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Multiple sclerosis immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141799/the-4259a-c-polymorphism-of-tim-3-but-not-1637c-t-polymorphism-of-tim-1-is-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-in-isfahan-population
#1
Masoumeh Pouladian, Mazdak Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Fereshteh Alsahebfosul, Vida Homayouni, Sharifeh Khosravi, Masoud Etemadifar, Fariba Mazrouei, Rasoul Salehi
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which initiated and mediated by autoreactive T helper1 cells directed against myelin antigens. One of T cell surface receptors is T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family which its importance in immunology is recently discovered. These molecules have important immunological function by regulation of T effector cells. METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of +4259A>C polymorphism in TIM-3 and -1637C>T polymorphism in TIM-1 gene in MS patients and healthy controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141798/ecotropic-viral-integration-site-5-evi5-variants-are-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-in-iranian-population
#2
Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Rezvan Noroozi, Arezou Sayad, Maryam Khani, Mohammad Taheri, Mir Davood Omrani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disorder with immunological basis. Numerous genetic and environmental factors contribute in its pathogenesis. Several genetic loci have been shown to be associated with MS risk. Among genes whose participation in MS has been evaluated is Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 5 (EVI5). EVI5 is a common site of retroviral integration with a possible role in T-cell lymphomagenesis. METHODS: In the current study, we aimed to confirm association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within EVI5 gene with MS in 410 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 410 controls from Iranian population...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131010/blockade-of-experimental-multiple-sclerosis-by-inhibition-of-the-acid-sphingomyelinase-ceramide-system
#3
Katrin Anne Becker, Ramona Halmer, Laura Davies, Brian D Henry, Regan Ziobro-Henry, Yann Decker, Yang Liu, Erich Gulbins, Klaus Fassbender, Silke Walter
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe and common autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. Despite the availability of several novel treatment options, the disease is still poorly controlled, since the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. METHODS: We tested the role of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system in a model of MS, i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mice were immunized with myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and the development of the disease was analyzed by histology, immunological tests and clinical assessment in wildtype and acid sphingomyelinase (Asm)-deficient mice...
November 6, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123575/systemic-sclerosis-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
REVIEW
Irena Walecka
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmunological disease of unknown origin with complex pathogenesis and multiple organ involvement. It is characterised by vascular and immunological abnormalities leading to fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. It is a rather rare disease with a prevalence of around 20 per 100,000. The disease results in heterogeneous clinical findings and different courses. Systemic sclerosis usually begins with the onset of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), followed by skin sclerosis and internal organ involvement, although it may appear synchronously with RP...
2017: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118761/immunological-and-clinical-effect-of-diet-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-pilot-study
#5
Marina Saresella, Laura Mendozzi, Valentina Rossi, Franca Mazzali, Federica Piancone, Francesca LaRosa, Ivana Marventano, Domenico Caputo, Giovanna E Felis, Mario Clerici
Pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), has been linked to an alteration of the resident microbial commensal community and of the interplay between the microbiota and the immune system. Dietary components such as fiber, acting on microbiota composition, could, in principle, result in immune modulation and, thus, could be used to obtain beneficial outcomes for patients. We verified this hypothesis in a pilot study involving two groups of clinically similar relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients who had undergone either a high-vegetable/low-protein diet (HV/LP diet group; N = 10) or a "Western Diet" (WD group; N = 10) for at least 12 months...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112130/role-of-immunological-memory-cells-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Tanima Bose
Pharmacological targeting of memory cells is an attractive treatment strategy in various autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by focal immune cell infiltration, activation of microglia and astrocytes, along with progressive damage to myelin sheaths, axons, and neurons. The current review begins with the identification of memory cell types in the previous literature and a recent description of the modulation of these cell types in T, B, and resident memory cells in the presence of different clinically approved multiple sclerosis drugs...
November 7, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101043/the-influence-and-impact-of-ageing-and-immunosenescence-isc-on-adaptive-immunity-during-multiple-sclerosis-ms-and-the-animal-counterpart-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae
#7
REVIEW
Christopher Bolton, Paul A Smith
The human ageing process encompass mechanisms that effect a decline in homeostasis with increased susceptibility to disease and the development of chronic life-threatening illness. Increasing age affects the immune system which undergoes a progressive loss of efficiency, termed immunosenescence (ISC), to impact on quantitative and functional aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. The human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the corresponding animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are strongly governed by immunological events that primarily involve the adaptive arm of the immune response...
