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fetal growth

Rebeca Kawahara, Livia Rosa-Fernandes, Ancély Ferreira Dos Santos, Carla Letícia Bandeira, Jamille G Dombrowski, Rodrigo M Souza, Micaella Pereira da Fonseca, William T Festuccia, Leticia Labriola, Martin R Larsen, Claudio R F Marinho, Giuseppe Palmisano
Malaria in pregnancy is a public health concern in malaria-endemic areas. Accumulation of maternal immune cells in the placenta and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes have been associated to poor neonatal outcomes, including low birth weight due to fetal growth restriction. Little is known about the molecular changes occurring in a P. falciparum-infected placenta that has developed placental malaria during pregnancy but had the parasites cleared by pharmacological treatment (past infection)...
September 21, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Annie Penfield-Cyr, Carmen Monthe-Dreze, Marcela C Smid, Sarbattama Sen
PURPOSE: Maternal body mass index (BMI) and systemic fatty acid (FA) concentrations affect inflammatory balance in pregnancy and play a key role in fetal growth and well-being. Little is known about how maternal BMI may affect the association between key FA concentrations and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between the maternal omega (n)6:n3 FA ratio and neonatal outcomes according to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI category. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network randomized controlled trial of omega-3 FA supplementation to prevent recurrent preterm birth...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Elizabeth L Stockley, Joseph Y Ting, John Kingdom, Sarah D McDonald, Jon Barrett, Anne Synnes, Luis Monterrosa, Prakesh S Shah
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum magnesium sulphate administration is recommended for fetal neuroprotection in women with imminent very preterm birth. However, previous studies have not included or separately analyzed the outcomes of pregnancies with fetal growth restriction that were treated with intrapartum magnesium sulphate. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes of growth restricted fetuses born before 29 weeks' gestation and exposed to maternal intrapartum magnesium sulphate...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Renjuan Chen, Qian Li, Wenli Cui, Xiaoyi Wang, Qin Gao, Chunrong Zhong, Guoqiang Sun, Xinlin Chen, Guoping Xiong, Xuefeng Yang, Liping Hao, Nianhong Yang
Background: Maternal iodine status has been suggested to affect birth outcomes. Few studies have focused on its effects on fetal growth during pregnancy. Objective: This study aimed to assess maternal iodine status during early pregnancy and further examine the relation between maternal iodine status and fetal growth. Methods: A total of 2087 singleton-pregnant women participating in the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study were involved...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Sven Cnattingius, Michael S Kramer, Mikael Norman, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Fang Fang, Donghao Lu
Background: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth is commonly used as a proxy for fetal growth restriction, but also includes constitutionally small infants. Genetic factors account for almost half of the risk of SGA birth. We estimated perinatal risks of SGA birth using both population-based and within-sibling analyses, where the latter by design controls for shared genetic factors and maternal environmental factors that are constant across pregnancies. Methods: This was a prospective nationwide cohort study of 2 616 974 singleton infants born in Sweden between January 1987 and December 2012, of whom 1 885 924 were full siblings...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
A Mukhopadhyay, T Thomas, R J Bosch, P Dwarkanath, A Thomas, C P Duggan, A V Kurpad
Background: Maternal macronutrient intake is likely to play a pivotal role in fetoplacental growth. Male fetuses grow faster and their growth is more responsive to maternal size. Objective: We assessed the role of fetal sex in modifying the effect of maternal macronutrient intake on the risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Design: This was a prospective, observational cohort study of 2035 births from an urban South Asian Indian population...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yolanda Lorenzo, Kristiane Haug Berg, Amund Ringvold, Goran Petrovski, Morten C Moe, Andrew Collins, Bjørn Nicolaissen
PURPOSE: To examine levels of oxidative DNA base damage and expression of selected genes and proteins related to DNA damage repair in human limbal epithelium engineered ex vivo. METHODS: Cells were expanded from limbal tissue on cell culture-treated inserts in medium containing fetal bovine serum, recombinant growth factors, hormones and cholera toxin (COM) and in medium with human serum as the single growth-promoting additive (HS). Cells were analysed after two, three and four weeks in culture for DNA strand breaks and oxidized purine bases (Comet assay using the enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase, Fpg) and for expression of DNA repair enzymes APE1, OGG1 and Polβ by in situ hybridization (ISH) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
September 21, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Kozeta Miliku, Janine F Felix, Trudy Voortman, Henning Tiemeier, Darryl W Eyles, Thomas H Burne, John J McGrath, Vincent W V Jaddoe
Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may have persistent adverse effects on childhood growth and development. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations during pregnancy and at cord blood were associated with childhood body composition and cardiovascular outcomes. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, among 4,903 mothers and their offspring. We measured 25(OH)D concentrations at a median gestational age of 20.4 weeks (95% range 18...
