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Tuberculosis and Vitamin D supplementation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112181/vitamin-d-supplementation-in-respiratory-diseases-evidence-from-rct
#1
Carolien Mathyssen, Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez, Roger Bouillon, Wim Janssens
Pulmonary diseases are one of the most important causes for morbidity and mortality. Although vitamin D is best known for its role in calcium, phosphorus and bone homeostasis, in the recent years vitamin D has gained attention because of a wide range of extra-skeletal effects including its immunomodulatory and antibacterial potential. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in chronic pulmonary diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis and asthma and several clinical studies have been conducted investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on disease outcomes...
November 2, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102433/effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-non-skeletal-disorders-a-systematic-review-of-meta-analyses-and-randomised-trials
#2
REVIEW
Philippe Autier, Patrick Mullie, Alina Macacu, Miruna Dragomir, Magali Boniol, Kim Coppens, Cécile Pizot, Mathieu Boniol
Randomised trials reported up to Dec 31, 2012, did not confirm that vitamin D supplementation could protect from non-skeletal health conditions affecting adults, as was expected on the basis of data from observational studies. To examine whether the more recently published meta-analyses and trials would change past conclusions, we systematically reviewed meta-analyses of vitamin D supplementation and non-skeletal disorders published between Jan 1, 2013, and May 31, 2017, that included study participants of all ages, including pregnant women...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075541/unusual-complication-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#3
Prerna Sharma, Ravindra Nath Sahay
INTRODUCTION: Capreomycin is a second-line drug often used for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis which can result in nephrotoxic effects similar to other aminoglycosides. We describe a case of capreomycin induced Bartter-like syndrome with hypocalcemic tetany. CASE REPORT: 23-year-old female patient presented with carpopedal spasms and tingling sensations in hands. Patient was being treated with capreomycin for two months for tuberculosis. On further investigation, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis were noted...
2017: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069246/hypercalcemia-in-children-three-cases-report-with-unusual-clinical-presentations
#4
Bruna Barros Garbim, Larissa D Ávila, Sumara Zuanazi Pinto Rigatto, Kélcia Rosana da Silva Quadros, Vera Maria Santoro Belangero, Rodrigo Bueno de Oliveira
Hypercalcemia is a rare condition in childhood; the most common causes are primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, prolonged immobilisation, thyrotoxicosis, thiazide diuretic, supplements containing calcium, milk-alkali syndrome, vitamin D intoxication, infections and idiopathic. We present three cases of severe hypercalcemia of unusual causes in children. The first patient had high fever, poor general condition, weight loss and myalgia. Extensive preliminary investigation did not define the etiology, but a review of medical history revealed prolonged contact with pet bird and a positive serology for Chlamydia confirmed the diagnosis of psittacosis...
April 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870263/effect-of-maternal-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-maternal-health-birth-outcomes-and-infant-growth-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-pregnant-women-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Christopher P Duggan, Said Aboud, Alfa Muhihi, David M Sando, Fadhlun M Alwy Al-Beity, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has significant immunomodulatory effects on both adaptive and innate immune responses. Observational studies indicate that adults infected with HIV with low vitamin D status may be at increased risk of mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, and HIV disease progression. Growing observational evidence also suggests that low vitamin D status in pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth and infant health outcomes. As a result, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adjunct vitamin D3 supplementation may improve the health of HIV-infected pregnant women and their children...
