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Cardiovascular complications in Diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803840/development-and-validation-of-risk-equations-for-complications-of-type-2-diabetes-recode-using-individual-participant-data-from-randomised-trials
#1
Sanjay Basu, Jeremy B Sussman, Seth A Berkowitz, Rodney A Hayward, John S Yudkin
BACKGROUND: In view of substantial mis-estimation of risks of diabetes complications using existing equations, we sought to develop updated Risk Equations for Complications Of type 2 Diabetes (RECODe). METHODS: To develop and validate these risk equations, we used data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes study (ACCORD, n=9635; 2001-09) and validated the equations for microvascular events using data from the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS, n=1018; 1996-2001), and for cardiovascular events using data from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD, n=4760; 2001-12)...
August 10, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799164/preconception-care-for-diabetic-women-for-improving-maternal-and-infant-health
#2
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: Infants born to mothers with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of congenital anomalies, perinatal mortality and significant morbidity in the short and long term. Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are at greater risk of perinatal morbidity and diabetic complications. The relationship between glycaemic control and health outcomes for both mothers and infants indicates the potential for preconception care for these women to be of benefit...
August 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797414/lower-transaortic-flow-rate-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-aortic-valve%C3%A2-stenosis
#3
Sahrai Saeed, Roxy Senior, Navtej S Chahal, Mai Tone Lønnebakken, John B Chambers, Edda Bahlmann, Eva Gerdts
OBJECTIVES: The association of transaortic flow rate (FR) with outcomes was tested in 1,661 patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS) in the SEAS (Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) study. BACKGROUND: Low transaortic flow may complicate grading of AS. However, the association of lower transaortic FR with adverse outcomes has not been reported. METHODS: Transaortic FR was calculated from Doppler-derived stroke volume in milliliters divided by systolic ejection time in seconds and considered low if <200 ml/s...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795013/management-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-children-and-adolescents-engaging-in-physical-activity
#4
REVIEW
Silpa Nadella, Justin A Indyk, Manmohan K Kamboj
Regular physical activity is an important component in the management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM), as it has the potential to improve glycemic control, delay cardiovascular complications, and increase overall well-being. Unfortunately, many children and adolescents with diabetes do not partake in regular exercise and physical activity for multiple reasons. This review identifies the barriers to participation from the aspect of the patient, caregiver, and the healthcare provider...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794498/analysis-of-inflammatory-cytokine-and-tlr-expression-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-with-complications
#5
Saket Gupta, Ashwini Maratha, Jakub Siednienko, Anandan Natarajan, Thusitha Gajanayake, Shu Hoashi, Sinéad Miggin
The pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are closely linked with defective glucose metabolism, obesity, cardiovascular disease and an inability to mount an effective immune response to certain pathogenic organisms. Perturbations in key innate immune receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNFα and IL-1β have been linked with T2DM. Herein, we sought to establish whether patients with T2DM and underlying complications exhibit perturbations in cytokine and TLR expression...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791858/the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-what-s-new
#6
REVIEW
Sylwia Bednarska, Agnieszka Siejka
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is currently the leading cause of menstrual complications in women. It is characterized by clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, ovulation abnormalities and the presence of enlarged and/or polycystic ovaries in ultrasound images (12 or more small bubbles located circumferentially and/or ovarian volume > 10 mL). It is often comorbid with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight or obesity, and is a risk factor for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)...
