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Multiple sclerosis immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805697/multiple-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia
#1
REVIEW
Borros M Arneth
The psychiatric and neurological aspects of health may present methodological challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. This is especially true for patients whose symptoms indicate the coexistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These cases raise critical questions regarding the relationship between the mind and the brain. Studies have noted that patients with MS have an increased risk of developing SCZ or bipolar disorder (BD). It is suggested here that MS and a subgroup of SCZ have similar etiologies...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803660/multiple-sclerosis-skin-induced-antigen-specific-immune-tolerance
#2
REVIEW
Paula Wildner, Krzysztof W Selmaj
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly prevalent demyelinating disorder, presumed to be driven by an autoimmune response toward the central nervous system (CNS) components. All currently available treatments modulate the immune system globally and besides the reduction of disease activity, they may also impose considerable disturbances on the immune protective mechanisms. Thus, induction of antigen-specific immune tolerance remains the ultimate goal of MS therapy. Such approach carries promising therapeutic perspectives and, above all, a desirable safety profile...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801931/immunomodulatory-effects-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-promote-alternative-activation-macrophages-to-repair-tissue-damage
#3
Annie C Bowles, Rachel M Wise, Brittany Y Gerstein, Robert C Thomas, Roberto Ogelman, Isabella Febbo, Bruce A Bunnell
The pathogenesis of many diseases is driven by the interactions between helper T (TH ) cells and macrophages. The phenotypes of these cells are a functional dichotomy that are persuaded according to the surrounding milieu. In both multiple sclerosis (MS) and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, TH 1 and TH 17 cells propagate autoimmune signaling and inflammation in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. In turn, this pro-inflammatory repertoire promotes the classical activation, formerly the M1-type, macrophages...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799485/monoclonal-antibodies-a-review
#4
Surjit Singh, Nitish Kumar, Pradeep Dwiwedi, Jaykaran Charan, Rimplejeet Kaur, Preeti Sidhu, Vinay Kumar Chugh
Over the last three decades, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have made a striking transformation from scientific tools to powerful human therapeutics. Muromonab CD3 a murine MAb, was first FDA approved therapeutic MAb for prevention of kidney transplant rejection. Since its approval in 1986, there has been decline in the further application and approvals until the late 1990s when the first chimeric Mab, Rituximab was approved for the treatment of low grade B cell lymphoma in 1997. With the approval by licensing authorities of chimeric, followed by humanized and then fully human monoclonal antibodies, rate of approval and monoclonal antibodies available in the market for the treatment of various diseases has increased dramatically...
August 9, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792504/common-gene-network-signature-of-different-neurological-disorders-and-their-potential-implications-to-neuroaids
#5
Vidya Sagar, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Paola C Martinez, V S R Atluri, M Nair
The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s) for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762192/a-comprehensive-review-on-copemyl-%C3%A2
#6
REVIEW
Pietro Annovazzi, Antonio Bertolotto, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Claudio Gasperini, Enrico Montanari, Pierluigi Navarra, Francesco Patti, Maria Pia Sormani, Angelo Ghezzi
Economic sustainability is of paramount importance in the rapidly evolving therapeutic scenario of multiple sclerosis (MS). Glatiramoids are a class of drugs whose forefather, glatiramer acetate, has been used as a disease modifying drug (DMD) in patients with MS for over 20 years. Its patent expired in 2015; new versions of such drug are nowadays available on the market, potentially contributing to lowering prices and enhancing a better allocation of economic resources. In this review, we analyze the recommendations underlying the approval of both generic drugs and biosimilars by regulatory authorities, and we provide methodological tools to contextualize the design of studies on these new classes of drugs...
July 31, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738749/an-update-on-multiple-sclerosis-in-children-diagnosis-therapies-and-prospects-for-the-future
#7
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Brenda Banwell
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, is increasingly being recognized in children and adolescents. Pediatric MS follows a relapsing-remitting course at onset, with a risk for early cognitive impairment. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the clinical features of acute demyelinating syndromes in children and risk factors that increase the likelihood of a diagnosis of MS. We also address the application of diagnostic criteria for MS in children, immunological features, therapeutic options and psychosocial considerations for children and adolescents with MS...
