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Multiple sclerosis immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787840/cutaneous-features-and-diagnosis-of-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-an-update-and-review
#1
REVIEW
Preeti Jhorar, Kristin Torre, Jun Lu
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder (CTD) which principally affects the lacrimal and salivary glands. Although SS is one of the three most common autoimmune CTDs alongside systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and progressive systemic sclerosis, it is the least researched CTD overall. SS poses a particular diagnostic challenge because it shares multiple clinical and immunologic features with other CTDs. However, there are some characteristic cutaneous clinical features that can precede the well-known sicca symptoms by years...
May 19, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760711/selective-modulation-of-tnf-tnfrs-signaling-insights-for-multiple-sclerosis-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Valentina Pegoretti, Wia Baron, Jon D Laman, Ulrich L M Eisel
Autoimmunity develops when self-tolerance mechanisms are failing to protect healthy tissue. A sustained reaction to self is generated, which includes the generation of effector cells and molecules that destroy tissues. A way to restore this intrinsic tolerance is through immune modulation that aims at refurbishing this immunologically naïve or unresponsive state, thereby decreasing the aberrant immune reaction taking place. One major cytokine has been shown to play a pivotal role in several autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS): tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) modulates the induction and maintenance of an inflammatory process and it comes in two variants, soluble TNF (solTNF) and transmembrane bound TNF (tmTNF)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750884/nutritional-intervention-as-an-essential-part-of-multiple-sclerosis-treatment
#3
A Penesová, Z Dean, B Kollár, A Havranová, R Imrich, M Vlček, Ž Rádiková
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In addition to the genetic, epigenetic and immunological components, various other factors e.g. unhealthy dietary habits play a role in the MS pathogenesis. Dietary intervention is a highly appealing approach, as it presents a simple and relatively low risk method to potentially improve outcomes in patients with brain disorders in order to achieve remission and improvement of clinical status, well-being and life expectancy of patients with MS...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738432/neuroimmunology-research-a-report-from-the-cuban-network-of-neuroimmunology
#4
María de Los Angeles Robinson-Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Orlando Ramón Serrano-Barrera
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease’s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in the development of neuroimmunotherapy with the earlier expression in Pasteur’s vaccine for rabies. Nevertheless, this field, which began to become delineated as an independent research area in the 1940s, has evolved as an innovative and integrative field at the shared edges of neurosciences, immunology, and related clinical and research areas, which are currently becoming a major concern for neuroscience and indeed for all of the scientific community linked to it...
May 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737455/current-and-future-use-of-chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-in-infectious-immune-neoplastic-and-neurological-diseases-a-mini-review
#5
REVIEW
Domenico Plantone, Tatiana Koudriavtseva
The process of finding new therapeutic indications for currently used drugs, defined as 'repurposing', is receiving growing attention. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, with an original indication to prevent or cure malaria, have been successfully used to treat several infectious (HIV, Q fever, Whipple's disease, fungal infections), rheumatological (systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome), and other immunological diseases. Indeed, they have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, anti-infective, antithrombotic, and metabolic effects...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#6
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702175/pro-inflammatory-roles-of-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-in-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Erin L Stephenson, V Wee Yong
The extracellular matrix of the central nervous system is an interconnected network of proteins and sugars. It is crucial for homeostasis, but its remodeling in neurological diseases impacts both injury and repair. Here we introduce an extracellular matrix family member that participates in immune-matrix interactions, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans integrate signals from the microenvironment to activate immune cells, and they boost inflammatory responses by binding immunological receptors including toll-like receptors, selectins, CD44, and β1 integrin...
April 24, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696565/emerging-role-of-semaphorin-3a-in-autoimmune-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Li-Na Liu, Xiao-Mei Li, Dong-Qing Ye, Hai-Feng Pan
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are featured by the body's immune responses being directed against its own tissues, resulting in prolonged inflammation and subsequent tissue damage. Currently, the exact pathogenesis of ADs remains not fully elucidated. Semaphorin-3A (Sema3A), a secreted member of semaphorin family, is a potent immunoregulator during all immune response stages. Sema3A has wide expression, such as in bone, connective tissue, kidney, neurons, and cartilage. Sema3A can downregulate ADs by suppressing the over-activity of both T-cell and B-cell autoimmunity...