September 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749951/vitamin-d-deficient-mice-have-more-invasive-urinary-tract-infection
#6
Olof Hertting, Petra Lüthje, Devin Sullivan, Pontus Aspenström, Annelie Brauner
Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem with consequences not limited to bone and calcium hemostasis. Low levels have also been linked to tuberculosis and other respiratory infections as well as autoimmune diseases. We have previously shown that supplementation with vitamin D can induce the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin during ex vivo infection of human urinary bladder. In rodents, however, cathelicidin expression is not linked to vitamin D and therefore this vitamin D-related effect fighting bacterial invasion is not relevant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692301/high-dose-vitamin-d3-during-tuberculosis-treatment-in-mongolia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Baatar Munkhzul, Wafaie Fawzi, Donna Spiegelman, Walter C Willett, Purev Bayasgalan, Erkhembayar Baasansuren, Burneebaatar Buyankhishig, Sereeter Oyun-Erdene, David A Jolliffe, Theodoros Xenakis, Sabri Bromage, Barry R Bloom, Adrian R Martineau
RATIONALE: Existing trials of adjunctive vitamin D in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are variously limited by small sample sizes, inadequate dosing regimens, and high baseline vitamin D status among participants. Comprehensive analyses of the effects of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway on response to vitamin D supplementation are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 on response to antimicrobial therapy for PTB and to evaluate the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D pathway genes on response to adjunctive vitamin D3...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672783/vitamin-d-and-infectious-diseases-simple-bystander-or-contributing-factor
#8
REVIEW
Pedro Henrique França Gois, Daniela Ferreira, Simon Olenski, Antonio Carlos Seguro
Vitamin D (VD) is a fat-soluble steroid essential for life in higher animals. It is technically a pro-hormone present in few food types and produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. In recent decades, several studies have suggested that VD contributes to diverse processes extending far beyond mineral homeostasis. The machinery for VD production and its receptor have been reported in multiple tissues, where they have a pivotal role in modulating the immune system. Similarly, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major global public healthcare burden...
June 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638616/vitamin-d-deficiency-among-newly-diagnosed-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-household-contacts-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#9
Meseret Workineh, Biniam Mathewos, Beyene Moges, Adissu Gize, Sisay Getie, Olle Stendahl, Thomas Schon, Ebba Abate
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that the incidence and severity of tuberculosis is associated with low levels of vitamin D. Even though individuals living in Ethiopia have a high exposure to sunlight which is a source of vitamin D, tuberculosis is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the country. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of vitamin D deficiency in newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients, household contacts and community controls in Gondar, Ethiopia...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619953/solar-ultraviolet-b-exposure-and-global-variation-in-tuberculosis-incidence-an-ecological-analysis
#10
Tjarda M Boere, Douwe H Visser, A Marceline van Furth, Paul Lips, Frank G J Cobelens
Epidemiological evidence supports vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for tuberculosis. Differences in solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) exposure, the major source of vitamin D, might therefore partially explain global variation in tuberculosis incidence.In a global country-based ecological study, we explored the correlation between vitamin D-proxies, such as solar UV-B exposure, and other relevant variables with tuberculosis incidence, averaged over the period 2004-2013.Across 154 countries, annual solar UV-B exposure was associated with tuberculosis incidence...
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571130/effect-of-dots-treatment-on-vitamin-d-levels-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
Akshatha Lalesh Naik, Madan Gopal Rajan, Poornima A Manjrekar, Mamatha T Shenoy, Souparnika Shreelata, Rukmini Mysore Srikantiah, Anupama Hegde
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D (Vit D) modulates a variety of processes and regulatory systems including host defense, inflammation, immunity, and repair. Vit D Deficiency (VDD) is been implicated as a cause in diabetes, immune dysfunction and Tuberculosis (TB). Impaired metabolism of Vit D and an adverse outcome is associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) consist of drugs like rifampicin and isoniazid, which respectively cause accelerated loss of Vit D due to increased clearance and impairment of 25-hydroxylation causing diminished Vit D action...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520939/dietary-intake-of-antioxidant-vitamins-and-carotenoids-and-risk-of-developing-active-tuberculosis-in-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Avril Z Soh, Cynthia B E Chee, Yee-Tang Wang, Jian-Min Yuan, Woon-Puay Koh
Antioxidants may protect against oxidative stress, which is associated with tuberculosis (TB) disease. However, direct evidence for a protective association between dietary antioxidants and TB incidence in humans has been lacking. The relationship between intake of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and individual carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein) and TB incidence was examined in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 63,257 adults aged 45-74 years enrolled during 1993-1998...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518221/micronutrient-supplementation-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#13