October 31, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079885/therapeutic-potential-of-curcumin-for-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Munibah Qureshi, Ebtesam A Al-Suhaimi, Fazli Wahid, Omer Shehzad, Adeeb Shehzad
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by demyelination, neuronal injury, and breaching of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Epidemiological studies have shown that immunological, genetic, and environmental factors contribute to the progression and development of MS. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are crucial immunological participant in the pathophysiology of MS. The aberrant production of IL-17 and IL-22 by Th17 cells crosses BBB promotes its disruption and interferes with transmission of nerve signals through activation of neuroinflammation in the CNS...
October 27, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078267/gut-dysbiosis-breaks-immunological-tolerance-toward-the-central-nervous-system-during-young-adulthood
#9
Sudhir K Yadav, Sridhar Boppana, Naoko Ito, John E Mindur, Martin T Mathay, Ankoor Patel, Suhayl Dhib-Jalbut, Kouichi Ito
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system (CNS) mainly in young adults, and a breakage of immune tolerance to CNS self-antigens has been suggested to initiate CNS autoimmunity. Age and microbial infection are well-known factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases, including MS. Recent studies have suggested that alterations in the gut microbiota, referred to as dysbiosis, are associated with MS. However, it is still largely unknown how gut dysbiosis affects the onset and progression of CNS autoimmunity...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074035/the-il-12-cytokine-family-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#10
T van der Heijden, I Bot, J Kuiper
Cytokines of the Interleukin (IL)-12 family, consisting of IL-12, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35, are important regulators in (chronic) inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but also in cardiovascular diseases. Cytokines of the IL-12 family consist of two subunits and are known for their regulatory functions in the immunologic response, more specifically in the regulation and differentiation of T-helper (Th) cells such as Th1 and Th17 cells. Binding of these cytokines to its specific heterodimeric receptor results in the activation of the JAK-STAT signaling...
October 23, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063239/correction-to-the-sequence-of-disease-modifying-therapies-in-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis-safety-and-immunologic-considerations
#11
Gabriel Pardo, David E Jones
Unfortunately, the online published article has errors in Table 2. The Peginterferon is listed as IM, when it should be SC.
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058769/lewis-rat-model-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Bjoern Ambrosius, Ralf Gold
In this unit, we describe in detail the most common methods used to break immunological tolerance for central myelin antigens and induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats as an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The resulting disease course ranges from an acute monophasic disease to a chronic relapsing or chronic progressive course, which strongly resembles the human disease. These models enable the study of cellular and humoral autoimmunity against major antigenic epitopes of the myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, or proteolipid protein...
October 23, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027004/blood-lymphocyte-subsets-identify-optimal-responders-to-ifn-beta-in-ms
#13
Raquel Alenda, Lucienne Costa-Frossard, Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente, Carmen Espejo, Eulalia Rodríguez-Martín, Susana Sainz de la Maza, Noelia Villarrubia, Jordi Río, María I Domínguez-Mozo, Xavier Montalban, José C Álvarez-Cermeño, Luisa M Villar
Response to interferon-beta (IFN-beta) treatment is heterogeneous in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to search for biomarkers predicting no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) status upon IFN-beta treatment in MS. 119 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) initiating IFN-beta treatment were included in the study, and followed prospectively for 2 years. Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) were explored in serum samples obtained after 6 and 12 months of IFN-beta treatment. Soluble cytokines and blood lymphocytes were studied in basal samples by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024167/imaging-spinal-cord-atrophy-in-progressive-myelopathies-htlv-i-associated-neurological-disease-ham-tsp-and-multiple-sclerosis-ms
#14
Shila Azodi, Govind Nair, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Emily Charlip, Ashley Vellucci, Irene Cortese, Jenifer Dwyer, B Jeanne Billioux, Chevaz Thomas, Joan Ohayon, Daniel S Reich, Steven Jacobson