March 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791827/correlation-between-the-state-of-periodontal-tissues-and-selected-risk-factors-for-periodontitis-and-myocardial-infarction
#7
Renata Górska, Elżbieta Dembowska, Tomasz P Konopka, Joanna Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Małgorzata Pietruska, Ewa Ganowicz
BACKGROUND: The current level of knowledge indicates a relationship between periodontitis and diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Periodontitis can be not only a risk factor for these diseases, but also a condition modifying other primary risk factors associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular complications (lipid disorders, arterial hypertension, etc.) or diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was an analysis of the correlation between the state of periodontal tissues and selected risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI) in patients after recent myocardial infarction...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781891/vascular-occlusions-following-ocular-surgical-procedures-a-clinical-observation-of-vascular-complications-after-ocular-surgery
#8
Charlotte Fischer, Anne Bruggemann, Annette Hager, Josep Callizo Planas, Johann Roider, Hans Hoerauf
BACKGROUND: Ocular vascular occlusions following intraocular procedures are a rare complication. We report a case series of patients with retinal vascular occlusions or anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) after anterior and posterior segment surgery and demonstrate possible risk factors. METHODS: Observational case series. RESULTS: In ten patients, vascular occlusions were observed within ten weeks after intraocular surgery: branch retinal arterial occlusion (BRAO) (n = 2), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (n = 2), central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) (n = 1), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) (n = 1), anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) (n = 3), and combined central artery and vein occlusion (n = 1)...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780716/epigenetics-a-potential-key-mechanism-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiorenal-syndromes
#9
REVIEW
Grazia Maria Virzì, Anna Clementi, Alessandra Brocca, Massimo de Cal, Claudio Ronco
Epigenetics is defined as the heritable changes in gene expression patterns which are not directly encoded by modifications in the nucleotide DNA sequence of the genome, including higher order chromatin organization, DNA methylation, cytosine modifications, covalent histone tail modifications, and short non-coding RNA molecules. Recently, much attention has been paid to the role and the function of epigenetics and epimutations in the cellular and subcellular pathways and in the regulation of genes in the setting of both kidney and cardiovascular disease...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774333/cost-utility-analysis-of-bariatric-surgery-compared-with-conventional-medical-management-in-germany-a-decision-analytic-modeling
#10
Oleg Borisenko, Oliver Mann, Anna Duprée
BACKGROUND: The objective was to evaluate cost-utility of bariatric surgery in Germany for a lifetime and 10-year horizon from a health care payer perspective. METHODS: State-transition Markov model provided absolute and incremental clinical and monetary results. In the model, obese patients could undergo surgery, develop post-surgery complications, experience diabetes type II, cardiovascular diseases or die. German Quality Assurance in Bariatric Surgery Registry and literature sources provided data on clinical effectiveness and safety...
August 3, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770324/impact-of-metformin-on-cardiovascular-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials-among-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Simon J Griffin, James K Leaver, Greg J Irving
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin is the most-prescribed oral medication to lower blood glucose worldwide. Yet previous systematic reviews have raised doubts about its effectiveness in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, the most costly complication of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to systematically identify and pool randomised trials reporting cardiovascular outcomes in which the effect of metformin was 'isolated' through comparison to diet, lifestyle or placebo. METHODS: We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770322/metformin-for-diabetes-prevention-insights-gained-from-the-diabetes-prevention-program-diabetes-prevention-program-outcomes-study
#12
REVIEW
Vanita R Aroda, William C Knowler, Jill P Crandall, Leigh Perreault, Sharon L Edelstein, Susan L Jeffries, Mark E Molitch, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Christine Darwin, Brandy M Heckman-Stoddard, Marinella Temprosa, Steven E Kahn, David M Nathan
The largest and longest clinical trial of metformin for the prevention of diabetes is the Diabetes Prevention Program/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPP/DPPOS). In this review, we summarise data from the DPP/DPPOS, focusing on metformin for diabetes prevention, as well as its long-term glycaemic and cardiometabolic effects and safety in people at high-risk of developing diabetes. The DPP (1996-2001) was a RCT of 3234 adults who, at baseline, were at high-risk of developing diabetes. Participants were assigned to masked placebo (n = 1082) or metformin (n = 1073) 850 mg twice daily, or intensive lifestyle intervention (n = 1079)...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766247/cigarette-smoking-diabetes-and-diabetes-complications-call-for-urgent-action
#13
REVIEW
Ping Zhu, Xiong-Fei Pan, Liting Sheng, Henggui Chen, An Pan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aimed to examine the latest evidence linking cigarette smoking and cessation to risk of incident diabetes and its complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Abundant evidence has demonstrated that smoking is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients, while its relationship with microvascular complications is more limited to diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy in type 1 diabetes. In addition, diabetes risk remains high in the short term after smoking cessation, while it reduces gradually in the long term...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765962/sirt1-activation-inhibits-hyperglycemia-induced-apoptosis-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-human-endothelial-cells
#14
Shengqiang Wang, Jian Wang, Airong Zhao, Jigang Li
Sustained hyperglycemic stimulation of vascular cells is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus‑induced cardiovascular complications. Silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), a mammalian sirtuin, has been previously recognized to protect endothelial cells against hyperglycemia‑induced oxidative stress. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUV‑EC‑C) were treated with D‑glucose, and the levels of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, the rate of apoptosis and SIRT1 activity were measured...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765779/effects-of-folic-acid-supplementation-on-serum-homocysteine-levels-lipid-profiles-and-vascular-parameters-in-post-menopausal-korean-women-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Aswathy Vijayakumar, Eun-Kyung Kim, Hyesook Kim, Young Ju Choi, Kap Bum Huh, Namsoo Chang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Complications of diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease, are associated with increased mortality among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Homocysteine has been recently identified as a predictor of cardiovascular disease-related complications in diabetes. We investigated whether or not supplementation with folic acid tablets can lower homocysteine levels and improve parameters related with vascular complications. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a non-randomized 8-week trial involving postmenopausal diabetic women (n = 25) supplemented with 800 µg of folic acid (400 µg twice a day) daily...
