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Multiple sclerosis immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925187/depletion-of-cd52-positive-cells-inhibits-the-development-of-cns-autoimmune-disease-but-deletes-an-immune-tolerance-promoting-cd8-t-cell-population-implications-for-secondary-autoimmunity-of-alemtuzumab-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Stephanie von Kutzleben, Gareth Pryce, Gavin Giovannoni, David Baker
The objective was to determine whether CD52 lymphocyte depletion can act to promote immunological tolerance induction via intravenous antigen administration such that it could be used to either: improve efficiency of inhibition of MS or to inhibit secondary autoimmunities that may occur following alemtuzumab use in multiple sclerosis. Relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in ABH mice and immune cell depletion was therapeutically applied using mouse CD52 or CD4 (in conjunction with CD8 or CD20) depleting monoclonal antibodies...
December 7, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921323/the-application-of-strand-invasion-phenomenon-directed-by-peptide-nucleic-acid-pna-and-single-stranded-dna-binding-protein-ssb-for-the-recognition-of-specific-sequences-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family
#2
Grzegorz Machnik, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Tomasz Gąsior, Małgorzata Huzarska, Dariusz Belowski, Magdalena Alenowicz, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Bogusław Okopień
The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912911/hesperidin-ameliorates-immunological-outcome-and-reduces-neuroinflammation-in-the-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Dariush Haghmorad, Mohammad Bagher Mahmoudi, Zohreh Salehipour, Zoleikha Jalayer, Amir Abbas Momtazi Brojeni, Maryam Rastin, Parviz Kokhaei, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most abundant central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disease, which is due to the reaction of auto reactive T cells with own myelin proteins, leading to physical disorder and paralysis among people suffering the disease. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. This study was designed to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of hesperidin on MS alleviation...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908754/cyclic-citrullinated-mbp87-99-peptide-stimulates-t-cell-responses-implications-in-triggering-disease
#4
Vasso Apostolopoulos, George Deraos, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, Stephanie Day, Lily Stojanovska, Theodore Tselios, Maria-Eleni Androutsou, John Matsoukas
Amino acid mutations to agonist peptide epitopes of myelin proteins have been used to modulate immune responses and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, animal model of multiple sclerosis). Such amino acid alteration are termed, altered peptide ligands (APL). We have shown that the agonist myelin basic protein (MBP) 87-99 epitope (MBP87-99) with crucial T cell receptor (TCR) substitutions at positions 91 and 96 (K(91),P(96) (TCR contact residues) to R(91),A(96); [R(91),A(96)]MBP87-99) results in altered T cell responses and inhibits EAE symptoms...
November 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889959/fumaric-acid-esters-attenuate-secondary-degeneration-following-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Marika Cordaro, Giovanna Casili, Irene Paterniti, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent changes in motor, sensory and autonomic functions. Unfortunately, there are not a stable cures and current treatments include surgical decompression, methylprednisolone and hemodynamic control that lead to modest function recovery. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) were firstly used in the management of an immunological skin disorder, such as psoriasis. Because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects, they have been introduced in multiple sclerosis. Investigation shown not only anti-inflammatory, but also supposed neuroprotective mechanism of action...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878439/multiple-sclerosis-and-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Maria Kosmidou, Aristeidis H Katsanos, Konstantinos H Katsanos, Athanassios P Kyritsis, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Dimitrios Christodoulou, Sotirios Giannopoulos
The association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been suggested, apart from their common epidemiological and immunological patterns, also due to observations of increased incidence of both IBD among MS patients and MS among IBD patients. We estimated the risk of concurrent IBD and MS comorbidity, using data from all available case-control studies. We calculated the corresponding Risk ratios (RRs) in each included case-control study to express the risk of IBD and MS concurrence at a given population...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869438/immunology-update-biologics
#7
S Paul Starr
Biologics are substances made from a living organism or its products. These include genes, proteins (eg, antibodies, receptors, enzymes, inhibitors), recombinant proteins, and fusion proteins. Biologics often are produced using recombinant DNA technology. For example, monoclonal antibodies are produced by inserting human genes into immortalized cell cultures, which then produce the gene product (ie, an antibody) in large quantity. Another approach is to fuse genetic material from nonhuman sources (eg, mice) with human genetic material...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844213/b-cell-directed-therapeutics-in-multiple-sclerosis-rationale-and-clinical-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Silke Kinzel, Martin S Weber
Over the last decade, evidence condensed that B cells, B cell-derived plasma cells and antibodies play a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). In many patients with MS, peripheral B cells show signs of chronic activation; within the cerebrospinal fluid clonally expanded plasma cells produce oligoclonal immunoglobulins, which remain a hallmark diagnostic finding. Confirming the clinical relevance of these immunological alterations, recent trials testing anti-CD20-mediated depletion of peripheral B cells showed an instantaneous halt in development of new central nervous system lesions and occurrence of relapses...
