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Tuberculosis and Vitamin D supplementation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520939/dietary-intake-of-antioxidant-vitamins-and-carotenoids-and-risk-of-developing-active-tuberculosis-in-a-prospective-population-based-cohort
#1
Avril Z Soh, Cynthia B E Chee, Yee-Tang Wang, Jian-Min Yuan, Woon-Puay Koh
Antioxidants may protect against oxidative stress, which is associated with tuberculosis disease. However, direct evidence for the protective association between dietary antioxidants and tuberculosis incidence in humans has been lacking. The relation between intake of antioxidant vitamins (A, C, D, E) and individual carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein) and tuberculosis incidence was examined in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 adults 45-74 years old enrolled during 1993-1998...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518221/micronutrient-supplementation-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#2
REVIEW
Marianne E Visser, Solange Durao, David Sinclair, James H Irlam, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women)...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490367/vitamin-d-deficiency-among-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-tuberculosis-negative-household-contacts-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-case-control-study
#3
Belay Tessema, Feleke Moges, Dereje Habte, Nebiyu Hiruy, Shewaye Yismaw, Kassahun Melkieneh, Yewulsew Kassie, Belaineh Girma, Muluken Melese, Pedro G Suarez
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that increases the immunity against tuberculosis (TB), decreases the re-activation of latent TB and reduces the severity of active TB disease. Epidemiological studies on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and its association with TB showed inconsistent results in different countries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with TB in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and their household contacts without symptoms suggestive of TB...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360493/vitamin-d-levels-among-pediatric-tuberculosis-patients-does-it-alter-following-antitubercular-treatment-a-prospective-study-in-19-children
#4
Anil Agarwal, Pradeep Kumar Dabla, Madhusudan Mishra, Anubrat Kumar, Abbas Shaharyar
OBJECTIVES: It is still unknown whether altered vitamin D levels observed with osteoarticular tuberculosis change during treatment in a child or modify the disease course. To find a possible answer to the above query, we investigated serial serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations in children suffering from osteoarticular tuberculosis treated with multidrug antitubercular drugs. METHODS: The prospective study enrolled 19 untreated immunocompetent children with an established diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183335/efficacy-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-reducing-incidence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-mortality-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-adults-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Christopher R Sudfeld, Ferdinand Mugusi, Said Aboud, Tumaini J Nagu, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience high rates of morbidity and mortality during the initial months of treatment. Observational studies in high-income and resource-limited settings indicate that HIV-infected adults with low vitamin D levels may be at increased risk of mortality, HIV disease progression, and incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). As a result, vitamin D3 supplementation may improve survival and treatment outcomes for HIV-infected adults initiating ART...
February 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111615/the-effects-of-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-on-the-actions-of-vitamin-d-in-human-macrophages
#6
Supavit Chesdachai, Susu M Zughaier, Li Hao, Russell R Kempker, Henry M Blumberg, Thomas R Ziegler, Vin Tangpricha
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. Patients with TB have a high rate of vitamin D deficiency, both at diagnosis and during the course of treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs. Although data on the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) clearance is uncertain from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), vitamin D enhances the expression of the anti-microbial peptide human cathelicidin (hCAP18) in cultured macrophages in vitro. One possible explanation for the mixed (primarily negative) results of RCTs examining vitamin D treatment in TB infection is that anti-TB drugs given to enrolled subjects may impact actions of vitamin D to enhance cathelicidin in macrophages...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096657/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-a-meta-analysis
#7
Shao-Jun Huang, Xian-Hua Wang, Zhi-Dong Liu, Wen-Li Cao, Yi Han, Ai-Guo Ma, Shao-Fa Xu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To conduct meta-analyses of all published studies on various aspects of association between vitamin D and tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: PubMed and Web of Knowledge were searched for all properly controlled studies on vitamin D and TB. Pooled odds ratio, mean difference or standardized mean difference, and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated with the Cochrane Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: A significantly lower vitamin D level was found in TB patients vs controls; vitamin D deficiency (VDD) was associated with an increased risk of TB, although such an association was lacking in the African population and in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected African population...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826955/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-preventing-infections-in-children-under-five-years-of-age
#8
REVIEW
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Rehana A Salam, Farhan R Khan, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a micronutrient important for bone growth and immune function. Deficiency can lead to rickets and has been linked to various infections, including respiratory infections. The evidence on the effects of supplementation on infections in children has not been assessed systematically. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in preventing pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), diarrhoea, and malaria in children under five years of age...
November 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763570/vitamin-d-status-and-its-consequences-for-health-in-south-africa
#9
REVIEW
Mary Norval, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Liza Bornman, Robyn M Lucas, Caradee Y Wright
In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663379/association-between-vitamin-d-supplementation-and-severity-of-tuberculosis-in-wild-boar-and-red-deer
#10
D Risco, F J Salguero, R Cerrato, J Gutierrez-Merino, S Lanham-New, O Barquero-Pérez, J Hermoso de Mendoza, P Fernández-Llario
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease affecting humans and other mammal species. Severity of TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans seems to be influenced by nutritional factors like vitamin D3 intake. However, this relationship has been scarcely studied in cattle and other mammals infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The aim of this work was to assess if wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis show different levels of TB severity depending on the level of vitamin D found in serum after supplementation with vitamin D3...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449998/effect-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-on-the-expression-of-mannose-receptor-dc-sign-and-autophagy-genes-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
K Afsal, P Selvaraj
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is a powerful immuno-modulator, which enhances expression of antimicrobial peptides and induces autophagy in monocytes/macrophages. Since 1,25(OH)2D3 increases the phagocytic potential of monocytes/macrophages, we have explored the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of receptors such as mannose receptor (CD206) and DC-SIGN (CD209) as well as autophagy genes such as ATG5 and Beclin-1 (BECN1) in monocytes/macrophages of healthy controls (HCs) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients with and without cavitary disease...