April 25, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692781/association-of-decreased-percentage-of-v%C3%AE-2-v%C3%AE-9-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-with-disease-severity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Guzailiayi Maimaitijiang, Koji Shinoda, Yuri Nakamura, Katsuhisa Masaki, Takuya Matsushita, Noriko Isobe, Ryo Yamasaki, Yasunobu Yoshikai, Jun-Ichi Kira
We recently reported that deletion-type copy number variations of the T cell receptor (TCR) γ, α, and δ genes greatly enhanced susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the effect of abnormal TCR γδ gene rearrangement on MS pathogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to clarify γδ TCR repertoire alterations and their relationship to clinical and immunological parameters in MS patients by comprehensive flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 30 untreated MS patients in remission and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) were stained for surface markers and intracellular cytokines after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin, and analyzed by flow cytometry...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623106/defining-distinct-features-of-anti-mog-antibody-associated-central-nervous-system-demyelination
#10
REVIEW
Martin S Weber, Tobias Derfuss, Imke Metz, Wolfgang Brück
Extensive research over the last decades basically failed to identify a common cause of noninfectious inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease. To a great extent, this may reflect that the group of inflammatory CNS demyelinating disorders likely contains multiple pathogenetically distinct disease entities. Indeed, the greatest success so far in deciphering the pathogenesis of a CNS demyelinating disorder resulted from the discovery of anti-aquaporin (AQP)-4 antibodies (ab), which allowed progressive delineation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), formerly considered a variant of the most common CNS demyelinating disorder, multiple sclerosis (MS), as a distinct disease...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593744/studies-of-mast-cells-adventures-in-serendipity
#11
REVIEW
Melissa A Brown
Like many of us who had the great fortune to work with Bill Paul, my science life was immeasurably altered by my interactions with him. Although intimidating at first because of his stature in the immunology world, it was soon clear that he not only truly cared about the specific research we were doing together, but he wished to convey to his trainees an approach to science that was open, always questioning, and infinitely fun. His enthusiasm was infectious and after my training with him, despite stresses due to funding and publishing hurdles, I never regretted the path I took...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593711/regenerating-immunotolerance-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer C Massey, Ian J Sutton, David D F Ma, John J Moore
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system where evidence implicates an aberrant adaptive immune response in the accrual of neurological disability. The inflammatory phase of the disease responds to immunomodulation to varying degrees of efficacy; however, no therapy has been proven to arrest progression of disability. Recently, more intensive therapies, including immunoablation with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), have been offered as a treatment option to retard inflammatory disease, prior to patients becoming irreversibly disabled...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566973/immunology-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#13
Jack P Antel, Yun Hsuan Lin, Qiao-Ling Cui, Florian Pernin, Timothy E Kennedy, Samuel K Ludwin, Luke M Healy
Remyelination following myelin/oligodendrocyte injury in the central nervous system (CNS) is dependent on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) migrating into lesion sites, differentiating into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs), and ensheathing axons. Experimental models indicate that robust OPC-dependent remyelination can occur in the CNS; in contrast, histologic and imaging studies of lesions in the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS) indicate the variable extent of this response, which is particularly limited in more chronic MS lesions...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552092/rescue-therapy-with-alemtuzumab-in-b-cell-antibody-mediated-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Katja Akgün, Imke Metz, Hagen H Kitzler, Wolfgang Brück, Tjalf Ziemssen
Alemtuzumab exerts its clinical efficacy by its specific pattern of depletion and repopulation of different immune cell subsets. Recently, single cases of multiple sclerosis patients who developed severe exacerbation after the first alemtuzumab application, accompanied by re-appearance of peripheral B cells, were reported. Here we present a case with underlying B cell-driven multiple sclerosis that impressively improves after alemtuzumab, although peripheral B cell repopulation took place. Our detailed clinical, histopathological, imaging and immunological data suggest that alemtuzumab can act as an effective rescue treatment in highly active B cell-driven and antibody/complement-mediated multiple sclerosis type II patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503604/engineering-immunological-tolerance-using-quantum-dots-to-tune-the-density-of-self-antigen-display
#15
Krystina L Hess, Eunkeu Oh, Lisa H Tostanoski, James I Andorko, Kimihiro Susumu, Jeffrey R Deschamps, Igor L Medintz, Christopher M Jewell
Treatments for autoimmunity - diseases where the immune system mistakenly attacks self-molecules - are not curative and leave patients immunocompromised. New studies aimed at more specific treatments reveal development of inflammation or tolerance is influenced by the form self-antigens are presented. Using a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we show for the first time that quantum dots (QDs) can be used to generate immunological tolerance by controlling the density of self-antigen on QDs. These assemblies display dense arrangements of myelin self-peptide associated with disease in MS, are uniform in size (<20 nm), and allow direct visualization in immune tissues...
