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Platelet microparticles

Tony G Walsh, Alastair W Poole
Our understanding of platelet function has traditionally focused on their roles in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, the latter being causative of vessel occlusion and subsequent ischemic damage to various tissues. In particular, numerous in vivo studies have implicated causative roles for platelets in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to the myocardium. However, platelets clearly have more complex pathophysiological roles particularly as a result of the heterogeneous nature of biologically active cargo secreted from their granules, or contained within released microparticles or exosomes...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Galia Spectre, Fariborz Mobarrez, Ragnhild Stålesen, Claes-Göran Östenson, David Varon, Håkan Wallen, Paul Hjemdahl
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with prothrombotic alterations, and postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications. We therefore investigated whether a standardized mixed meal alters circulating microparticles (MPs) and their procoagulant activity in DM patients. Patients with DM type 1 (T1DM, n = 11) and type 2 (T2DM; n = 9) were studied before and 90 min after a standardized meal (without premeal insulin). MPs in plasma derived from platelets (PMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs), or monocytes (MMPs) were measured by flow cytometry...
March 16, 2018: Platelets
Catalina Burbano, Juan Villar-Vesga, Janine Orejuela, Carlos Muñoz, Adriana Vanegas, Gloria Vásquez, Mauricio Rojas, Diana Castaño
Microparticles (MPs) are vesicles derived from the plasma membrane of different cells, are considered a source of circulating autoantigens, and can form immune complexes (MPs-ICs). The number of MPs and MPs-ICs increases in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MPs activate myeloid cells by inducing IL-6 and TNF-α in both SLE and other diseases. Therefore, we propose that the recognition of MPs-ICs by monocytes rather that MPs may define their phenotype and contribute to the inflammatory process in patients with SLE...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
A Sionis, R Suades, J Sans-Roselló, M Sánchez-Martínez, J Crespo, T Padró, J Cubedo, A Ferrero-Gregori, M Vila-Perales, A Duran-Cambra, L Badimon
BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is the leading cause of death in patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (MI). Despite the recent advances in reperfusion and medical treatment mortality remains unacceptably high. Whether cells of the blood compartment in CS-patients are activated and release microparticles (cMPs) that may be both messengers and biomarkers of cell damage is not known. We aimed to investigate the cMP subtypes and parental activated cells of ST-elevation MI (STEMI)-patients complicated by CS and that of non-CS STEMI-patients (non-CS) in order to identify a cMP signature that could aid CS patient's risk stratification...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Lixiu Wang, Yayan Bi, Muxin Yu, Tao Li, Dongxia Tong, Xiaoyan Yang, Cong Zhang, Li Guo, Chunxu Wang, Yan Kou, Zengxiang Dong, Valerie A Novakovic, Ye Tian, Junjie Kou, Masood A Shammas, Jialan Shi
BACKGROUND: The definitive role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in the prothrombotic state of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) remains unclear. Our objectives were to study the PS exposure on blood cells and microparticles (MPs) in NVAF, and evaluate their procoagulant activity (PCA). METHODS: NVAF patients without (n = 60) and with left atrial thrombi (n = 18) and controls (n = 36) were included in our study. Exposed PS was analyzed with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Muxin Yu, Rujuan Xie, Yan Zhang, Hui Liang, Li Hou, Chengyuan Yu, Jinming Zhang, Zengxiang Dong, Ye Tian, Yayan Bi, Junjie Kou, Valerie A Novakovic, Jialan Shi
Background: Relatively little is known about the role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in procoagulant activity (PCA) in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study was designed to evaluate whether exposed PS on microparticles (MPs) and MP-origin cells were involved in the hypercoagulability in DKD patients. Methods: DKD patients (n = 90) were divided into three groups based on urinary albumin excretion rate, defined as normoalbuminuria (No-A) (<30 mg/24 h), microalbuminuria (Mi-A) (30-299 mg/24 h) or macroalbuminuria (Ma-A) (>300 mg/24 h), and compared with healthy controls (n = 30)...
