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miRNA biogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109717/dicer-1-regulates-proliferative-potential-of-drosophila-larval-neural-stem-cells-through-bantam-mirna-based-down-regulation-of-the-g1-s-inhibitor-dacapo
#1
Animesh Banerjee, Jagat Kumar Roy
The present work elucidates the role of miRNA in cell cycle regulation during brain development in Drosophila. Here we report that lineage specific depletion of dicer-1, a classically acknowledged miRNA biogenesis protein in neuroblasts leads to a reduction in their numbers and size in the third instar larval central brain. These brains also showed lower number of mitotically active cells and when homozygous mitotic clones were generated in an otherwise heterozygous dicer-1 mutant background via MARCM technique, they showed reduced number of progeny cells in individual clones, substantiating the adverse effect of the loss of dicer-1 on the proliferative potential of neuroblasts...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104803/microrna-processing-enzymes-are-essential-for-survival-and-function-of-mature-retinal-pigmented-epithelial-cells-in-mice
#2
Thomas R Sundermeier, Sanae Sakami, Bhubanananda Sahu, Scott J Howell, Songqi Gao, Zhiqian Dong, Marcin Golczak, Akiko Maeda, Krzysztof Palczewski
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. The neovascular or "wet" form of AMD can be treated to a varying degree with anti-angiogenic drugs, but geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced stage of the more prevalent "dry" form of AMD for which there is no effective treatment. Development of GA has been linked to loss of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme DICER1 in the mature retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). This loss results in the accumulation of toxic transcripts of Alu transposable elements which activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and additional downstream pathways that compromise the integrity and function of the RPE...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103887/microrna-expression-patterns-and-signalling-pathways-in-the-development-and-progression-of-childhood-solid-tumours
#3
REVIEW
Anna L Leichter, Michael J Sullivan, Michael R Eccles, Aniruddha Chatterjee
The development of childhood solid tumours is tied to early developmental processes. These tumours may be complex and heterogeneous, and elucidating the aberrant mechanisms that alter the early embryonic environment and lead to disease is essential to our understanding of how these tumours function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators of gene expression at all stages of development, and their crosstalk via developmental signalling pathways is essential for orchestrating regulatory control in processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cells...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087842/novel-determinants-of-mammalian-primary-microrna-processing-revealed-by-systematic-evaluation-of-hairpin-containing-transcripts-and-human-genetic-variation
#4
Christine Anne Roden, Jonathan Gaillard, Shaveta Kanoria, William Rennie, Syndi Barish, Jijun Cheng, Wen Pan, Jun Liu, Chris Cotsapas, Ye Ding, Jun Lu
Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are processed from hairpin-containing primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs). However, rules that distinguish pri-miRNAs from other hairpin-containing transcripts in the genome are incompletely understood. By developing a computational pipeline to systematically evaluate 30 structural and sequence features of mammalian RNA hairpins, we report several new rules that are preferentially utilized in miRNA hairpins and govern efficient pri-miRNA processing. We propose that a hairpin stem length of 36+/-3nt is optimal for pri-miRNA processing...
January 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078993/mirnas-new-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-in-dementia
#5
Ana Teresa de Bastos Viegas, Joana Ribeiro Guedes, Ana Rafaela Oliveira, Ana Maria Sequeira Cardoso, Ana Luísa Colaço Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a complex pathological state that affects millions of individuals worldwide and is responsible for a huge socioeconomic burden, making it a major health concern of current times. Given the impact of dementia in both patients and caregivers, it is crucial to fully clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying dementia-associated disorders, since without this knowledge our ability to correctly diagnose and treat these diseases is severely hampered. METHODS: Epigenetic mechanisms, such as miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, have been reported to play a role in dementia pathogenesis...
January 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076679/molecular-dynamics-simulations-for-deciphering-structural-basis-of-recognition-of-pre-let-7-mirnas-by-lin28
#6
Chhaya Sharma, Debasisa Mohanty
LIN28 protein inhibits biogenesis of miRNAs belonging to let-7 family by binding to precursor forms of miRNAs. Over expression of LIN28 and low levels of let-7 miRNAs are associated with several forms of cancer cells. We have performed multiple explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations ranging from 200 to 500 ns in length on different isoforms of preE-let7 in complex with LIN28 and also in isolation to identify structural features and key specificity determining residues (SDR) important for inhibitory role of LIN28...