September 21, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Ankita Kaushik, Deepa Bhartiya
Developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors has resulted in the increased incidence of infertility and testicular germ cell tumors (T2GCT) in young men residing in developed countries. Unlike T1GCT (infants and young children) and T3GCT (aged men), T2GCT arise from CIS/GCNIS that develops from pre-CIS. Pre-CIS represents undifferentiated, growth-arrested gonocytes that persist in fetal testes due to endocrine disruption. However, whether pre-CIS truly exist, do CIS develop into T2GCT, why no CIS in T1GCT/T3GCT, why germ cell tumors (GCT) also occur along midline at extra-gonadal sites, why T1GCT show partial erasure and T2GCT show complete erasure of genomic imprints are open questions that are awaiting answers...
September 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Tina Notter, Leonie Aengenheister, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Hanspeter Naegeli, Peter Wick, Urs Meyer, Tina Buerki-Thurnherr
Environmental factors are involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may contribute to the raise in its incidence rate. It is currently unknown whether the increasing use of nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPs) in consumer products and biomedical applications may play a role in these associations. While nano-sized TiO2 is generally regarded as safe and non-toxic, excessive exposure to TiO2 NPs may be associated with negative health consequences especially when occurring during sensitive developmental periods...
September 20, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Linda A Barbour, Teri L Hernandez
There is increasing recognition that maternal glucose concentrations lower than those previously used for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and targeted for treatment can result in excess fetal growth. Yet, mothers with GDM who appear to have optimal glycemic control and mothers with obesity and normal glucose tolerance still have a significantly increased risk for delivering infants who are large for gestational age, or even more importantly, who have increased adiposity at birth. What is less appreciated is that in addition to glucose, maternal lipids are also substrates for fetal fat accretion and that placental lipases can hydrolyze maternal triglycerides (TGs) to free fatty acids for fetal-placental availability...
September 17, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Alessandra Martins Heringer de Lima, Paulo Roberto Nassar de Carvalho, Saint Clair Gomes Junior, Ana Carolina Costa Carioca, José Maria de Andrade Lopes
OBJECTIVE:  To assess 11 formulae commonly used to estimate fetal weight in a population of premature fetuses who had abnormal Doppler velocimetry due to early-onset placental insufficiency. The performance of each formula was evaluated in subgroups of fetuses with expected growth and intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS:  Data were collected from fetuses and mothers who delivered at three Brazilian hospitals between November 2002 and December 2013. We used the following formulae: Campbell; Hadlock I, II, III, IV and V; Shepard; Warsof; Weiner I and II; and Woo III...
September 20, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Fieke Terstappen, Nina D Paauw, Thomas Alderliesten, Jaap A Joles, Daniel C Vijlbrief, A Titia Lely, Petra M A Lemmers
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with an increased risk for kidney disease in later life. Studies reporting on early signs of renal disturbances in FGR are sparse and mostly include invasive measurements, which limit the possibility for early identification and prevention. We aim to investigate whether renal tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the derived value fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) differ between premature FGR and control neonates in the first three days after birth...
2018: PloS One
Keisho Hirota, Mayumi Furuya, Naomi Morozumi, Kazunori Yoshikiyo, Takafumi Yotsumoto, Toshimasa Jindo, Ryuichi Nakamura, Koichiro Murakami, Yohei Ueda, Takeshi Hanada, Hiroko Sade, Sayaka Yoshida, Kei Enomoto, Yugo Kanai, Ichiro Yamauchi, Takafumi Yamashita, Yoriko Ueda-Sakane, Toshihito Fujii, Akihiro Yasoda, Nobuya Inagaki
Signaling by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-B, is a pivotal stimulator of endochondral bone growth. We recently developed CNP knockout (KO) rats that exhibit impaired skeletal growth with early growth plate closure. In the current study, we further characterized the phenotype and growth plate morphology in CNP-KO rats, and the effects of exogenous CNP in rats. We used CNP-53, an endogenous form of CNP consisting of 53 amino acids, and administered it for four weeks by continuous subcutaneous infusion at 0...