February 26, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
R Heitmar, P Nicholl, B Lee, Y C Lau, Gyh Lip
Background Hypercoagulability is a leading factor in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Retinal vessel responses to flickering light are an important tool for assessing ocular function. We hypothesised a significant relationship between systemic markers of haemostasis and retinal vessel function. Methods Intra-ocular pressure and retinal microcirculation function were measured in 116 patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease using unstimulated and stimulated arterial and venous retinal vessel responses to flickering light...
March 9, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Y Zhang, C Zhao, Y Wei, S Yang, C Cui, J Yang, J Zhang, R Qiao
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with hypercoagulability, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, which generate microparticles (MPs). Therefore, MPs may be important for PE. METHODS: We established a verified MP measurement procedure to detect MPs in nonpregnant women (n = 25), healthy pregnant women (n = 29) and PE women (n = 73) and compared their MP levels. RESULTS: Microparticles prepared from platelets (PMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs) and leucocytes (LMPs) were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and were analysed by our established flow cytofluorimetric approach, which showed good specificity for determining the cell origin and level of MPs...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Ina Laura Pieper, Gemma Radley, Abigail Christen, Sabrina Ali, Owen Bodger, Catherine A Thornton
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are a life-saving form of mechanical circulatory support in heart failure patients. However, VADs have not yet reached their full potential due to the associated side effects (thrombosis, bleeding, infection) related to the activation and damage of blood cells and proteins caused by mechanical stress and foreign materials. Studies of the effects of VADs on leukocytes are limited, yet leukocyte activation and damage including microparticle generation can influence both thrombosis and infection rates...
March 7, 2018: Artificial Organs
Zuzanna Małgorzata Łukasik, Marcin Makowski, Joanna Samanta Makowska
Thrombosis and cardiovascular complications are common manifestations of a variety of pathological conditions, including infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. Hence, there is great interest in determining the hitherto unforeseen immune role of the main blood coagulation executor-the platelet. Platelets store and release a plethora of immunoactive molecules, generate microparticles, and interact with cells classically belonging to the immune system. The observed effects of platelet involvement in immune processes, especially in autoimmune diseases, are conflicting-from inciting inflammation to mediating its resolution...
February 28, 2018: Rheumatology International
Judit Konya, Ahmed Al Qaissi, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Ramzi Ajjan, Leigh Madden, Khalid M Naseem, Andrew Thomas Garrett, Eric Kilpatrick, Stephen L Atkin
Aims: To determine if clotting, platelet, and endothelial function were affected by simulated short-haul commercial air flight conditions (SF) in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared to controls. Methods: 10 participants with T2DM (7 females, 3 males) and 10 controls (3 females, 7 males) completed the study. Participants were randomized to either spend 2 h in an environmental chamber at sea level conditions (temperature: 23°C, oxygen concentration 21%, humidity 45%), or subject to a simulated 2-h simulated flight (SF: temperature: 23°C, oxygen concentration 15%, humidity 15%), and crossed over 7 days later...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Han Bao, Yuan-Xiu Chen, Kai Huang, Fei Zhuang, Min Bao, Yue Han, Xiao-Hu Chen, Qian Shi, Qing-Ping Yao, Ying-Xin Qi
Endothelial cells (ECs) are located at the interface between flowing blood and the vessel wall, and abnormal EC proliferation induced by pathologic environments plays an important role in vascular remodeling in hypertensive conditions. Exchanges of information between blood components and ECs are important for EC function. Hence, the present study sought to determine how platelets induce EC dysfunction under hypertensive conditions. EC proliferation was increased in renal hypertensive rats established by abdominal aortic coarctation compared with control rats and that elevated thrombin in plasma promoted platelet activation, which may induce the release of platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs)...
February 26, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yan Chen, Guangping Li, Ming-Lin Liu
Microvesicles (MVs, also known as microparticles) are small vesicles that originate from plasma membrane of almost all eukaryotic cells during apoptosis or activation. MVs can serve as extracellular vehicles to transport bioactive molecules from their parental cells to recipient target cells, thereby serving as novel mediators for intercellular communication. Importantly, more and more evidence indicates that MVs could play important roles in early pathogenesis and subsequent progression of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases...