December 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813075/disease-etiology-and-diagnosis-by-tcr-repertoire-analysis-goes-viral
#9
Meriem Attaf, Andrew K Sewell
The importance of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity is highlighted in murine models of immunodeficiency and in many human pathologies. However, the true extent of TCR diversity and how this diversity varies in health and disease is poorly understood. In a previous issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Lossius et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2014. 44: 3439-3452] dissected the composition of the TCR repertoire in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) using high-throughput sequencing of TCR-β chains in cerebrospinal fluid samples and blood...
November 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787630/botulinum-toxin-therapy-for-treatment-of-spasticity-in-multiple-sclerosis-review-and-recommendations-of-the-iab-interdisciplinary-working-group-for-movement-disorders-task-force
#10
Dirk Dressler, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Saeed Bohlega, Abderrahmane Chahidi, Tae Mo Chung, Markus Ebke, L Jorge Jacinto, Ryuji Kaji, Serdar Koçer, Petr Kanovsky, Federico Micheli, Olga Orlova, Sebastian Paus, Zvezdan Pirtosek, Maja Relja, Raymond L Rosales, José Alberto Sagástegui-Rodríguez, Paul W Schoenle, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Sofia Timerbaeva, Uwe Walter, Fereshte Adib Saberi
Botulinum toxin (BT) therapy is an established treatment of spasticity due to stroke. For multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity this is not the case. IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders formed a task force to explore the use of BT therapy for treatment of MS spasticity. A formalised PubMed literature search produced 55 publications (3 randomised controlled trials, 3 interventional studies, 11 observational studies, 2 case studies, 35 reviews, 1 guideline) all unanimously favouring the use of BT therapy for MS spasticity...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766432/multiple-sclerosis-experimental-models-and-reality
#11
Hans Lassmann, Monika Bradl
One of the most frequent statements, provided in different variations in the introduction of experimental studies on multiple sclerosis (MS), is that "Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating autoimmune disease and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a suitable model to study its pathogenesis". However, so far, no single experimental model covers the entire spectrum of the clinical, pathological, or immunological features of the disease. Many different models are available, which proved to be highly useful for studying different aspects of inflammation, demyelination, remyelination, and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system...
October 20, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714694/peripheral-inflammation-and-demyelinating-diseases
#12
Verónica Murta, Carina Ferrari
In recent decades, several neurodegenerative diseases have been shown to be exacerbated by systemic inflammatory processes. There is a wide range of literature that demonstrates a clear but complex relationship between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immunological system, both under naïve or pathological conditions. In diseased brains, peripheral inflammation can transform "primed" microglia into an "active" state, which can trigger stronger pathological responses. Demyelinating diseases are a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by inflammatory lesions associated with demyelination, which in turn induces axonal damage, neurodegeneration, and progressive loss of function...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703987/immunomodulatory-effects-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-on-dendritic-cells-promote-induction-of-t-cell-hyporesponsiveness-to-myelin-derived-antigens
#13
Wai-Ping Lee, Barbara Willekens, Patrick Cras, Herman Goossens, Eva Martínez-Cáceres, Zwi N Berneman, Nathalie Cools
While emerging evidence indicates that dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), their modulation with immunoregulatory agents provides prospect as disease-modifying therapy. Our observations reveal that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) treatment of monocyte-derived DC results in a semimature phenotype and anti-inflammatory cytokine profile as compared to conventional DC, in both healthy controls and MS patients. Importantly, 1,25(OH)2D3-treated DC induce T cell hyporesponsiveness, as demonstrated in an allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694998/glatiramer-acetate-treatment-normalized-the-monocyte-activation-profile-in-ms-patients-to-that-of-healthy-controls
#14
Delgertsetseg Chuluundorj, Scott A Harding, David Abernethy, Anne Camille La Flamme
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the CNS, and monocytes contribute to MS-associated neuroinflammation. While classically-activated monocytes promote inflammation, type II-activated monocytes improve the course of MS. This study investigated type II activation of monocytes and their two main subsets, namely CD14(+) (CD14(++)CD16(-)subset) and CD16(+) monocytes (CD14(+)CD16(+)subset), by glatiramer acetate (GA) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-associated immune complexes (IC), both of which are known MS treatments...
