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Cardiovascular complications in Diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331088/significance-of-circulatory-dpp4-activity-in-metabolic-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Titli Nargis, Partha Chakrabarti
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as CD26 is a type II transmembrane protein that is released from the cell membrane in a nonclassical secretory mechanism. This exopeptidase selectively degrades varieties of substrates including incretin hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. A significant detectable amount of DPP4 activity can be measured in plasma as well as in different tissues such as intestinal epithelium, vascular endothelium, lymphocytes, monocytes, kidney, liver, adipose, lung, thymus, spleen, prostate, etc...
January 13, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330987/pattern-of-dyslipidaemia-and-its-association-with-hypovitaminosis-d-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Farhat Bashir, Zia Ullah Khan, Naresh Kumar Seetlani, Zaman Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Macrovascular atherosclerosis is an important long-term complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Concurrent dyslipidaemia acts as an additional risk factor for these complications. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events. These modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease are inter-related. In the presence of an increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated metabolic abnormalities and widespread vitamin D deficiency in Pakistan, this association needs to be investigated...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329523/early-commitment-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-modulation-in-brazilian-patients-with-congenital-generalized-lipodystrophy
#3
Clarisse Mourão Melo Ponte, Virgínia Oliveira Fernandes, Maria Helane Costa Gurgel, Izabella Tamira Galdino Farias Vasconcelos, Lia Beatriz de Azevedo Souza Karbage, Christiane Bezerra Rocha Liberato, Carlos Antônio Negrato, Marília de Brito Gomes, Ana Paula Dias Rangel Montenegro, Renan Magalhães Montenegro Júnior
BACKGROUND: Metabolic abnormalities in congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) are associated with microvascular complications. However, the evaluation of different types of neuropathy in these patients, including the commitment of cardiovascular autonomic modulation, is scarce. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in patients with CGL compared with individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten patients with CGL, 20 patients with type 1 diabetes and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study...
January 12, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327527/role-and-relevance-of-blood-pressure-variability-in-hypertension-related-co-morbidities
#4
Ashok Kumar, B C Kalmath, Georgi Abraham, Johann Christopher, Pln Kaparthi, Louie Fischer, Neeta Deshpande, N K Mishra, Praveen Raj, Rajesh Javerani, Ramesh Goyal, Reefa Dsouza, Shashank R Joshi
Despite maintaining mean blood pressure at optimal levels, cardiovascular complications still occur in hypertensive patients. Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been implicated as a prominent factor responsible for incurring this additional risk. In this review we attempted to generate a consensus on the importance of BPV in the hypertension management and to evaluate different therapeutic options available to reduce BPV. Panel comprising of 11 leading experts from India in different areas of clinical practice (including nephrology, diabetes and endocrinology, cardiology, and critical care medicine) was convened...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325551/relationship-between-cardiac-microvascular-dysfunction-measured-with-82rubidium-pet-and-albuminuria-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Louis Potier, Renata Chequer, Ronan Roussel, Kamel Mohammedi, Souad Sismail, Agnès Hartemann, Chloé Amouyal, Michel Marre, Dominique Le Guludec, Fabien Hyafil
BACKGROUND: Albuminuria is of one the strongest predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetes. Diabetes is associated with cardiac microvascular dysfunction (CMD), a powerful, independent prognostic factor for cardiac mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CMD and microvascular complications in patients without known CVD. METHODS: In this monocentric study, myocardial flow reserve (MFR) was measured with cardiac 82Rubidium positron emission tomography (Rb-PET) in 311 patients referred to nuclear medicine department of Bichat University Hospital for screening of coronary artery disease from 2012 to 2014...
January 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322708/high-prevalence-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-among-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#6
Vijay Viswanathan, Indira Priyadarshini Ramalingam, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan
Purpose: Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiac events, and is associated with increased mortality. Recent studies indicate that majority of people with type 2 diabetes also has OSA. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of OSA and risk factors contributing to it among people with chronic and severe type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 203 people with type 2 diabetes (mean age: 54±8 years, 145 males, 58 females, HbA1c ≥7% [53mmol/mol]) attending a diabetes specialty hospital were included in the study; all were subjected to comprehensive diabetic evaluation and Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) was used to evaluate OSA...