July 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365952/effect-of-vitamin-b12-and-folic-acid-supplementation-on-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-immune-response-in-hiv-positive-patients
#12
Prabha M Adhikari, Mukta N Chowta, John T Ramapuram, Satish B Rao, Karthik Udupa, Sahana D Acharya
BACKGROUND: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355911/nutritional-supplements-for-people-being-treated-for-active-tuberculosis
#13
REVIEW
Liesl Grobler, Sukrti Nagpal, Thambu D Sudarsanam, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and malnutrition are linked in a complex relationship. Tuberculosis may cause undernutrition through increased metabolic demands and decreased intake, and nutritional deficiencies may worsen the disease, or delay recovery by depressing important immune functions. At present, there is no evidence-based nutritional guidance for adults and children being treated for tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis...
June 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009076/vitamin-d-and-airway-infections-a-european-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Armin Zittermann, Stefan Pilz, Harald Hoffmann, Winfried März
Vitamin D has immuno-modulatory properties, and deficient levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (<30 nmol/l) may contribute to increased risk of infectious illnesses. This narrative review summarises data on vitamin D status in Europe and updates results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) regarding vitamin D and airway infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and acute upper respiratory tract infection. In Europe, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is up to 37% in the general population and up to 80% in nursing home residents and non-European immigrants...
March 24, 2016: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985430/a-review-of-vitamin-d-effects-on-common-respiratory-diseases-asthma-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-tuberculosis
#15
REVIEW
Mohammad Esmaeil Hejazi, Faezeh Modarresi-Ghazani, Taher Entezari-Maleki
Despite the classic role of Vitamin D in skeletal health, new aspects of Vitamin D have been discovered in tissues and organs other than bones. Epidemiological and observational studies demonstrate a link between Vitamin D deficiency and risk of developing respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tuberculosis (TB). To review the literature, we searched the terms "Vitamin D" (using the set operator) and "asthma," "COPD" and "TB" in electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar until July 2015...
January 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872154/low-vitamin-d-levels-combined-with-pkp3-sigirr-tmem16j-host-variants-is-associated-with-tuberculosis-and-death-in-hiv-infected-and-exposed-infants
#16
Amita Gupta, Grace Montepiedra, Akshay Gupte, Bret Zeldow, Jennifer Jubulis, Barbara Detrick, Avy Violari, Shabir Madhi, Raziya Bobat, Mark Cotton, Charles Mitchell, Stephen Spector
BACKGROUND: This study examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and specific host genetic variants that affect vitamin D levels or its effects on immune function, with the risk of TB or mortality in children. METHODS: A case-cohort sample of 466 South African infants enrolled in P1041 trial (NCT00080119) underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D testing by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that alter the effect of vitamin D [e.g. vitamin D receptor (VDR)], vitamin D levels [e...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557587/acute-hypercalcaemia-and-hypervitaminosis-d-in-an-infant-with-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#17
Devi Dayal, Siya Ram Didel, Sikha Agarwal, Naresh Sachdeva, Meenu Singh
In patients with tuberculosis, abnormal extrarenal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by activated macrophages in granulomatous tissues may result in hypercalcaemia. More commonly reported in adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis, this complication may rarely occur in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and children. The hypercalcaemia may be precipitated by usually recommended vitamin D and calcium supplementation in patients with tuberculosis. We report here an infant with tubercular meningitis who developed hypercalcaemia 12 days after starting routine vitamin D and calcium supplementation...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26521023/vitamin-d-and-respiratory-tract-infections-in-childhood
#18
REVIEW
Susanna Esposito, Mara Lelii
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) remain among of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among children. Several studies have associated vitamin D deficiency with an increased risk of RTIs, and vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a possible preventive measure against RTIs in children. The main aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence from the literature about the link between vitamin D and RTIs in children. DISCUSSION: Several recent studies have shown that vitamin D has different immunomodulatory properties associated with the risk of RTIs in childhood...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26479950/role-of-vitamin-d-in-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-immunity-to-pathogens-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Surojit Sarkar, Martin Hewison, George P Studzinski, Yan Chun Li, Vandana Kalia
The discovery of vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in immune cells has opened up a new area of research into immunoregulation by vitamin D, a niche that is distinct from its classical role in skeletal health. Today, about three decades since this discovery, numerous cellular and molecular targets of vitamin D in the immune system have been delineated. Moreover, strong clinical associations between vitamin D status and the incidence/severity of many immune-regulated disorders (e.g. infectious diseases, cancers and autoimmunity) have prompted the idea of using vitamin D supplementation to manipulate disease outcome...
2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26307505/vitamin-d-status-in-south-africa-and-tuberculosis
#20
REVIEW
Abhimanyu, Vanessa Meyer, Tamsyn Jacki Jeffery, Liza Bornman
According to the World Health Organisation South Africa has the third highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the world, with an estimated 60 % incident cases having both TB and HIV. The South African National Tuberculosis Association (SANTA) recognized the importance of nutrition in the prevention and management of TB by including feeding schemes in community outreach programs. Vitamin D enhances innate immunity against mycobacterial infection through the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin. We reviewed studies on vitamin D status, its link with TB, and potential use in therapy in multiethnic South Africa with sunlight as primary source of vitamin D...
December 2015: Lung
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