October 3, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694855/analysis-of-microrna-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-multiple-sclerosis-integrating-interaction-data-to-uncover-regulatory-mechanisms
#15
Sherry Freiesleben, Michael Hecker, Uwe Klaus Zettl, Georg Fuellen, Leila Taher
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Here, we propose a new consensus-based strategy to analyse and integrate miRNA and gene expression data in MS as well as other publically available data to gain a deeper understanding of the role of miRNAs in MS and to overcome the challenges posed by studies with limited patient sample sizes. We processed and analysed microarray datasets, and compared the expression of genes and miRNAs in the blood of MS patients and controls...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689339/circulating-immune-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
A P Jones, A G Kermode, R M Lucas, W M Carroll, D Nolan, P H Hart
Circulating T and B lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of the neuroinflammatory autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). Further progress in the development of MS treatments is dependent upon a greater understanding of the immunological disturbances that underlie the disease. Analyses of circulating immune cells by flow cytometry have revealed MS-associated alterations in the composition and function of T and B cell subsets, including temporal changes associated with disease activity. Disturbances in circulating immune populations reflect those observed in the central nervous system and include skewing towards proinflammatory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and B cells, greater proportions of follicular T helper cells and functional defects in the corresponding T and B regulatory subsets...
September 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673477/the-role-of-autophagy-in-the-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Xiao Liu, Haihong Qin, Jinhua Xu
Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process, whereby unwanted cytoplasmic contents are enclosed by the double-membrane autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosomes for degradation. It is responsible for the recycling of nutrients and cellular components, thus playing a pivotal role in maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as cell survival during stress conditions. Perturbations in autophagy are implicated in multiple diseases, such as cancers and neuro-degeneration diseases. Recent studies demonstrate that autophagy may participate in almost every step of immune responses, including pathogen recognition, antigen processing and presentation, immune cell development and function, and immunoregulation...
September 24, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672169/safety-and-immunologic-effects-of-high-vs-low-dose-cholecalciferol-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Daniel Kantor, Elias S Sotirchos, Peter A Calabresi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671902/neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica
#19
REVIEW
Izumi Kawachi, Hans Lassmann
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), having distinct immunological and pathological features. They have two pathogenic components, 'inflammation' and 'neurodegeneration', with different degrees of severity and pathogenetic mechanisms. The target antigen of autoimmunity in NMO is the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and antibodies directed against this antigen result in astrocyte damage. MS is a disease primarily affecting myelin and oligodendrocytes, but thus far, no MS-specific autoantigen has been identified...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647308/a-novel-combination-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-all-trans-retinoic-acid-and-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-reduces-t-bet-gene-expression-serum-interferon-gamma-and-clinical-scores-but-promotes-ppar%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#20
Mohammad Reza Shiri-Shahsavar, Abbas Mirshafiee, Karim Parastouei, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Saeed Yekaninejad, Farid Soleymani, Reza Chahardoli, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
Vitamins are immunologically interesting due to their significant immunomodulatory activities. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is one of the most commonly used experimental models for studying autoimmune disorder in multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective and ameliorative effects of novel combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on EAE-specific determinants and target gene expressions. Mice were randomly categorized into three groups before EAE induction [non-treated EAE (Group E), treated EAE (Group T), and healthy mice (Group H)]...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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