January 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074552/validation-of-microrna-pathway-polymorphisms-in-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-survival
#7
Olusola O Faluyi, Lawson Eng, Xin Qiu, Jiahua Che, Qihuang Zhang, Dangxiao Cheng, Nanjiao Ying, Alvina Tse, Qin Kuang, Lorin Dodbiba, Daniel J Renouf, Sharon Marsh, Sevtap Savas, Helen J Mackay, Jennifer J Knox, Gail E Darling, Rebecca K S Wong, Wei Xu, Abul Kalam Azad, Geoffrey Liu
Polymorphisms in miRNA and miRNA pathway genes have been previously associated with cancer risk and outcome, but have not been studied in esophageal adenocarcinoma outcomes. Here, we evaluate candidate miRNA pathway polymorphisms in esophageal adenocarcinoma prognosis and attempt to validate them in an independent cohort of esophageal adenocarcinoma patients. Among 231 esophageal adenocarcinoma patients of all stages/treatment plans, 38 candidate genetic polymorphisms (17 biogenesis, 9 miRNA targets, 5 pri-miRNA, 7 pre-miRNA) were genotyped and analyzed...
January 11, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072411/the-early-growth-response-protein-1-mir-30a-5p-neurogenic-differentiation-factor-1-axis-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-schizophrenia-diagnosis-and-treatment-monitoring
#8
S Liu, F Zhang, Y Y Shugart, L Yang, X Li, Z Liu, N Sun, C Yang, X Guo, J Shi, L Wang, L Cheng, K Zhang, T Yang, Y Xu
To date, diagnosis of schizophrenia is still based on clinical interviews and careful observations, which is subjective and variable, and can lead to misdiagnosis and/or delay in diagnosis. As early intervention in schizophrenia is important in improving outcomes, objective tests that can be used for schizophrenia diagnosis or treatment monitoring are thus in great need. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate target gene expression and their biogenesis is tightly controlled by various factors including transcription factors (TFs)...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053119/short-intron-derived-ncrnas
#9
Florent Hubé, Damien Ulveling, Alain Sureau, Sabrina Forveille, Claire Francastel
Introns represent almost half of the human genome, although they are eliminated from transcripts through RNA splicing. Yet, different classes of non-canonical miRNAs have been proposed to originate directly from intron splicing. Here, we considered the alternative splicing of introns as an interesting source of miRNAs, compatible with a developmental switch. We report computational prediction of new Short Intron-Derived ncRNAs (SID), defined as precursors of smaller ncRNAs like miRNAs and snoRNAs produced directly by splicing, and tested their dependence on each key factor in canonical or alternative miRNAs biogenesis (Drosha, DGCR8, DBR1, snRNP70, U2AF65, PRP8, Dicer, Ago2)...
January 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049499/circular-rnas-in-cancer-an-emerging-key-player
#10
REVIEW
Yeping Dong, Dan He, Zhenzi Peng, Wei Peng, Wenwen Shi, Jun Wang, Bin Li, Chunfang Zhang, Chaojun Duan
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of endogendous RNAs that form a covalently closed continuous loop and exist extensively in mammalian cells. Majority of circRNAs are conserved across species and often show tissue/developmental stage-specific expression. CircRNAs were first thought to be the result of splicing error; however, subsequent research shows that circRNAs can function as microRNA (miRNA) sponges and regulate splicing and transcription. Emerging evidence shows that circRNAs possess closely associated with human diseases, especially cancers, and may serve as better biomarkers...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010188/the-in-vivo-genetic-toolkit-for-studying-expression-and-functions-of-drosophila-melanogaster-micrornas
#11
Hina Iftikhar, Janna N Schultzhaus, Chloe J Bennett, Ginger E Carney
Since the initial reports that a group of small RNAs, now known as microRNAs (miRNAs), regulates gene expression without being translated into proteins, there has been an explosion of studies on these important expression modulators. Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be one of the most amenable animal models for investigations of miRNA biogenesis and gene regulatory activities. Here, we highlight the publicly available genetic tools and strategies for in vivo functional studies of miRNA activity in D. melanogaster...
December 23, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006752/regulation-of-mirnas-by-herbal-medicine-an-emerging-field-in-cancer-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Ali Mohammadi, Behzad Mansoori, Behzad Baradaran
MicroRNAs' expression profiles have recently gained major attention as far as cancer research is concerned. MicroRNAs are able to inhibit target gene expression via binding to the 3' UTR of target mRNA, resulting in target mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. MicroRNAs play significant parts in a myriad of biological processes; studies have proven, on the other hand, that aberrant microRNA expression is, more often than not, associated with the growth and progression of cancers. MicroRNAs could act as oncogenes (oncomir) or tumor suppressors and can also be utilized as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and cancer therapy...
