keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Nuclear envelope

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532845/characterization-of-undifferentiated-spermatogonia-and-the-spermatogonial-niche-in-the-lambari-fish-astyanax-altiparanae
#1
Marília de Paiva Camargo, Mônica Cassel, Lázaro Wender Oliveira de Jesus, Rafael Henrique Nóbrega, Maria Inês Borella
Undifferentiated type A spermatogonia are the foundation of fish spermatogenesis. This cell population includes the spermatogonial stem cell population, which is able to either self-renew or differentiate into cells that will generate the male gamete - the spermatozoa. Spermatogonia stem cells are located in a specific region of the testes known as the spermatogonial niche, which regulates spermatogonial stem cell function. This study characterizes undifferentiated type A spermatogonia and their S-phase label-retaining cell properties in Astyanax altiparanae testes...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530826/high-speed-atomic-force-microscopy-reveals-loss-of-nuclear-pore-resilience-as-a-dying-code-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#2
Mahmoud Shaaban Mohamed, Akiko Kobayashi, Azuma Taoka, Takahiro Watanabe-Nakayama, Yosuke Kikuchi, Masaharu Hazawa, Toshinari Minamoto, Yoshihiro Fukumori, Noriyuki Kodera, Takayuki Uchihashi, Toshio Ando, Richard W Wong
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the sole turnstile implanted in the nuclear envelope (NE), acting as a central nano-regulator of transport between the cytosol and the nucleus. NPCs consist of ~30 proteins, termed nucleoporins. About one-third of nucleoporins harbour natively unstructured, intrinsically disordered phenylalanine-glycine strings (FG-Nups), which engage in transport selectivity. Because the barriers insert deeply in the NPC, they are nearly inaccessible. Several in vitro barrier models have been proposed; however, the dynamic FG-Nups protein molecules themselves are imperceptible in vivo...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528443/herpesvirus-nuclear-egress
#3
Richard J Roller, Joel D Baines
Herpesviruses assemble and package their genomes into capsids in the nucleus, but complete final assembly of the mature virion in the cell cytoplasm. This requires passage of the genome-containing capsid across the double-membrane nuclear envelope. Herpesviruses have evolved a mechanism that relies on a pair of conserved viral gene products to shuttle the capsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by way of envelopment and de-envelopment at the inner and outer nuclear membranes, respectively. This complex process requires orchestration of the activities of viral and cellular factors to alter the architecture of the nuclear membrane, select capsids at the appropriate stage for egress, and accomplish efficient membrane budding and fusion events...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528438/herpes-simplex-virus-membrane-fusion
#4
Darin J Weed, Anthony V Nicola
Herpes simplex virus mediates multiple distinct fusion events during infection. HSV entry is initiated by fusion of the viral envelope with either the limiting membrane of a host cell endocytic compartment or the plasma membrane. In the infected cell during viral assembly, immature, enveloped HSV particles in the perinuclear space fuse with the outer nuclear membrane in a process termed de-envelopment. A cell infected with some strains of HSV with defined mutations spread to neighboring cells by a fusion event called syncytium formation...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513781/mitochondria-rich-cells-changes-induced-by-nitrite-exposure-in-tambaqui-colossoma-macropomum-cuvier-1818
#5
Oscar T F DA Costa, Cleverson A Ramos, Wallice P Duncan, Juliana L V Lameiras, Marisa N Fernandes
The gill mitochondria-rich cells of the juvenile Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum were analyzed using light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy after 96 h exposure to 0.04 and 0.2 mM nitrite. Although the number of mitochondria-rich cells decreased significantly in the lamellar epithelium, no decrease was found in the interlamellar region of the gill filament. Nitrite exposure caused significant reduction on the apical surface area of individual mitochondria-rich cells (p < 0.05), with a resulting reduction of the fractional area of these cells in both the lamellar and filament epithelium...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500503/expression-and-localization-of-myosin-vi-in-developing-mouse-spermatids
#6
Przemysław Zakrzewski, Robert Lenartowski, Maria Jolanta Rędowicz, Kathryn G Miller, Marta Lenartowska
Myosin VI (MVI) is a versatile actin-based motor protein that has been implicated in a variety of different cellular processes, including endo- and exocytic vesicle trafficking, Golgi morphology, and actin structure stabilization. A role for MVI in crucial actin-based processes involved in sperm maturation was demonstrated in Drosophila. Because of the prominence and importance of actin structures in mammalian spermiogenesis, we investigated whether MVI was associated with actin-mediated maturation events in mammals...
May 12, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499702/prespermatogenesis-and-early-spermatogenesis-in-frogs
#7
Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Maria Ogielska
Spermatogenesis in frogs was for the first time divided into two phases: prespermatogenesis, when gonocytes proliferate in developing tadpole testes, and active spermatogenesis when spermatogonial stem cells (i.e. descendants of gonocytes), either self-renew or enter into meiotic cycles within cysts formed by Sertoli cells. We argue that amphibian larval gonocytes are homologues to mammalian gonocytes, whereas spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in adult frogs are homologous to mammalian single spermatogonia (As)...