REVIEW
Marianne E Visser, Solange Durao, David Sinclair, James H Irlam, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women)...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490367/vitamin-d-deficiency-among-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-tuberculosis-negative-household-contacts-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-case-control-study
#14
Belay Tessema, Feleke Moges, Dereje Habte, Nebiyu Hiruy, Shewaye Yismaw, Kassahun Melkieneh, Yewulsew Kassie, Belaineh Girma, Muluken Melese, Pedro G Suarez
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that increases the immunity against tuberculosis (TB), decreases the re-activation of latent TB and reduces the severity of active TB disease. Epidemiological studies on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and its association with TB showed inconsistent results in different countries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with TB in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and their household contacts without symptoms suggestive of TB...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360493/vitamin-d-levels-among-pediatric-tuberculosis-patients-does-it-alter-following-antitubercular-treatment-a-prospective-study-in-19-children
#15
Anil Agarwal, Pradeep Kumar Dabla, Madhusudan Mishra, Anubrat Kumar, Abbas Shaharyar
OBJECTIVES: It is still unknown whether altered vitamin D levels observed with osteoarticular tuberculosis change during treatment in a child or modify the disease course. To find a possible answer to the above query, we investigated serial serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations in children suffering from osteoarticular tuberculosis treated with multidrug antitubercular drugs. METHODS: The prospective study enrolled 19 untreated immunocompetent children with an established diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183335/efficacy-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-reducing-incidence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-mortality-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-adults-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Christopher R Sudfeld, Ferdinand Mugusi, Said Aboud, Tumaini J Nagu, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience high rates of morbidity and mortality during the initial months of treatment. Observational studies in high-income and resource-limited settings indicate that HIV-infected adults with low vitamin D levels may be at increased risk of mortality, HIV disease progression, and incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). As a result, vitamin D3 supplementation may improve survival and treatment outcomes for HIV-infected adults initiating ART...
February 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111615/the-effects-of-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-on-the-actions-of-vitamin-d-in-human-macrophages
#17
Supavit Chesdachai, Susu M Zughaier, Li Hao, Russell R Kempker, Henry M Blumberg, Thomas R Ziegler, Vin Tangpricha
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. Patients with TB have a high rate of vitamin D deficiency, both at diagnosis and during the course of treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs. Although data on the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) clearance is uncertain from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), vitamin D enhances the expression of the anti-microbial peptide human cathelicidin (hCAP18) in cultured macrophages in vitro. One possible explanation for the mixed (primarily negative) results of RCTs examining vitamin D treatment in TB infection is that anti-TB drugs given to enrolled subjects may impact actions of vitamin D to enhance cathelicidin in macrophages...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096657/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-a-meta-analysis
#18
Shao-Jun Huang, Xian-Hua Wang, Zhi-Dong Liu, Wen-Li Cao, Yi Han, Ai-Guo Ma, Shao-Fa Xu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To conduct meta-analyses of all published studies on various aspects of association between vitamin D and tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: PubMed and Web of Knowledge were searched for all properly controlled studies on vitamin D and TB. Pooled odds ratio, mean difference or standardized mean difference, and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated with the Cochrane Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: A significantly lower vitamin D level was found in TB patients vs controls; vitamin D deficiency (VDD) was associated with an increased risk of TB, although such an association was lacking in the African population and in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected African population...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826955/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-preventing-infections-in-children-under-five-years-of-age
#19
REVIEW
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Rehana A Salam, Farhan R Khan, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a micronutrient important for bone growth and immune function. Deficiency can lead to rickets and has been linked to various infections, including respiratory infections. The evidence on the effects of supplementation on infections in children has not been assessed systematically. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in preventing pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), diarrhoea, and malaria in children under five years of age...
November 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763570/vitamin-d-status-and-its-consequences-for-health-in-south-africa
#20
REVIEW
Mary Norval, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Liza Bornman, Robyn M Lucas, Caradee Y Wright
In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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