2018: PloS One
Torri D Metz, Laura M Borgelt
The prevalence and perceived safety of marijuana use in pregnancy are increasing with expanding legalization. Marijuana crosses the placenta and passes into breast milk, resulting in fetal and neonatal exposure. Many women cite medical reasons for prenatal marijuana use such as nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, anxiety, and chronic pain. The scientific literature regarding marijuana in pregnancy is mixed, resulting in confusion among practitioners as to how to counsel women about risks of use. In addition, there is a paucity of literature related to marijuana use and breastfeeding...
September 18, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Xiaogang Hou, David F Chang, Andrew Trecartin, Erik R Barthel, Christopher R Schlieve, Mark R Frey, Kathryn L Fowler, Tracy C Grikscheit
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) was previously generated in vivo by immediate implantation of organoid units (OU) derived from both mouse and human donor intestine. Although immediate transplantation of OU into patients shows promise as a potential future therapy, some critically ill patients may require delayed transplantation. What is the main finding and its importance? Unlike enteroids that consist of isolated intestinal crypts, short and long-term cultured organoid units are composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cells derived from mouse or human intestine...
September 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Juan Manuel Burgos Luna, Diana Marcela Páez Rúa, Ingrid Ruiz Ordoñez, Paula Andrea Fernández, María Fernanda Escobar Vidarte
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common monogenic diseases worldwide, affecting approximately 30 million people across the globe. It is one of the most common hemoglobinopathies affecting pregnancy, particularly in the black population. Pregnant women with SCD, in conjunction with the physiological changes of pregnancy, have an increased risk of developing severe maternal and fetal complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, observational study was conducted retrospectively to determine the maternal and neonatal disease burden of pregnant women with SCD between 2011 and 2016...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Martijn F L Derks, Marcos S Lopes, Mirte Bosse, Ole Madsen, Bert Dibbits, Barbara Harlizius, Martien A M Groenen, Hendrik-Jan Megens
Livestock populations can be used to study recessive defects caused by deleterious alleles. The frequency of deleterious alleles including recessive lethal alleles can stay at high or moderate frequency within a population, especially if recessive lethal alleles exhibit an advantage for favourable traits in heterozygotes. In this study, we report such a recessive lethal deletion of 212kb (del) within the BBS9 gene in a breeding population of pigs. The deletion produces a truncated BBS9 protein expected to cause a complete loss-of-function, and we find a reduction of approximately 20% on the total number of piglets born from carrier by carrier matings...
September 19, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Atul Malhotra, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Beth J Allison, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Ilias Nitsos, Yen Pham, Anna Alves de Alencar Rocha, Michael C Fahey, Graeme R Polglase, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne Lee Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and prematurity are associated with risk of brain injury and long-term neurological deficits. FGR infants born preterm are commonly exposed to mechanical ventilation, but it is not known whether ventilation differentially induces brain pathology in FGR infants, compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. We investigated markers of neuropathology in preterm FGR lambs, compared with AGA lambs, delivered by caesarean birth and ventilated under standard neonatal conditions for 24 hours...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Gopakumar Gopalakrishnan, Shivaputhrappa Ganiger, Tacey E K White, Chungping Yu
BACKGROUND: An extended-release molindone (a dopamine D2 and serotonin antagonist) is currently being developed as a novel treatment for impulsive aggression (IA) in patients optimally treated for ADHD. Oral Good Laboratory Practice reproductive toxicology studies (fertility and early embryonic [FEE], prenatal/postnatal [PPN], embryo-fetal development [EFD]) were conducted with molindone HCl using International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S5(R2)-compliant protocols. METHODS: In the FEE study, 0, 5, 15, or 30 mg kg-1  day-1 was administered to female (2 weeks premating through implantation) and male (4 weeks premating for 57 days) rats, and fertility parameters were evaluated...
September 19, 2018: Birth Defects Research
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