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Nasal asthma biomarkers

Giorgio Ciprandi, Maria Angela Tosca, Michela Silvestri, Fabio Luigi Massimo Ricciardolo
We argue that asthma be considered a syndrome caused by multiple inflammatory pathogenic processes. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, reversible airflow limitation, and chronic airway inflammation characterize asthma pathophysiology. Personalized Medicine, i.e. a tailored management approach, is appropriate for asthma management and is based on the identification of discrete phenotypes and endotypes. Biomarkers can help define phenotypes and endotypes. Several biomarkers have been described in asthma, but most of them are not commonly available or still need external validation...
April 11, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Takamitsu Asano, Yoshihiro Kanemitsu, Masaya Takemura, Makoto Yokota, Kensuke Fukumitsu, Norihisa Takeda, Hiroya Ichikawa, Takehiro Uemura, Osamu Takakuwa, Hirotsugu Ohkubo, Ken Maeno, Yutaka Ito, Tetsuya Oguri, Yumi Maki, Junya Ono, Shoichiro Ohta, Yoshihisa Nakamura, Kenji Izuhara, Motohiko Suzuki, Akio Niimi
RATIONALE: Periostin is a matricellular protein that is involved in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma. Associations of serum periostin with systemic and airway eosinophilic inflammation and comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis in patients with asthma have been demonstrated. Although serum periostin is positioned as a marker of helper T cell 2 (Th2) immune responses, its implication regarding the presence of comorbid upper airway diseases in patients with asthma remains unclear...
March 1, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Aleksandra Wardzyńska, Joanna S Makowska, Małgorzata Pawełczyk, Aleksandra Piechota-Polańczyk, Marcin Kurowski, Marek L Kowalski
PURPOSE: Periostin is considered a biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation and have been associated with NSAID-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (NERD) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this study, we aimed to evaluate periostin in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in serum of patients with various asthma phenotypes. METHODS: The study included 40 asthmatic patients (22 with NERD) and 17 healthy controls. All the procedures (questionnaire, spirometry, FeNO, nasal swabs, EBC collecting, and blood sampling) were performed on the same day...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Claus Bachert, Elien Gevaert
The last year has seen great progress in the understanding of upper airway disease and in its management. For allergic rhinitis, authors focused on the prediction of and effect on the natural course of disease. New evidence was published for the disease-modifying effect of allergen immunotherapy in terms of avoidance of new sensitizations and prevention of asthma in either randomized or real-life studies. Specifically, for patients with house dust mite allergies, which are often underestimated and difficult to diagnose, the efficacy of SQ house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy tablets has been demonstrated in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma...
November 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Kenji Izuhara, Shoichiro Ohta, Junya Ono
Periostin acts both as an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family and as a matricellular protein functioning in cell activation by binding to its receptors on the cell surface. It has been established that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL)-13, a signature type 2 cytokine, and that periostin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including asthma. Based on these findings, much attention has been paid to periostin as a biomarker useful in the treatment of asthma...
November 2016: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Bo Lund Krogsgaard Chawes
Asthma and allergies are today the most common chronic diseases in children and the leading causes of school absences, chronic medication usage, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which affect all members of the family and represent a significant societal and scientific challenge. These highly prevalent disorders are thought to originate from immune distortion in early childhood, but the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms are not understood, which hampers preventive initiatives and makes treatment inadequate...