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732440/intravenous-injection-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-coated-plga-microparticles-have-tolerogenic-effects-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#8
Mehrdad Gholamzad, Masoumeh Ebtekar, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani
The abnormal function of the T lymphocytes causes a range of autoimmune diseases, particularly multiple sclerosis; hence, several methods have been used to treat these disorders through the induction of antigen-specific tolerance in T cells. The present study aims to use a simple and low-cost method to produce poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for carrying antigens and inducing antigen-specific tolerance. In this study, PLGA nanoparticles were produced using the water/oil/water (W/O/W) method...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714395/five-decades-of-cuprizone-an-updated-model-to-replicate-demyelinating-diseases
#9
Jose M Vega-Riquer, Gerardo Mendez-Victoriano, Raul A Morales-Luckie, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
Multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral nerve polyneuropathy and others comprise a group of demyelinating diseases characterized by progressive (and eventually irreversible) loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths in the white matter of the brain. To date, the etiology of these disorders is not well known and no effective treatments are currently available. Therefore, further research is needed to gain a better understand and treat these patients. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to have appropriate animal models that closely resemble the pathophysiology of these diseases...
July 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713377/th1-and-th17-cells-and-associated-cytokines-discriminate-among-clinically-isolated-syndrome-and-multiple-sclerosis-phenotypes
#10
Gabriel Arellano, Eric Acuña, Lilian I Reyes, Payton A Ottum, Patrizia De Sarno, Luis Villarroel, Ethel Ciampi, Reinaldo Uribe-San Martín, Claudia Cárcamo, Rodrigo Naves
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is a heterogeneous pathology that can follow different clinical courses, and the mechanisms that underlie the progression of the immune response across MS subtypes remain incompletely understood. Here, we aimed to determine differences in the immunological status among different MS clinical subtypes. Blood samples from untreated patients diagnosed with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) (n = 21), different clinical forms of MS (n = 62) [relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary progressive, and primary progressive], and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 17) were tested for plasma levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, IL-17A, and IL-17F by immunoanalysis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706301/a-haystack-heuristic-for-autoimmune-disease-biomarker-discovery-using-next-gen-immune-repertoire-sequencing-data
#11
Leonard Apeltsin, Shengzhi Wang, H-Christian von Büdingen, Marina Sirota
Large-scale DNA sequencing of immunological repertoires offers an opportunity for the discovery of novel biomarkers for autoimmune disease. Available bioinformatics techniques however, are not adequately suited for elucidating possible biomarker candidates from within large immunosequencing datasets due to unsatisfactory scalability and sensitivity. Here, we present the Haystack Heuristic, an algorithm customized to computationally extract disease-associated motifs from next-generation-sequenced repertoires by contrasting disease and healthy subjects...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698092/spasticity-in-multiple-sclerosis-contribution-of-inflammation-autoimmune-mediated-neuronal-damage-and-therapeutic-interventions
#12
REVIEW
Robert Patejdl, Uwe K Zettl
In contrast to other diseases that go along with spasticity (e.g. spinal cord injury), spasticity in chronic autoimmune diseases involving the CNS is complicated by the ongoing damage of neuronal networks that leads to permanent changes in the clinical picture of spasticity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and spasticity is one of the most disabling symptoms. It occurs in more than 80% MS patients at some point of the disease and is associated with impaired ambulation, pain and the development of contractures...
July 8, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696300/acetylcholine-producing-nk-cells-attenuate-cns-inflammation-via-modulation-of-infiltrating-monocytes-macrophages
#13
Wei Jiang, Daojing Li, Ranran Han, Chao Zhang, Wei-Na Jin, Kristofer Wood, Qiang Liu, Fu-Dong Shi, Junwei Hao
The nonneural cholinergic system of immune cells is pivotal for the maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Here we demonstrate the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and cholinergic enzymes in murine natural killer (NK) cells. The capacity for acetylcholine synthesis by NK cells increased markedly under inflammatory conditions such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in which ChAT expression escalated along with the maturation of NK cells. ChAT(+) and ChAT(-) NK cells displayed distinctive features in terms of cytotoxicity and chemokine/cytokine production...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690849/altered-regulatory-t-cell-fractions-and-helios-expression-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-clues-to-the-development-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Anderson P Jones, Stephanie Trend, Scott N Byrne, Marzena J Fabis-Pedrini, Sian Geldenhuys, David Nolan, David R Booth, William M Carroll, Robyn M Lucas, Allan G Kermode, Prue H Hart
Development of multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently preceded by an acute or subacute neurological disturbance referred to as clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). The specific immunological disturbances present in CIS remain underexamined. This study analysed peripheral blood mononuclear cells from n=18 treatment-naive individuals with recently diagnosed CIS (<120 days) for disturbances in the phenotype of T regulatory (Treg), follicular T regulatory (Tfr), T helper (Th), follicular T helper (Tfh) and B cells...