November 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322300/glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-from-medication-nonadherence-to-residual-vascular-risk
#7
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
Despite the availability of many new treatment options for type 2 diabetes, the proportion of patients achieving the HbA1c target < 7.0% remains around 50%. We put forward the hypothesis that the unchanged HbA1c results, observed in the last decade in type 2 diabetes patients, are also a consequence of medication nonadherence and clinical inertia. Poor medication-taking behavior is usually defined as medication nonadherence and is responsible for uncontrolled hemoglobin A1c level in 23% of cases. Medication nonadherence may also affect clinical outcomes, as diabetic patients with good adherence (≥80%) had a significant 10% lower rate of hospitalization events and a significant 28% lower rate of all-cause mortality when compared with patients with poor adherence (<80%)...
January 10, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311660/defining-phenotypes-in-diabetic-nephropathy-a-novel-approach-using-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-a-single-centre-cohort
#8
Rosa M Montero, Athula Herath, Ashfaq Qureshi, Ehsanollah Esfandiari, Charles D Pusey, Andrew H Frankel, Frederick W K Tam
The global increase in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has led to an increase in DM-Chronic Kidney Disease (DM-CKD). In this cross-sectional observational study we aimed to define phenotypes for patients with DM-CKD that in future may be used to individualise treatment We report 4 DM-CKD phenotypes in 220 patients recruited from Imperial College NHS Trust clinics from 2004-2012. A robust principal component analysis (PCA) was used to statistically determine clusters with phenotypically different patients. 163 patients with complete data sets were analysed: 77 with CKD and 86 with DM-CKD...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310647/have-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-ameliorated-the-vascular-complications-of-type-2-diabetes-in-large-scale-trials-the-potential-confounding-effect-of-stem-cell-chemokines
#9
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Drugs that inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) are conventionally regarded as incretin-based agents that signal through the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. However, inhibition of DPP-4 also potentiates the stem cell chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), which can promote inflammation, proliferative responses and neovascularization. In large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials, enhanced GLP-1 signaling has reduced the risk of atherosclerotic ischemic events, potentially because GLP-1 retards the growth and increases the stability of atherosclerotic plaques...
January 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306791/empagliflozin-rescues-diabetic-myocardial-microvascular-injury-via-ampk-mediated-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-fission
#10
Hao Zhou, Shuyi Wang, Pingjun Zhu, Shunying Hu, Yundai Chen, Jun Ren
Impaired cardiac microvascular function contributes to diabetic cardiovascular complications although effective therapy remains elusive. Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes, promotes glycosuria excretion and offers cardioprotective actions beyond its glucose-lowering effects. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of empagliflozin on cardiac microvascular injury in diabetes and the underlying mechanism involved with a focus on mitochondria...
December 30, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305779/evidence-of-glucuronidation%C3%A2-of-the-glycation-product-lw-1-tentative-structure-and-implications-for-the-long-term-complications-of-diabetes
#11
David R Sell, Ina Nemet, Zhili Liang, Vincent M Monnier
LW-1 is a collagen-linked blue fluorophore whose skin levels increase with age, diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and correlate with the long-term progression of microvascular disease and indices of subclinical cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. The chemical structure of LW-1 is still elusive, but earlier NMR analyses showed it has a lysine residue in an aromatic ring coupled to a sugar molecule reminiscent of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). We hypothesized and demonstrate here that the unknown sugar is a N-linked glucuronic acid...
January 5, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304555/the-epigenetic-contribution-to-the-development-and-progression-of-vascular-diabetic-complications
#12
Hanah Rodriguez, Assam El-Osta
SIGNIFICANCE: The number of people suffering from diabetes worldwide is steadily rising. Complications from diabetes, including cardiovascular and renal disease, contribute to the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Recent Advances: hyperglycaemia promotes tissue damage through diverse mechanisms involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased oxidative stress drives changes in chromatin structure that mediate gene expression changes leading to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators...
January 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304136/effect-of-intensive-multifactorial-treatment-on-vascular-progenitor-cells-in-hypertensive-patients
#13
Charbel Maroun-Eid, Adriana Ortega-Hernández, Javier Modrego, María Abad-Cardiel, José Antonio García-Donaire, Leonardo Reinares, Nieves Martell-Claros, Dulcenombre Gómez-Garre
BACKGROUND: Most hypertensive patients, despite a proper control of their cardiovascular risk factors, have cardiovascular complications, evidencing the importance of controlling and/or reversing target-organ damage. In this sense, endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and related cardiovascular outcomes. Since hypertension often clusters with other risk factors such as dyslipemia, diabetes and obesity, in this study we have investigated the effect of intensive multifactorial treatment on circulating vascular progenitor cell levels on high-risk hypertensive patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301630/obesity-pathophysiology-and%C3%A2-management
#14
REVIEW
Kishore M Gadde, Corby K Martin, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Steven B Heymsfield
Obesity continues to be among the top health concerns across the globe. Despite our failure to contain the high prevalence of obesity, we now have a better understanding of its pathophysiology, and how excess adiposity leads to type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle modification is recommended as the cornerstone of obesity management, but many patients do not achieve long-lasting benefits due to difficulty with adherence as well as physiological and neurohormonal adaptation of the body in response to weight loss...
