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Multiple sclerosis immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425447/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-of-recombinant-human-myelin-basic-protein-nano-therapeutic-vaccine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice-animal-model
#1
Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Aliaa N ElMeshad, Rania M Abdelsalam, Mohammed M Nooh, Muhammad Al-Shorbagy, Götz Laible
Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424654/emerging-approaches-for-validating-and-managing-multiple-sclerosis-relapse
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Mills, Ali Mirza, Yang Mao-Draayer
The autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by relapses in the majority of patients. A definitive clinical diagnosis of relapse in MS can be complicated by the presence of an infection or comorbid disorder. In this mini-review, we describe efforts to develop enhanced imaging techniques and biomarker detection as future tools for relapse validation. There is emerging evidence of roles for meningeal inflammation, sex hormones, comorbid metabolic or mood disorders, and a dysregulated immune profile in the manifestation and severity of relapse...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411943/immunomodulatory-properties-of-human-placental-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells
#3
M H Abumaree, F M Abomaray, M A Alshabibi, A S AlAskar, B Kalionis
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are isolated from various fetal and adult tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood and placenta. Placental MSCs (pMSCs), the main focus of this review, are relatively new MSC types that are not as intensively studied compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs). MSCs modulate the immune functions of important immune cells involved in alloantigen recognition and elimination, including antigen presenting cells (APCs), T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells...
April 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378895/monitoring-cd49d-receptor-occupancy-a-method-to-optimize-and-personalize-natalizumab-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#4
Joan Puñet-Ortiz, José Vicente Hervás-García, Aina Teniente-Serra, Antonio Cano-Orgaz, Maria José Mansilla, Bibiana Quirant-Sánchez, Juan Navarro-Barriuso, Marco A Fernández-Sanmartín, Silvia Presas-Rodríguez, Cristina Ramo-Tello, Eva María Martínez-Cáceres
BACKGROUND: In natalizumab-treated relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, various extended interval dosing strategies are under evaluation to minimize severe treatment-associated side effects, mainly progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy development. Up to now, it has not been presented any approach, even in form of assay design, to determine the optimal percentage of CD49d receptor occupancy (RO) associated with a favorable clinical, radiological, and immunological response. METHODS: A multiparametric quantitative flow cytometry method was settled to measure CD49d RO on peripheral blood lymphocytes...
April 5, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299772/immunology-proves-a-great-success-for-treating-systemic-autoimmune-diseases-a-perspective-on-immunopharmacology-iuphar-review-23
#5
REVIEW
Masaru Ishii
Recent advances in the bioengineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have revolutionized the treatment of several immunological and rheumatic diseases. mAbs exhibit high specificity and affinity, and are very effective targeting agents, associated with minimal off-target adverse effects. Of several relevant immunological diseases, rheumatoid arthritis was the condition initially treated with mAbs, with great success. Currently, many immunological disorders are targeted and successfully treated using such novel approaches; these include inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis, lupus and psoriasis...
March 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298841/etiological-profile-of-noncompressive-myelopathies-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-northeast-india
#6
Ashok Kumar Kayal, Munindra Goswami, Marami Das, Lakhshya Jyoti Basumatary, Suvorit Subhas Bhowmick, Baiakmenlang Synmon
BACKGROUND: The discovery of antibodies against aquaporin-4 and evolving concepts of noncompressive myelopathies in the 21(st) century have made a major impact on the etiological profile of these diseases, with few cases turning out to be idiopathic. OBJECTIVE: To find causes of noncompressive myelopathy in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study was carried out in the Neurology Department of Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from September 2013 to February 2016...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296819/type-1-interferon-in-the-human-intestine-a-co-ordinator-of-the-immune-response-to-the-microbiota
#7
Edward M Giles, Andrew J Stagg
The human gut is in constant complex interaction with the external environment. Although much is understood about the composition and function of the microbiota, much remains to be learnt about the mechanisms by which these organisms interact with the immune system in health and disease. Type 1 interferon (T1IFN), a ubiquitous and pleiotropic family of cytokines, is a critical mediator of the response to viral, bacterial, and other antigens sampled in the intestine. Although inflammation is enhanced in mouse model of colitis when T1IFN signaling is lost, the action of T1IFN is context specific and can be pro- or anti-inflammatory...