February 17, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Loretta Ma, AnneMarie Gagnon, Anne Landry, Timothea Le, Fengxia Xiao, Cathy Sun, Heather A Lochnan, Dylan Burger, Alexander Sorisky
When recombinant human (rh) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is administered to thyroid cancer survivors, an acute extra-thyroidal effect raises pro-inflammatory cytokines and activates platelets. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine recently implicated in platelet activation. Our aim was to measure platelet microparticle levels after rhTSH stimulation in vivo, and to investigate TSLP expression in TSH-stimulated human adipocytes in culture. Blood samples for total and platelet microparticle analysis were obtained from thyroid cancer survivors before (day 1) and after rhTSH administration (day 5)...
February 19, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Zhaowei Chen, Quanyin Hu, Zhen Gu
Cell therapy has become a momentum-gathering treatment strategy for a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, hemophilia, and cardiomyopathy. However, clinical applications of conventional cell therapies have often been compromised by rapid decline in viability and function of the transplanted cells due to host recognition and subsequent foreign body rejection. Along this line, cell engineering technologies such as cell encapsulation within microcapsules and immobilization in porous scaffolds have been implemented to address the immunosuppression concerns...
February 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Daniel Millar, Larry Murphy, Audrey Labrie, Elisabeth Maurer-Spurej
Platelet inventory management based on screening microparticle content in platelet concentrates is a new quality improvement initiative for hospital blood banks. Cells fragment off microparticles (MP) when they are stressed. Blood and blood components may contain cellular fragments from a variety of cells, most notably from activated platelets. When performing their roles as innate immune cells and major players in coagulation and hemostasis, platelets change shape and generate microparticles. With dynamic light scattering (DLS)-based microparticle detection, it is possible to differentiate activated (high microparticle) from non-activated (low microparticle) platelets in transfusions, and optimize the use of this scarce blood product...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jyotsna Kailashiya
Platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) are nano size fragments (100-1000 nm) released from platelets under various physiological and pathological conditions. PMP are the most abundant microparticles present in human blood. In recent past years PMP have caught attention of many clinicians as well as researchers for being associated with many diseases like cardio-vascular diseases, infections etc; and have emerged as potential biomarkers. Owing to their small size and diverse phenotype, structure and functions, microparticles including PMP render many challenges during sample handling, estimation and characterization...
February 1, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Mehran Ghasemzadeh, Ehteramolsadat Hosseini, Zahra Oushyani Roudsari, Parvin Zadkhak
Platelets storage lesion is mainly orchestrated by platelet activating signals during storage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are being considered as important signaling molecules modulating platelet function while their production has also been shown to be augmented by platelet activation. This study investigated to what extent endogenous ROS generation during platelet storage could be correlated with platelet receptor shedding, microvesiculation and adhesive function. 10 PRP-platelet concentrates were subjected to flow cytometry analysis to examine the generation of intraplatelet ROS on days 1, 5 and 7 after storage...
February 1, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Somedeb Ball, Kyaw Zin Thein, Abhishek Maiti, Kenneth Nugent
Thrombosis is common in cancer patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are common malignancies in elderly individuals and are known for a high incidence of thrombotic complications. Different risk factors have been identified in studies, and risk models have been developed to identify patients with MPN at higher risk for thrombosis. Several pathophysiological mechanisms help explain the increased likelihood of thrombosis in these patients. Factors, such as leukocyte and platelet activation leading to the formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates, activation of the coagulation cascade by microparticles, high levels of inflammatory cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction have a crucial role in thrombosis in MPN patients...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Shosaku Nomura, Tomoki Ito, Hideaki Yoshimura, Masaaki Hotta, Takahisa Nakanishi, Shinya Fujita, Aya Nakaya, Atsushi Satake, Kazuyoshi Ishii
Background: Thrombosis is one of the complications in the clinical course of multiple myeloma (MM). Vascular endothelial cells and/or the hemostatic-coagulatory system are thought to play an important role in thrombosis of MM. In addition to melphalan-prednisone (Mel-P) therapy, several new therapeutic drugs such as lenalidomide or bortezomib have been developed and show effectiveness against MM. However, these new drugs also have risk of therapy-related thrombosis. Methods: We assessed 103 MM patients and 30 healthy controls, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to evaluate five biomarkers: platelet-derived microparticles (PDMP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1), endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)...
2018: Journal of Blood Medicine
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