January 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301583/which-factor-is-the-most-effective-one-in-metabolic-sydrome-on-the-outcomes-after-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-a-cohort-study-of-5%C3%A2-years
#15
Lijuan Wang, Xiangyang Qian, Mingya Wang, Xinran Tang, Hushan Ao
BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome and diabetes mellitus are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of Metabolic Syndrome with or without diabetes on perioperative and long-term morbidity and mortality after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft remain unclear. METHODS: An retrospective study was performed on 1166 patients who received isolated primary Coronary Artery Bypass Graft in Fuwai hospital. They were divided into three groups: control, Metabolic Syndrome of three factors together with diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome of three factors without diabetes (n = 868, 76 and 222 respectively)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301520/sglt-2-inhibition-with-dapagliflozin-reduces-tissue-sodium-content-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
M V Karg, A Bosch, D Kannenkeril, K Striepe, C Ott, M P Schneider, F Boemke-Zelch, P Linz, A M Nagel, J Titze, M Uder, R E Schmieder
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sodium tissue content by 23Na magnetic resonance imaging (Na-MRI) has been validated in experimental and human studies. SGLT-2 inhibition blocks the reabsorption of glucose and of sodium in the proximal tubular cells in a 1:1 fashion. We hypothesized that SGLT-2 inhibition in patients with type 2 diabetes characterized by sodium retention leads to decreased tissue sodium content due to its pharmacological action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial 59 patients (61 ± 7...
January 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290951/characteristics-and-comparison-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-non-diabetes-mellitus-among-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-chinese-cohort-study-of-chronic-kidney-disease-c-stride
#17
Jun-Jun Zhang, Liu Yang, Jun-Wen Huang, Yu-Jie Liu, Jin-Wei Wang, Lu-Xia Zhang, Ming-Hui Zhao, Zhang-Suo Liu
Although the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing globally, information on Chinese CKD patients with DM is lacking. A total of 3499 pre-dialysis CKD patients from across China were enrolled in the Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) between November 2011 and April 2016. We divided the C-STRIDE patients into CKD with DM and CKD without DM groups and compared their clinical, demographic, and laboratory data in this cross-sectional study. CKD patients with DM were older, had a higher male-to-female ratio, and had more complications than CKD patients without DM...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289402/blood-pressure-lowering-targets-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#18
REVIEW
Alexander A Leung, Raj S Padwal
Diabetes is a highly prevalent medical condition that commonly coexists with hypertension. The presence of diabetes and hypertension significantly increases the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Although compelling evidence exists from randomized controlled trials demonstrating that blood pressure (BP) reduction effectively prevents cardiovascular complications, optimal BP targets remain uncertain and continue to be the subject of ongoing controversy. Until recently, most major clinical practice guidelines recommended a BP target of < 130/80 mm Hg, but some expert panels have raised their recommended treatment targets in recent years...
November 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288632/association-of-vascular-indices-with-novel-circulating-biomarkers-as-prognostic-factors-for-cardiovascular-complications-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Katerina K Naka, Katerina Papathanassiou, Aris Bechlioulis, Konstantinos Pappas, Stelios Tigas, Dimitrios Makriyiannis, Sophia Antoniou, Nikolaos Kazakos, Alexandra Margeli, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Agathocles Tsatsoulis, Lampros K Michalis
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is multifactorial. The association of vascular indices with circulating biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance and their role in the long-term cardiovascular prognosis in T2DM patients were currently investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with T2DM and poor glycemic control without known cardiovascular diseases (n=119) at baseline were enrolled and followed for about 9years...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287838/diabetes-and-complications-of-the-heart-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-urgent-need-for-improved-awareness-diagnostics-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Nadezhda Glezeva, Master Chisale, Kenneth McDonald, Mark Ledwidge, Joe Gallagher, Chris J Watson
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is no longer a disease of high income countries but a global health pandemic. With the continued and rapid increase in its prevalence worldwide it is forecasted that diabetes will be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. A major concern stems from its role in development and progression of cardiovascular disease, including cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Within low- and middle-income areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa the burden of diabetes is already significant driven by many factors, including, socioeconomic (urbanisation), nutritional (high-calorie "western-diet", obesity) and lifestyle (physical inactivity) changes...
December 26, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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