December 19, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002428/integrated-strategy-improves-the-prediction-accuracy-of-mirna-in-large-dataset
#13
Bin Xue, David Lipps, Sree Devineni
MiRNAs are short non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides, which play critical roles in gene expression regulation. The biogenesis of miRNAs is largely determined by the sequence and structural features of their parental RNA molecules. Based on these features, multiple computational tools have been developed to predict if RNA transcripts contain miRNAs or not. Although being very successful, these predictors started to face multiple challenges in recent years. Many predictors were optimized using datasets of hundreds of miRNA samples...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999330/dysregulated-microrna-expression-profiles-and-potential-cellular-circulating-and-polymorphic-biomarkers-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#14
REVIEW
Gabrielle Bradshaw, Heidi G Sutherland, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
A large number of studies have focused on identifying molecular biomarkers, including microRNAs (miRNAs) to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of the most common subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma. NHL is difficult to diagnose and treat with many cases becoming resistant to chemotherapy, hence the need to identify improved biomarkers to aid in both diagnosis and treatment modalities. This review summarises more recent research on the dysregulated miRNA expression profiles found in NHL, as well as the regulatory role and biomarker potential of cellular and circulating miRNAs found in tissue and serum, respectively...
December 17, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982727/insights-into-circular-rna-biology
#15
Karoline K Ebbesen, Thomas B Hansen, Jørgen Kjems
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of non-coding RNA characterized by a covalently closed-loop structure generated through a special type of alternative splicing termed backsplicing. CircRNAs are emerging as a heterogeneous class of molecules involved in modulating gene expression by regulation of transcription, protein and miRNA functions. CircRNA expression is cell type and tissue specific and can be largely independent of the expression level of the linear host gene, indicating that regulation of expression might be an important aspect with regard to control of circRNA function...
December 16, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974621/characterization-of-a-tutase-nuclease-complex-required-for-drosophila-gametogenesis
#16
Ching-Jung Lin, Jiayu Wen, Fernando Bejarano, Fuqu Hu, Diane Bortolamiol-Becet, Lijuan Kan, Piero Sanfilippo, Shu Kondo, Eric C Lai
Post-transcriptional regulatory strategies that involve coupling between terminal uridyltransferase (TUTase) and exoribonuclease enzymes have recently been characterized in diverse species. Of note, the 3' exoribonuclease Dis3L2 has received substantial attention as a factor that metabolizes uridylated substrates in contexts such as general mRNA degradation, turnover of specific miRNAs, and quality control of non-coding RNAs. To date, most studies of Dis3L2 have focused on fungi and mammalian cells. Here, we introduce Drosophila as a system that permits analysis of molecular mechanisms as well as the ability to interrogate organismal phenotypes...
December 14, 2016: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973704/crosstalk-between-hippo-signalling-and-mirnas-in-tumour-progression
#17
REVIEW
Nianshuang Li, Chuan Xie, Nonghua Lu
The Hippo signalling pathway co-ordinately modulates cell regeneration and organ size, and its deregulation contributes to tumourigenesis through many cellular processes, including over-proliferation, apoptosis resistance, and cell migration. Recent discoveries have shed new light on how microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely linked to the Hippo pathway in tumour progression. Hippo signalling has been reported to affect widespread miRNA biogenesis. In turn, several miRNAs regulate Hippo signalling, which contributes to carcinogenesis...
December 14, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957388/microrna-biogenesis-pathway-genes-polymorphisms-and-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Jieyu He, Jun Zhao, Wenbo Zhu, Daxun Qi, Lina Wang, Jinfang Sun, Bei Wang, Xu Ma, Qiaoyun Dai, Xiaojin Yu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may promote the development and progression of human cancers. Therefore, components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway may play critical roles in human cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or mutations in genes involved in the miRNA biogenesis pathway may alter levels of gene expression, affecting disease susceptibility. Results of previous studies on genetic variants in the miRNA biogenesis pathway and cancer risk were inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis is needed to assess the associations of these genetic variants with human cancer risk...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943457/the-functions-of-plant-small-rnas-in-development-and-in-stress-responses
#19
Shengjun Li, Claudia Castillo-Gonzalez, Bin Yu, Xiuren Zhang
Like metazoans, plants use small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) to direct gene expression. Several classes of sRNAs, which are distinguished by their origin and biogenesis, exist in plants. Among them, microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) mainly inhibit gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. In the past decades, plant miRNAs and ta-siRNAs have been shown to be essential for numerous developmental processes, including growth and development of shoots, leaves, flowers, roots, and seeds among others...
December 10, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941687/low-dose-methylmercury-induced-genes-regulate-mitochondrial-biogenesis-via-mir-25-in-immortalized-human-embryonic-neural-progenitor-cells
#20
Xinjin Wang, Mengling Yan, Lina Zhao, Qing Wu, Chunhua Wu, Xiuli Chang, Zhijun Zhou
Mitochondria are essential organelles and important targets for environmental pollutants. The detection of mitochondrial biogenesis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 levels following low-dose methylmercury (MeHg) exposure could expand our understanding of underlying mechanisms. Here, the sensitivity of immortalized human neural progenitor cells (ihNPCs) upon exposure to MeHg was investigated. We found that MeHg altered cell viability and the number of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU)-positive cells...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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