August 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Sumit Bose, Leslie C Grammer, Anju T Peters
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a persistent inflammatory disease that affects a multitude of people worldwide. The pathogenesis of CRS involves many factors including genetics, status of the sinonasal microbiome, infections, and environmental influences. Comorbidities associated with CRS include asthma, allergic rhinitis, bronchiectasis, and certain kinds of immunodeficiency. CRS can be divided into different subtypes based on endotypes and phenotypes. Infectious CRS is one such category. The etiology of infectious CRS is usually secondary to chronic bacterial infection that commonly begins with a viral upper respiratory tract infection...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Whitney W Stevens, Robert P Schleimer, Robert C Kern
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an important clinical entity diagnosed by the presence of both subjective and objective evidence of chronic sinonasal inflammation. Symptoms include anterior or posterior rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, hyposmia, and/or facial pressure or pain that last for a duration of more than 12 weeks. Nasal polyps are inflammatory lesions that project into the nasal airway, are typically bilateral, and originate from the ethmoid sinus. Males are more likely to be affected than females, but no specific genetic or environmental factors have been strongly linked to the development of this disorder to date...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Virginia E Drake, Nicholas Rafaels, Jean Kim
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are thought to play a significant role in nasal polyposis, but the exact mechanism by which they contribute to polyposis remains unclear. Therefore, we proposed to test the hypothesis that peripheral blood eosinophilia (PBE) is a surrogate and biomarker for polyp load. To do this, we examined whether PBE levels correlate with nasal polyp load in a longitudinal manner. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the fluctuation of PBE and nasal polyp load in each patient (n = 61) assessed preoperatively, 1-2 months postoperatively, and 3-12 months postoperatively...
September 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Kuladeep Sudini, Gregory B Diette, Patrick N Breysse, Meredith C McCormack, Deborah Bull, Shyam Biswal, Shuyan Zhai, Nga Brereton, Roger D Peng, Elizabeth C Matsui
BACKGROUND: Broccoli sprouts (BS) are the richest source of sulforaphane (SFN), which is a potent inducer of phase II enzymes, which play a critical role in preventing oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine if ingestion of whole BS improves airway inflammatory and physiologic outcomes, and OS in adults with asthma and allergic sensitization to an indoor allergen. METHODS: The study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to compare the effects of BS with placebo (alfalfa sprouts [AS]) on airway inflammation and markers of OS...
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Kent Lam, Robert C Kern, Amber Luong
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous inflammatory condition of the sinonasal mucosa consisting of poorly defined subtypes and characterized by variable clinical manifestations, responses to therapy, and underlying pathophysiologies. In the related disorder of asthma, progress has been made in defining disease subtypes on both clinical and pathophysiologic levels, facilitating the development of targeted biologic pharmacotherapy. The potential role of these drugs for the management of CRS will be reviewed...
September 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Peter Tomassen, Griet Vandeplas, Thibaut Van Zele, Lars-Olaf Cardell, Julia Arebro, Heidi Olze, Ulrike Förster-Ruhrmann, Marek L Kowalski, Agnieszka Olszewska-Ziąber, Gabriele Holtappels, Natalie De Ruyck, Xiangdong Wang, Cornelis Van Drunen, Joaquim Mullol, Peter Hellings, Valerie Hox, Elina Toskala, Glenis Scadding, Valerie Lund, Luo Zhang, Wytske Fokkens, Claus Bachert
BACKGROUND: Current phenotyping of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) into chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) might not adequately reflect the pathophysiologic diversity within patients with CRS. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify inflammatory endotypes of CRS. Therefore we aimed to cluster patients with CRS based solely on immune markers in a phenotype-free approach. Secondarily, we aimed to match clusters to phenotypes...
May 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Shinji Irie, Misako Kashiwabara, Asako Yamada, Kazuhito Asano
Periostin, a 90-kDa extracellular matrix protein, has been attracting attention as a novel biomarker of airway inflammatory diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Although oral administration of quercetin to patients with AR can favorably modify the clinical condition of this disease, the influence of quercetin on periostin functions is not well understood. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the influence of quercetin on the production of both periostin and periostin-induced eosinophil chemoattractants from human nasal epithelial cells (HNEpC) in vitro...
January 2016: In Vivo
Sudarshan Seshadri, Xiang Lu, Matthew R Purkey, Tetsuya Homma, Andrew Wonho Choi, Roderick Carter, Lydia Suh, James Norton, Kathleen E Harris, David B Conley, Atsushi Kato, Pedro C Avila, Barbara Czarnocka, Peter A Kopp, Anju T Peters, Leslie C Grammer, Rakesh K Chandra, Bruce K Tan, Zheng Liu, Robert C Kern, Robert P Schleimer
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a multifactorial disease of unknown cause characterized by sinonasal inflammation, increased mucus production, and defective mucociliary clearance. Expression of Pendrin, an epithelial anion transporter, is increased in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pendrin increases mucus production and regulates mucociliary clearance. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the expression of pendrin and the mucus-related protein Muc5AC in sinonasal tissues of control subjects and patients with CRS and to evaluate the regulation of pendrin expression in nasal epithelial cells (NECs) in vitro...
