and direct cell-to-cell interaction. However, the underlying mechanism of CAFs in tumor progression has not been entirely elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as important factors have a central role in the interplay between tumor cell and TME. Recent studies also highlight that the aberrant expression of miRNAs in CAFs is involved in multiple functions in tumorigenesis and malignant process of GC...
March 8, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550151/evolutionary-footprints-reveal-insights-into-plant-microrna-biogenesis
#14
Uciel Chorostecki, Belen Moro, Arantxa L M Rojas, Juan M Debernardi, Arnaldo L Schapire, Cedric Notredame, Javier Palatnik
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that recognize target sequences by base complementarity and play a role in the regulation of target gene expression. They are processed from longer precursor molecules that harbor a fold-back structure. Plant miRNA precursors are quite variable in size and shape, and are recognized by the processing machinery in different ways. However, ancient miRNAs and their binding sites in target genes are conserved during evolution. Here, we designed a strategy to systematically analyze MIRNAs from different species generating a graphical representation of the conservation of the primary sequence and secondary structure...
May 26, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546213/tudor-sn-mediated-endonucleolytic-decay-of-human-cell-micrornas-promotes-g1-s-phase-transition
#15
Reyad A Elbarbary, Keita Miyoshi, Jason R Myers, Peicheng Du, John M Ashton, Bin Tian, Lynne E Maquat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. The pathways that mediate mature miRNA decay are less well understood than those that mediate miRNA biogenesis. We found that functional miRNAs are degraded in human cells by the endonuclease Tudor-SN (TSN). In vitro, recombinant TSN initiated the decay of both protein-free and Argonaute 2-loaded miRNAs via endonucleolytic cleavage at CA and UA dinucleotides, preferentially at scissile bonds located more than five nucleotides away from miRNA ends...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542522/a-mutation-in-porcine-pre-mir-15b-alters-the-biogenesis-of-mir-15b-16-1-cluster-and-strand-selection-of-mir-15b
#16
Wenyang Sun, Jing Lan, Lei Chen, Jinjie Qiu, Zonggang Luo, Mingzhou Li, Jinyong Wang, Jiugang Zhao, Tinghuan Zhang, Xi Long, Jie Chai, Zunqiang Yan, Zongyi Guo, Shuangbao Gun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in translational regulation of the messenger RNA molecules. Sequence variations in the genes encoding miRNAs could influence their biogenesis and function. MiR-15b plays an important role in cellular proliferation, apoptosis and the cell cycle. Here, we report the identification of a C58T mutation in porcine pre-miR-15b. Through in vitro and in vivo experiments, we determined that this mutation blocks the transition from pri-miRNA to pre-miRNA, alters the strand selection between miR-15b-5p and miR-15b-3p, and obstructs biogenesis of the downstream miR-16-1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540674/microrna-expression-protein-participants-in-microrna-regulation
#17
Valeria M King, Glen M Borchert
MiRNAs are ~20 nt small RNAs that regulate networks of proteins using a seed region of nucleotides 2-8 to complement the 3' UTR of target mRNAs. The biogenesis and function of miRNAs as translational repressors is facilitated by protein counterparts that process primary and precursor miRNAs to maturity (Drosha/DCGR8 and Dicer/TRBP respectively) and incorporate miRNAs into the protein complex RISC to recognize and repress target mRNAs (RISC proteins: Ago/TRBP1/TRBP2/DICER). Similarly, siRNAs through comparable mechanisms are loaded into the protein complex RITS to heterochromatin formation of DNA and suppress transcription of particular genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534948/dual-strands-of-pre-mir%C3%A2-150-mir%C3%A2-150%C3%A2-5p-and-mir%C3%A2-150%C3%A2-3p-act-as-antitumor-mirnas-targeting-spock1-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#18
Atsushi Okato, Takayuki Arai, Satoko Kojima, Keiichi Koshizuka, Yusaku Osako, Tetsuya Idichi, Akira Kurozumi, Yusuke Goto, Mayuko Kato, Yukio Naya, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Naohiko Seki
Analysis of our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature in human cancers has shown that guide and passenger strands of pre-miR‑150, i.e., miR‑150‑5p and miR‑150‑3p, are significantly downregulated in cancer tissues. In miRNA biogenesis, the passenger strand of miRNA is degraded and is thought to have no functions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of miR‑150‑5p and miR‑150‑3p in naïve prostate cancer (PCa) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529450/mir-696-regulates-c2c12-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-by-targeting-cntfr%C3%AE
#19
Han Wang, Lei Shi, Tingting Liang, BinBin Wang, WangJun Wu, Guosheng Su, Julong Wei, Pinghua Li, Ruihua Huang
Micro-696 (miR-696) has been previously known as an exercise related miRNA, which has a profound role in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis of skeletal muscle. However, its role in skeletal myoblast proliferation and differentiation is still unclear. In this study, we found that miR-696 expressed highly in skeletal muscle and reduced during C2C12 myoblasts differentiation. MiR-696 overexpression repressed C2C12 myoblast proliferation and myofiber formation, while knockdown of endogenous miR-696 expression showed opposite results...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523344/role-of-g3bp1-in-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-microrna-15b-and-microrna-23a-biogenesis-in-endothelial-cells
#20
Hoi-Hin Kwok, Po-Ying Poon, Kylie Hin-Man Mak, Lin-Yao Zhang, Pei Liu, Huoming Zhang, Nai-Ki Mak, Patrick Ying-Kit Yue, Ricky Ngok-Shun Wong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in regulating various normal cellular responses. Recent studies revealed that the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway is subject to sophisticated regulation. Hormonal control of miRNA biogenesis by androgen and estrogen has been demonstrated, but the direct effects of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on miRNA biogenesis are unknown. This study revealed the role of GR in miRNA maturation. We showed that two GR agonists, dexamethasone and ginsenoside-Rg1 rapidly suppressed the expression of mature miR-15b, miR-23a, and miR-214 in human endothelial cells...
May 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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