April 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277827/progress-and-prospects-for-the-use-and-the-understanding-of-the-mode-of-action-of-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Fredrika Collins, Majid Kazmi, Paolo A Muraro
A substantial proportion of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) do not respond to pharmacological treatments and no currently approved therapy has been convincingly demonstrated to prevent or stop disease progression. With MS widely believed to be an auto-immune disease, immunoablative therapy followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (I/AHSCT) is being investigated as an alternative therapeutic option. Areas covered: With the results of phase III comparative trials only a few years away, this article reviews animal and clinical trials of I/AHSCT in the treatment of MS and discusses possible immunological mechanisms behind its action...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263097/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-follicular-t-helper-cells-and-their-role-in-autoimmunity
#9
Hong Qiu, Haijing Wu, Vera Chan, Chak-Sing Lau, Qianjin Lu
T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a specialized subset of T cells that provide help to B cells and promote the formation of germinal centers (GCs). Tfh cells transmit important signals to B cells that drive class switch recombination, somatic hyper-mutation, the generation of high-affinity antibodies, immunological memory and their differentiation into plasma cells or memory B cells in the GCs. Tfh-cell differentiation is regulated by the coordinated functions of distinct cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-21, IL-12, IL-23, IL-2, IL-7 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), as well as transcription factors, including B-cell lymphoma 6 protein (Bcl-6), Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1, STAT3, STAT4, B-cell activating transcription factor (Batf), interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog (C-Maf), T-cell-specific transcription factor 1 (TCF-1) and Achaete-scute homolog 2 (Acl2), which have been shown to form a complex transcriptional network...
March 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240190/demonstration-of-biological-and-immunological-equivalence-of-a-generic-glatiramer-acetate
#10
Josephine D D Alessandro, Kevin Garofalo, Ganlin Zhao, Christopher Honan, Jay Duffner, Ishan Capila, Ian Fier, Ganesh Kaundinya, Daniel Kantor, Tanmoy Ganguly
In April 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first generic glatiramer acetate, Glatopa® (M356), as fully substitutable for Copaxone® 20 mg/mL for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). This approval was accomplished through an Abbreviated New Drug Application that demonstrated equivalence to Copaxone. In vitro and in vivo experiments from multiple redundant orthogonal assays within four biological processes (aggregate biology, antigen-presenting cell biology, T-cell biology, and B-cell biology) modulated by glatiramer acetate in MS established the biological and immunological equivalence of Glatopa and Copaxone and are described...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236843/multiple-sclerosis-and-air-pollution-exposure-mechanisms-toward-brain-autoimmunity
#11
Sayed Esmaeil Mousavi, Pouria Heydarpour, Jacques Reis, Masoud Amiri, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
The association between neurodegenerative diseases and environmental exposures, in particular air pollution, has been noticed in the last two decades, but the importance of this environmental factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis has not been considered extensively. However, recent evidence suggests that major mechanisms involved in MS pathogenesis, such as inflammatory factors expression, free radicals overproduction, the blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, neuroinflammation, vitamin D deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction could also occur due to exposure to air pollutants...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216651/deficiency-of-the-g-protein-g%C3%AE-q-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-with-impaired-dc-derived-il-6-production-and-th17-differentiation
#12
Weiming Lai, Yingying Cai, Jinfeng Zhou, Shuai Chen, Chaoyan Qin, Cuixia Yang, Junling Liu, Xin Xie, Changsheng Du
Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), and ~40% of all identified GPCRs rely on the Gαq/11 G protein family to stimulate inositol lipid signaling. However, the function of Gα subunits in MS pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we attempted to determine the role of Gαq in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-known mouse model of MS. We discovered that compared with wild-type mice, Gαq-knockout mice exhibited less severe EAE symptoms, with lower clinical scores, reduced leukocyte infiltration and less extensive demyelination...
