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Ramón Martínez-Mármol, Bruna Barneda-Zahonero, David Soto, Rosa Maria Andrés, Elena Coccia, Xavier Gasull, Laura Planells-Ferrer, Rana S Moubarak, Eduardo Soriano, Joan X Comella
Caspases have recently emerged as key regulators of axonal pruning and degeneration and of long-term depression (LTD), a long-lasting form of synaptic plasticity. However, the mechanism underlying these functions remains unclear. In this context, XIAP has been shown to modulate these processes. The neuron-specific form of FAIM protein (FAIM-L) is a death receptor antagonist that stabilizes XIAP protein levels, thus preventing death receptor-induced neuronal apoptosis. Here we show that FAIM-L modulates synaptic transmission, prevents chemical-LTD induction in hippocampal neurons, and thwarts axon degeneration after nerve growth factor (NGF) withdrawal...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sarah Elizabeth Skerratt, Mark D Andrews, Sharan K Bagal, James Bilsland, David Brown, Peter J Bungay, Susan Cole, Karl R Gibson, Russell Jones, Inaki Morao, Angus Nedderman, Kiyoyuki Omoto, Colin Robinson, Thomas Ryckmans, Kimberly Skinner, Paul Anthony Stupple, Gareth Waldron
The neurotrophin family of growth factors, comprised of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4 (NT4), is implicated in the physiology of chronic pain. Given the clinical efficacy of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies, there is significant interest in the development of small molecule modulators of neurotrophin activity. Neurotrophins signal through the tropomyosin related kinase (Trk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors, hence Trk kinase inhibition represents a potentially "druggable" point of intervention...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
R Gajendra Reddy, Lenin Veeraval, Swati Maitra, Marylène Chollet-Krugler, Sophie Tomasi, Françoise Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Joël Boustie, Sumana Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: Natural products from lichens are widely investigated for their biological properties, yet their potential as central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic agents is less explored. PURPOSE: The present study investigated the neuroactive properties of selected lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and usnic acid), for their neurotrophic, neurogenic and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activities. METHODS: Neurotrophic activity (neurite outgrowth) was determined using murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Nisarat Ruangsawasdi, Matthias Zehnder, Raphael Patcas, Chafik Ghayor, Barbara Siegenthaler, Bebeka Gjoksi, Franz E Weber
Conventional root canal treatment in immature permanent teeth can lead to early tooth loss in children because root formation is discontinued. We investigated whether the stem cell factor (SCF) could facilitate cell homing in the pulpless immature root canal and promote regeneration of a functional pulp. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were exposed to SCF at various concentrations for assessing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation towards odonto/osteoblasts by 3D-chemotaxis slides, WST-1 assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Tsia-Shu Lo, Yi-Hao Lin, Hsiao-Chien Chu, Eileen Feliz M Cortes, Leng Boi Pue, Yiap Loong Tan, Ma Clarissa Uy-Patrimonio
AIM: By investigating the association of urodynamics and urogenital nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in vaginal mesh surgery, we may be able to associate the likelihood of postoperative lower urinary tract symptoms developing as a result of synthetic mesh implanted for pelvic floor reconstructive surgery. METHODS: Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: mesh, sham (no mesh), and control. Urodynamic study and NGF analysis of the urogenital tissues were done and results were compared among all groups...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
G P Adams, M H Ratto, M E Silva, R A Carrasco
The ovulation-inducing effect of seminal plasma was first reported in Bactrian camels over 30 years ago, and the entity responsible was dubbed 'ovulation-inducing factor' (OIF). More recent studies, primarily in llamas and alpacas, characterized the biological and chemical properties of OIF and ultimately identified it as βNGF. This recent discovery has allowed a convergence of knowledge previously separated by discipline and by mechanism; that is, neurobiology and reproductive biology, and autocrine/paracrine vs endocrine...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Liping Liu, Tiedong Sun, Feng Xin, Wei Cui, Jianquan Guo, Jian Hu
AIMS: To study whether autophagy participates in the neuroprotective effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on neurons treated with alcohol. METHODS: The autophagy-related markers were used to explore the role of autophagy in PC12 cells exposed to alcohol or pre-incubated with NGF before initiating the treatment with alcohol (100 mM; 6 h). PC12 cells were pre-incubated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (10 mM; 1 h) or rapamycin (100 nM; 1 h) before co-incubated with alcohol (100 mM; 6 h) in order to investigate the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy...
October 19, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Valeria Lanza, Alessio Travaglia, Gaetano Malgieri, Roberto Fattorusso, Giuseppe Grasso, Giuseppe Di Natale, Valeria Zito, Giuseppe Arena, Danilo Milardi, Enrico Rizzarelli
Many biochemical pathways involving nerve growth factor (NGF), a neurotrophin with copper(II) binding abilities, are regulated by the ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system. However, whether NGF binds Ub and the role played by copper(II) ions in modulating their interactions have not yet been investigated. Herein NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, ESI-MS, and titration calorimetry are employed to characterize the interactions of NGF with Ub. NGF1-14 , which is a short model peptide encompassing the first 14 N-terminal residues of NGF, binds the copper-binding regions of Ub (KD =8...