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665947/a-score-test-for-comparing-cross-sectional-survival-data-with-a-fraction-of-non-susceptible-patients-and-its-application-in-clinical-immunology
#15
Sarah Flora Jonas, Cyprien Mbogning, Signe Hässler, Philippe Broët
OBJECTIVES: In cross-sectional studies of time-to-event data collected by patient examinations at a single random point in time, a fraction of them will not experience the event regardless of the length of the follow-up time. This is the case in clinical immunology studies that include a mixed population, with both immune-reactive and immune-tolerant (or non-susceptible) patients. In these cases, classical tests of current status data may perform poorly. New methods for testing these data are needed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656540/human-endogenous-retrovirus-w-env-increases-nitric-oxide-production-and-enhances-the-migration-ability-of-microglia-by-regulating-the-expression-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#16
Ran Xiao, Shan Li, Qian Cao, Xiuling Wang, Qiujin Yan, Xiaoning Tu, Ying Zhu, Fan Zhu
Human endogenous retrovirus W env (HERV-W env) plays a critical role in many neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS). These diseases are accompanied by immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are important immunocytes in brain inflammation that can produce a gasotransmitter-nitric oxide (NO). NO not only plays a role in the function of neuronal cells but also participates in the pathogenesis of various neuropsychological diseases. In this study, we reported increased NO production in CHME-5 microglia cells after they were transfected with HERV-W env...
June 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652101/salt-inflammatory-joint-disease-and-autoimmunity
#17
Johanna Sigaux, Luca Semerano, Guillaume Favre, Natacha Bessis, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Salt is a vital nutrient. Excess salt intake, however, has recently been blamed for triggering and/or worsening certain autoimmune diseases. In vitro, the cells involved in innate and adaptive immune responses exhibit an inflammatory profile when placed in hypertonic saline. More specifically, macrophages release increased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, produce reactive oxygen species, and become capable of activating the inflammasome. T helper cells, via activation of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), overexpress IL-17A and IL-23R and differentiate into Th17 cells; whereas regulatory T cells lose the inhibitory capabilities needed to preserve self-tolerance...
June 23, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635055/melanoma-complicating-treatment-with-natalizumab-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-report-from-the-southern-network-on-adverse-reactions-sonar
#18
Rachel A Sabol, Virginia Noxon, Oliver Sartor, Joseph R Berger, Zaina Qureshi, Dennis W Raisch, LeAnn B Norris, Paul R Yarnold, Peter Georgantopoulos, William J Hrushesky, Laura Bobolts, Paul Ray, Akida Lebby, Robert C Kane, Charles L Bennett
A 43-year-old female with multiple sclerosis developed urethral melanoma. The only potential risk factor was treatment with natalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against α4 integrins. To investigate the risk-exposure relationship, we reviewed this case, all other published cases, and cases of natalizumab-associated melanoma reported to regulatory agencies. Data sources included the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) (2004-2014), a FDA Advisory Committee Meeting Report, and peer-reviewed publications...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629398/anaplastic-astrocytoma-mimicking-progressive-multifocal-leucoencephalopathy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-overlapping-syndromes
#19
Ema Kantorová, Michal Bittšanský, Štefan Sivák, Eva Baranovičová, Petra Hnilicová, Vladimír Nosáľ, Daniel Čierny, Kamil Zeleňák, Wolfgang Brück, Egon Kurča
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and glial tumours (GT) is uncommon although occasionally reported in medical literature. Interpreting the overlapping radiologic and clinical characteristics of glial tumours, MS lesions, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) can be a significant diagnostic challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of anaplastic astrocytoma mimicking PML in a 27-year-old patient with a 15-year history of MS...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624961/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-t-cells-in-white-matter-lesions-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#20
Gijsbert P van Nierop, Marvin M van Luijn, Samira S Michels, Marie-Jose Melief, Malou Janssen, Anton W Langerak, Werner J D Ouwendijk, Rogier Q Hintzen, Georges M G M Verjans
T cells are considered pivotal in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS), but their function and antigen specificity are unknown. To unravel the role of T cells in MS pathology, we performed a comprehensive analysis on T cells recovered from paired blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and white matter lesions (WML) from 27 MS patients with advanced disease shortly after death. The differentiation status of T cells in these compartments was determined by ex vivo flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry...
June 17, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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