February 20, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202908/silencing-c-rel-in-macrophages-dampens-th1-and-th17-immune-responses-and-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-mice
#13
Hongling Zhang, Jiacheng Bi, Huqiang Yi, Tingting Fan, Qingguo Ruan, Lintao Cai, Youhai H Chen, Xiaochun Wan
Autoimmune Th1 and Th17 responses are critical for the development of central nervous system (CNS) pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for human multiple sclerosis. Although macrophages play important roles in the development of Th1 and Th17 responses, whether modulating macrophage gene transcription can diminish the Th1- and Th17 cell-induced CNS pathology is unclear. In this study, we successfully silenced the expression of the transcription factor c-Rel in macrophages of mice with EAE (including those infiltrating the CNS) using chemically modified c-Rel-specific siRNAs delivered by nanoparticles...
March 21, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199198/the-immunological-function-of-gabaergic-system
#14
Chenlu Wu, Xiaobin Qin, Huihui Du, Nengzhang Li, Wenkai Ren, Yuanyi Peng
As a well-known inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric acid also has critical roles in immune system. Immune cells (e.g., lymphocytes, macrophages) express the components of GABAergic system, including GABA receptors, GABA transporters, and GABA metabolic enzymes. The functions of immune cells are highly impacted on GABA signaling. GABAergic components negatively regulate the immune responses, particularly the T cell-mediated immunity, via their effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of signal pathways, like mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197174/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-stimulation-modulates-autoimmunity-and-immune-responses-a-possible-immuno-modulatory-therapeutic-effect-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Fabio Guerriero, Giovanni Ricevuti
Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191734/integrative-proteomics-genomics-and-translational-immunology-approaches-reveal-mutated-forms-of-proteolipid-protein-1-plp1-and-mutant-specific-immune-response-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Veneta Qendro, Grace A Bugos, Debbie H Lundgren, John Glynn, May H Han, David K Han
In order to gain mechanistic insights into multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, we utilized a multi-dimensional approach to test the hypothesis that mutations in myelin proteins lead to immune activation and central nervous system autoimmunity in MS. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human MS brain lesions revealed seven unique mutations of PLP1; a key myelin protein that is known to be destroyed in MS. Surprisingly, in-depth genomic analysis of two MS patients at the genomic DNA and mRNA confirmed mutated PLP1 in RNA, but not in the genomic DNA...
February 12, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188715/-multiple-sclerosis-current-immunological-aspects
#17
Carlos Cuevas-García
Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration...
January 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169287/il-10-producing-st2-expressing-foxp3-t-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis-brain-lesions
#18
Stephanie Elizabeth Johanna Zandee, Richard Anthony O'Connor, Iris Mair, Melanie Dawn Leech, Anna Williams, Stephen Mark Anderton
CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells provide a key defence against inflammatory disease, but also have an ability to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. The evidence for these two possibilities in multiple sclerosis (MS) is controversial. However, this has largely been based on studies of circulating Treg cells derived from peripheral blood, rather than the central nervous system. We show that Foxp3(+) cells in the brains of MS patients predominantly produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) and show high expression of the IL-33 receptor ST2 (associated with potent Treg function), indicating that Treg in the inflamed brain maintain their suppressive function...
February 7, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167127/-with-a-little-help-from-my-friends-the-role-of-microbiota-in-thyroid-hormone-metabolism-and-enterohepatic-recycling
#19
Camilla Virili, Marco Centanni
The gut microbiota is composed of over 1200 species of anaerobes and aerobes bacteria along with bacteriophages, viruses and fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota, beside digestive equilibrium, is also crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis. The intestinal microbiota interacts with distant organs by signals which may be part of the bacteria themselves or their metabolites. Dysbiosis has been observed in inflammatory or autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis or type 1 diabetes as well as in obesity and type 2 diabetes...
February 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153503/intake-of-tryptophan-enriched-whey-protein-acutely-enhances-recall-of-positive-loaded-words-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Cindy K Lieben, Arjan Blokland, Nicolaas E Deutz, Willemijn Jansen, Gang Han, Raymond M Hupperts
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has physiological and/or immunological characteristics that diminish serotonin metabolism, a neurotransmitter associated with affective and cognitive functions. The aim was examine the acute and dose-dependent effects of a dietary tryptophan (TRP) enrichment on affective and cognitive functions in MS patients. We hypothesized that increased dietary availability of the amino acid TRP enhances serotonin concentrations and improves neuropsychological functions...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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