OBJECTIVE: Previous work measures spinal cord thinning in chronic progressive myelopathies, including human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative measurements of spinal cord atrophy are important in fully characterizing these and other spinal cord diseases. We aimed to investigate patterns of spinal cord atrophy and correlations with clinical markers. METHODS: Spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured in individuals (24 healthy controls [HCs], 17 asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-1 (AC), 47 HAM/TSP, 74 relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], 17 secondary progressive MS [SPMS], and 40 primary progressive MS [PPMS]) from C1 to T10...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975037/effects-of-vitamin-d3-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-and-healthy-control-participants-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Karen O'Connell, Jamal Sulaimani, Sharee A Basdeo, Katie Kinsella, Sinead Jordan, Orla Kenny, Siobhan B Kelly, David Murphy, Eric Heffernan, Ronan P Killeen, Keith Mulready, Marguerite MacMahon, Jennifer J Brady, Carmel McKenna, Ciaran Muldowney, Lorraine Cassidy, Cathal Walsh, Killian O'Rourke, Niall Tubridy, Chris McGuigan, Jean M Fletcher, Michael Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Lowserum vitamin D levels are associated with susceptibility to, and severity of, multiple sclerosis. High dose vitamin D has been proposed as a potential immunomodulator in multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVES: We performed a single centre, investigator-led, exploratory, double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, trial of vitamin D3 in clinically isolated syndrome and healthy control participants to assess its immunological effects. Secondary end-points included clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes and safety...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946620/deciphering-the-role-of-b-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis-towards-specific-targeting-of-pathogenic-function
#16
REVIEW
Klaus Lehmann-Horn, Silke Kinzel, Martin S Weber
B cells, plasma cells and antibodies may play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This notion is supported by various immunological changes observed in MS patients, such as activation and pro-inflammatory differentiation of peripheral blood B cells, the persistence of clonally expanded plasma cells producing immunoglobulins in the cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the composition of inflammatory central nervous system lesions frequently containing co-localizing antibody depositions and activated complement...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946518/comparison-of-25-hidroksi-vitamin-d-serum-concentrations-in-patients-with-psoriasis-and-psoriatic-arthritis
#17
Mustafa Serdar Sağ, Sinem Sağ, İbrahim Tekeoğlu, Berna Solak, Ayhan Kamanlı, Kemal Nas, Halil Harman, Mine Kantar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are some of the autoimmune diseases related to the decreases in Vitamin D levels. The same immunological properties as psoriasis, such as Th1/Th2 dysregulation, are seen in all of them. This study aims to compare 25-hidroksi Vitamin D (25-OHD) serum concentrations in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935954/process-signatures-in-glatiramer-acetate-synthesis-structural-and-functional-relationships
#18
Víctor R Campos-García, Daniel Herrera-Fernández, Carlos E Espinosa-de la Garza, German González, Luis Vallejo-Castillo, Sandra Avila, Leslie Muñoz-García, Emilio Medina-Rivero, Néstor O Pérez, Isabel Gracia-Mora, Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia, Rodolfo Salazar-Ceballos, Lenin Pavón, Luis F Flores-Ortiz
Glatiramer Acetate (GA) is an immunomodulatory medicine approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, whose mechanisms of action are yet to be fully elucidated. GA is comprised of a complex mixture of polypeptides with different amino acid sequences and structures. The lack of sensible information about physicochemical characteristics of GA has contributed to its comprehensiveness complexity. Consequently, an unambiguous determination of distinctive attributes that define GA is of highest relevance towards dissecting its identity...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904861/a-modified-graft-versus-host-induced-model-for-systemic-sclerosis-with-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rag2-deficient-mice
#19
Xue Yang, Chi Liu, Masayuki Fujino, Ji Yang, Xiao-Kang Li, Hejian Zou
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease that results in fibrosis in multiple organs. Various animal models for this disease have been developed, both genetic and induced. One of the induced models, sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease (scl-GvHD), exhibits the main characteristics of SSc, but involves lethal γ-irradiation of recipients. We sought to develop a modified scl-GvHD model. Spleen cells from B10.D2 donor mice were transplanted into immunodeficient Rag-2 recipients on the BALB/c genetic background...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879412/the-sequence-of-disease-modifying-therapies-in-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis-safety-and-immunologic-considerations
#20
REVIEW
Gabriel Pardo, David E Jones
The treatment landscape for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS) has expanded considerably over the last 10 years with the approval of multiple new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), and others in late-stage clinical development. All DMTs for RMS are believed to reduce central nervous system immune-mediated inflammatory processes, which translate into demonstrable improvement in clinical and radiologic outcomes. However, some DMTs are associated with long-lasting effects on the immune system and/or serious adverse events, both of which may complicate the use of subsequent therapies...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
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