December 2015: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mauricio López-Chacón, Joaquim Mullol, Laura Pujols
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways of which two major phenotypes exist, CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Some patients with CRS have suboptimal response to current guideline treatments. These patients remain severe and uncontrolled by treatment and have a poor quality of life. It is highly important to identify both clinical and biological markers, so-called biomarkers, in this subset of patients. The presence of nasal polyps and comorbidity with asthma and with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) are the most common clinical traits that have been associated to difficult-to-treat severe CRS...
May 2015: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Agata Wesolowska-Andersen, Max A Seibold
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will cover advances over the past year in defining airway endotypes in asthma by gene expression and the relationship between these endotypes and clinical traits. RECENT FINDINGS: Expression profiling studies of asthmatic airway samples continue to reveal significant heterogeneity in airway inflammation and dysfunction. Recent studies have indicated multiple distinct, but related Th2 inflammatory asthma endotypes. Moreover, novel biomarkers of Th2 inflammation are being identified in more accessible nasal brushing and induced sputum cell samples...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Chang Xiao, Jocelyn M Biagini Myers, Hong Ji, Kelly Metz, Lisa J Martin, Mark Lindsey, Hua He, Racheal Powers, Ashley Ulm, Brandy Ruff, Mark B Ericksen, Hari K Somineni, Jeffrey Simmons, Richard T Strait, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey
BACKGROUND: There is considerable heterogeneity in asthma treatment response. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify biomarkers of corticosteroid treatment response in children with asthma and evaluate the utility and mechanistic basis of these biomarkers. METHODS: Children (5-18 years) presenting to the emergency department with an acute asthma exacerbation were recruited and followed during hospitalization. Nasal epithelial cells were collected on presentation to the emergency department (T0) and 18 to 24 hours later (T1), and T1/T0 gene expression ratios were analyzed to identify genes associated with good and poor corticosteroid treatment response phenotypes...
October 2015: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Rohit Gaurav, Againdra K Bewtra, Devendra K Agrawal
Eosinophilia is a characteristic feature of allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. Chloride channel-3 (CLC3) in eosinophils has been associated with superoxide generation and respiratory burst. The CLC3 gene may produce multiple transcript variants through alternative splicing. However, the presence of CLC3 variants in human eosinophils is unknown. We examined the expression of CLC3 transcript variants in peripheral blood eosinophils of allergic asthmatics and healthy individuals. Potential of these obligatory dimers to form homo- or hetero-dimers was examined in HEK293 cells co-transfected with CLC3b-GFP and CLC3e-RFP...
December 2014: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Masako Matsusaka, Hiroki Kabata, Koichi Fukunaga, Yusuke Suzuki, Katsunori Masaki, Takao Mochimaru, Fumio Sakamaki, Yoshitaka Oyamada, Takashi Inoue, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Koichi Sayama, Hidefumi Koh, Morio Nakamura, Akira Umeda, Junya Ono, Shoichiro Ohta, Kenji Izuhara, Koichiro Asano, Tomoko Betsuyaku
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease composed of various phenotypes. Periostin, a molecule inducible with interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-13 in bronchial epithelial cells, is a biomarker of "TH2-high" asthma. The objective of this study is to examine whether the serum periostin concentrations are correlated with the severity, specific phenotype(s), or comorbidity of asthma. METHODS: Serum concentrations of periostin were measured in 190 Japanese asthmatic patients and 11 healthy controls...
April 2015: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Bauke Pauwels, Karin Jonstam, Claus Bachert
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal cavities and is known to seriously impair quality of life in affected patients. CRS appears to be a heterogeneous group of diseases with different inflammatory and remodeling patterns, suggesting that not only different clinical phenotypes but also pathophysiological endotypes occur. CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is considered a more severe phenotype, especially when associated with comorbid asthma, as patients having this condition often do not respond to conventional treatment, including topical and systemic corticosteroids or surgery...
March 2015: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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