October 19, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Jun-Mian Tian, Cheng-Chen Zhang, Bo Luo, Jin-Ming Gao
Two picrotoxane sesquiterpene lactone glycosides, nepalactones A (1) and B (2), and one new coumarin, nepalarin (3), were isolated from the root barks of the poisonous plant Coriarianepalensis. Their structures were elucidated via HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, and further verified via transformation methods. In addition, compounds 1-3 and five semisynthetic congeners (1a-e) were assayed for the activity to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. As a result, nepalactone A derivative 1c and nepalarin (3) significantly enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Self-assembling peptide gel (SPG-178) provides new evidence for the role of a scaffold for treatment of the spinal cord through induction of neuroprotective factors. OBJECTIVE: To verify the reproducibility of SPG-178 as scaffold after spinal cord injury, we examine the characteristics of SPG-178 and protective effect on neural cells in vitro and in vivo. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The central nervous system extracellular matrix may play a role in maintenance of the neuronal network by inhibiting axonal growth and suppressing formation of additional inadequate synapses...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Ching-Chung Liang, Tsong-Hai Lee, Shuenn-Dhy Chang
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells on bladder dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female rats were subjected to either 60 minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or a sham operation. Rats were divided into four groups: sham operation, MCAO without treatment, infusion with 1×10(6) CD34(+) cells 30 minutes before MCAO, and infusion with 1×10(6) CD34(+) cells 3 hours after MCAO...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Richa Rathod, Amrita Khaire, Anvita Kale, Sadhana Joshi
Vitamin B12 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) are known to influence cognition. This study aims to examine if these nutrients affect the protein levels and gene expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the cortex and hippocampus in the second generation offspring at 3 mo of age. Wistar rats were fed the following diets for two generations: Control (CON), vitamin B12 deficient (VBD), vitamin B12 deficient supplemented with n-3 PUFA (VBDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (VBS), vitamin B12 supplemented with n-3 PUFA (VBSO)...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Amrita Ahluwalia, Michael K Jones, Tomasz Brzozowski, Andrzej S Tarnawski
Angiogenesis is critical for the healing of gastric mucosal injury and is considered to be primarily regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the fundamental pro-angiogenic factor. The role of nerve growth factor (NGF) in gastric angiogenesis is unknown. We examined: the expression of NGF and its TrkA receptor in endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from gastric mucosa of rats (GMECs); the effect of NGF treatment on in vitro angiogenesis in GMECs; and, the mechanisms underlying NGF's pro-angiogenic actions...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Nermeen El-Moataz Bellah Ahmed, Masashi Murakami, Satoru Kaneko, Misako Nakashima
Recent studies have demonstrated that culture under hypoxia has beneficial effects on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, there are limitations to achieving a stable condition in conventional hypoxic CO2 incubators. DPSCs are a unique type of MSCs which are promising in many regenerative therapies. In this study, we investigated the ideal hypoxic culture environment for DPSCs using a new system that can provide controlled O2 environment. The effects of hypoxia (3%, 5%) on the stemness properties of DPSCs...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Sabrina Giacoppo, Oriana Trubiani, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Conditioned medium derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects in preclinical models. Given the difficulty to harvest MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissues, research has been focused to find alternative resources for MSCs, such as oral-derived tissues. Recently, we have demonstrated the protective effects of MSCs obtained from healthy human periodontal ligament tissue (hPDLSCs) in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of conditioned medium obtained from hPDLSCs of Relapsing Remitting- Multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients on NSC34 mouse motoneurons stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Kashmira Wani, Maya Maliekal, Marilynn R Fairfax, Navya Talluri, Holly Cox, Eunice Woldt, Nitin Chouthai
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal medications on Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Interleukin-6 (IL6) levels in Human Breast Milk (HBM). METHODS: A total of 30 samples of HBM were collected after consent from consecutively born term newborns. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Interluekin-6 (IL6) concentrations were analyzed using ELISA assays from R&D Systems. The HBM samples were centrifuged, and the clear portion of the HBM after discarding the fat was analyzed and cytokine data were expressed as NGFC or IL6C...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Damir Omerbašić, Ewan St J Smith, Mirko Moroni, Johanna Homfeld, Ole Eigenbrod, Nigel C Bennett, Jane Reznick, Chris G Faulkes, Matthias Selbach, Gary R Lewin
The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Nihar Kinarivala, Kaushik Shah, Thomas J Abbruscato, Paul C Trippier
The PC12 cell line is a widely used in vitro model for screening the neuroprotective activity of small molecule libraries. External insult due to serum deprivation or addition of etoposide induces cell death by apoptosis. While this screening method is commonly used in early stage drug discovery no protocol accounting for cell passage number effect on neuroprotective activity has been disclosed. We herein report that passage variation results in false-positive/false-negative identification of neuroprotective compounds; undifferentiated PC12 cells with high passage number are less sensitive to injury induced by serum-deprivation or etoposide treatment...
October 10, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Li-Na Yu, Li-Hong Sun, Min Wang, Min Yan
Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5), also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), is an important member of ERK family, which is a subfamily of the large MAPK family. ERK5 is expressed in many tissues, including the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the spinal cord. In this review, we focus on elaborating ERK5-associated pathway in pathological pain, in which the ERK5/CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein) pathway plays a crucial role in the transduction of pain signal and contributes to pain hypersensitivity...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Jonathan M Peake, Llion A Roberts, Vandre C Figueiredo, Ingrid Egner, Simone Krog, Sigve N Aas, Katsuhiko Suzuki, James F Markworth, Jeff S Coombes, David Cameron-Smith, Truls Raastad
Cold water immersion and active recovery are common post-exercise recovery treatments. However, little is known about whether these treatments influence inflammation and cellular stress in human skeletal muscle after exercise. We compared the effects of cold water immersion versus active recovery on inflammatory cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, neurotrophins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in skeletal muscle after intense resistance exercise. Nine active men performed unilateral lower-body resistance exercise on separate days, at least 1 wk apart...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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