August 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762929/-risk-factors-of-cardiovascular-complications-after-beating-heart-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-in-patients-with-type-two-diabetes
#16
S Y Borodashkina, K V Protasov, V A Podkamennyi
AIM: to determine risk factors of early cardiovascular complications after beating-heart coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with ischemic coronary disease (IHD) and type two diabetes (D2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included into this study 188 patients (mean age 59 years, 85.1% men) with IHD and D2 who underwent off-pump CABG. The following cardiovascular complications (CVC) registered within 7 days after surgery were analyzed: myocardial infarction (MI), stroke/transient ischemic attack (S/TIA), atrial fibrillation (AF)...
March 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762691/hiv-associated-complications-a-systems-based-approach
#17
REVIEW
Carolyn Chu, Lealah C Pollock, Peter A Selwyn
Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop complications related directly to the infection, as well as to treatment. Aging, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities increase the risk of developing chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. HIV-associated neurologic complications encompass a wide spectrum of pathophysiology and symptomatology. Cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions are common among persons with HIV infection. Although some specific antiretroviral medications have been linked to disease development, traditional risk factors (e...
August 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762362/prevalence-and-pattern-of-potential-drug-drug-interactions-among-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-in-south-western-nigeria
#18
J Fasipe Olumuyiwa, A Akinbodewa Akinwumi, O Adejumo Ademola, B Akawa Oluwole, E Okaka Ibiene
BACKGROUND: Management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients often requires the use of multiple drugs due to a high number of cardiovascular risk factors and complications associated with the disease. Multiple drugs predispose to potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) which may be associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay and health-care cost. OBJECTIVES: This study determined the prevalence and pattern of potential DDIs among CKD patients attending Kidney Care Centre, in Ondo City, Nigeria...
April 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762307/oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-their-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-peripheral-artery-disease-with-or-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Salvatore Santo Signorelli, Niki Katsiki
Peripheral artery disease (PAD), a common vascular disease, has been associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality as well as all-cause death. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) predisposes to PAD development. In T2DM patients, PAD further increases the risk for CV disease and death as well as foot morbidity and microvascular complications. The present narrative review discusses the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathophysiology of PAD with or without the presence of T2DM...
July 31, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761681/smoking-intensity-and-duration-is-associated-with-cardiac-structure-and-function-the-echocardiographic-study-of-hispanics-latinos
#20
J Adam Leigh, Robert C Kaplan, Katrina Swett, Pelbreton Balfour, Mayank M Kansal, Gregory A Talavera, Krista Perreira, Michael J Blaha, Emelia J Benjamin, Rosemarie Robertson, Aruni Bhartnagar, Carlos J Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in smokers and this relationship is complicated by the multiplicity of cardiovascular effects of smoking. However, the relationship between intensity and duration of cigarette smoking and echocardiographic measures of right and left ventricular structure and function has been poorly studied. METHODS: We examined ECHO-SOL (Echocardiographic Study of Hispanics/Latinos) participants, a subset of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos...
2017: Open Heart
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