June 13, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501895/immune-profile-in-relation-to-sex-steroid-cyclicity-in-healthy-women-and-women-with-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Per Kempe, Daniel Eklund, Agnes Hallin, Mats Hammar, Tomas Olsson, Jan Brynhildsen, Jan Ernerudh
To prospectively study systemic in vivo immunological effects of sex hormones, using different phases of oral combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC), and the natural menstrual cycles in both healthy women and in women with multiple sclerosis (MS), blood samples from sixty female MS patients and healthy controls with and without CHC were drawn in high and low estrogenic/progestogenic phases. Expression of Th-associated genes in blood cells was determined by qPCR and a panel of cytokines and chemokines was measured in plasma...
April 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460058/the-immunologic-paradoxes-of-igg4-related-disease
#17
REVIEW
Xiao Xiao, Min Lian, Weici Zhang, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), which usually occurs in middle-aged and elderly men, is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory condition characterized by swelling and sclerosis of involved organs, increased IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in lesions, and elevated IgG4 concentration in serum. Despite growing interest in the research, the pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. Most IgG4-RD patients respond well to steroid therapy initially, but recurrent and refractory cases are common, especially in advanced fibrotic stage...
April 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455073/dimethyl-fumarate-in-a-patient-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-the-importance-of-ketonuria
#18
Ewa Krzystanek, Przemyslawa Jarosz-Chobot
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is approved for use in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Its mechanism of action is still not well understood, but besides the immunological pathways in MS, it may also affect the metabolism of normally functioning internal organs, tissues and cells. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on the case of 29-year-old woman with satisfactorily-controlled type 1 diabetes (T1D), who was diagnosed as having MS. After administration of DMF she experienced intense, adverse gastro-intestinal reactions together with ketonuria up to 160 mg/dL...
April 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454151/humoral-response-to-john-cunningham-virus-during-pregnancy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
M Saraste, S Atula, K Hedman, S Hurme, A Jalkanen, M Sneck, H-M Surcel, A H Maghzi, L Airas
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy induces an immunosuppressive state in the mother to ensure immunological acceptance of the foetus. Impairment of cell-mediated immune responses may render the mother susceptible to intracellular pathogens. It is not presently known whether pregnancy alters the immunosurveillance for John Cunningham virus (JCV), an opportunistic pathogen associated with natalizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the humoral immune response to JCV is altered during pregnancy among MS patients and healthy controls to get insight to potential pregnancy-induced alterations related to immune response to JCV during pregnancy...
April 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440397/sex-bias-in-mhc-i-associated-shaping-of-the-adaptive-immune-system
#20
Tilman Schneider-Hohendorf, Dennis Görlich, Paula Savola, Tiina Kelkka, Satu Mustjoki, Catharina C Gross, Geoffrey C Owens, Luisa Klotz, Klaus Dornmair, Heinz Wiendl, Nicholas Schwab
HLA associations, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire bias, and sex bias have independently been shown for many diseases. While some immunological differences between the sexes have been described, they do not fully explain bias in men toward many infections/cancers, and toward women in autoimmunity. Next-generation TCR variable beta chain (TCRBV) immunosequencing of 824 individuals was evaluated in a multiparametric analysis including HLA-A -B/MHC class I background, TCRBV usage, sex, age, ethnicity, and TCRBV selection/expansion dynamics...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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