March 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494440/nuclear-architecture-of-mouse-spermatocytes-chromosome-topology-heterochromatin-and-nucleolus
#8
Soledad Berrios
The nuclear organization of spermatocytes in meiotic prophase I is primarily determined by the synaptic organization of the bivalents that are bound by their telomeres to the nuclear envelope and described as arc-shaped trajectories through the 3D nuclear space. However, over this basic meiotic organization, a spermatocyte nuclear architecture arises that is based on higher-ordered patterns of spatial associations among chromosomal domains from different bivalents that are conditioned by the individual characteristics of chromosomes and the opportunity for interactions between their domains...
May 12, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490590/the-c-terminus-of-the-herpes-simplex-virus-pul25-protein-is-required-for-release-of-viral-genomes-from-capsids-bound-to-nuclear-pores
#9
Jamie B Huffman, Gina R Daniel, Erik Falck-Pedersen, Alexis Huet, Greg A Smith, James F Conway, Fred L Homa
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) capsid is released into the cytoplasm after fusion of viral and host membranes, whereupon dynein-dependent trafficking along microtubules targets it to the nuclear envelope. Binding of the capsid to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by the capsid protein pUL25 and the capsid-tethered tegument protein pUL36. Temperature-sensitive mutants in both pUL25 and pUL36 dock at the NPC but fail to release DNA. The uncoating reaction has been difficult to study due to the rapid release of the genome once the capsid interacts with the nuclear pore...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490498/shelterin-components-mediate-genome-reorganization-in-response-to-replication-stress
#10
Takeshi Mizuguchi, Nitika Taneja, Emiko Matsuda, Jon-Matthew Belton, Peter FitzGerald, Job Dekker, Shiv I S Grewal
The dynamic nature of genome organization impacts critical nuclear functions including the regulation of gene expression, replication, and DNA damage repair. Despite significant progress, the mechanisms responsible for reorganization of the genome in response to cellular stress, such as aberrant DNA replication, are poorly understood. Here, we show that fission yeast cells carrying a mutation in the DNA-binding protein Sap1 show defects in DNA replication progression and genome stability and display extensive changes in genome organization...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485113/optomechanical-measurement-of-the-role-of-lamins-in-whole-cell-deformability
#11
Thorsten Kolb, Julia Kraxner, Kai Skodzek, Michael Haug, Dean Crawford, Kendra K Maaß, Katerina E Aifantis, Graeme Whyte
There is mounting evidence that the nuclear envelope, and particularly the lamina, plays a critical role in the mechanical and regulation properties of the cell and changes to the lamina can have implications for the physical properties of the whole cell. In this study we demonstrate that the optical stretcher can measure changes in the time-dependent mechanical properties of living cells with different levels of A-type lamin expression. Results from the optical stretcher shows a decrease in the deformability of cells as the levels of lamin A increases, for cells which grow both adherently and in suspension...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467007/fsr1-a-striatin-homolog-forms-an-endomembrane-associated-complex-that-regulates-virulence-in-the-maize-pathogen-fusarium-verticillioides
#12
Huan Zhang, Mala Mukherjee, Jung-Eun Kim, Wenying Yu, Won-Bo Shim
Fsr1, a homolog of mammalian striatin, containing multiple protein-binding domains and a coiled-coil (CC) domain is critical for F. verticillioides virulence. In mammals, striatin interacts with multiple proteins to form a STRIPAK (striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase) complex that regulates a variety of developmental processes and cellular mechanisms. In this study, we identified the homolog of a key mammalian STRIPAK component STRIP1/2 in F. verticillioides, FvStp1, that interacts with Fsr1 in vivo...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464022/a-central-region-in-the-minor-capsid-protein-of-papillomaviruses-facilitates-viral-genome-tethering-and-membrane-penetration-for-mitotic-nuclear-entry
#13
Inci Aydin, Ruth Villalonga-Planells, Lilo Greune, Matthew P Bronnimann, Christine M Calton, Miriam Becker, Kun-Yi Lai, Samuel K Campos, M Alexander Schmidt, Mario Schelhaas
Incoming papillomaviruses (PVs) depend on mitotic nuclear envelope breakdown to gain initial access to the nucleus for viral transcription and replication. In our previous work, we hypothesized that the minor capsid protein L2 of PVs tethers the incoming vDNA to mitotic chromosomes to direct them into the nascent nuclei. To re-evaluate how dynamic L2 recruitment to cellular chromosomes occurs specifically during prometaphase, we developed a quantitative, microscopy-based assay for measuring the degree of chromosome recruitment of L2-EGFP...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455351/the-nucleoporin-nup2-contains-a-meiotic-autonomous-region-that-promotes-the-dynamic-chromosome-events-of-meiosis
#14
Daniel B Chu, Tatiana Gromova, Trent A C Newman, Sean M Burgess
Meiosis is a specialized cellular program required to create haploid gametes from diploid parent cells. Homologous chromosomes pair, synapse, and recombine in a dynamic environment that accommodates gross chromosome reorganization and significant chromosome motion, which are critical for normal chromosome segregation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ndj1 is a meiotic telomere-associated protein required for physically attaching telomeres to proteins embedded in the nuclear envelope. In this study, we identified additional proteins that act at the nuclear periphery from meiotic cell extracts, including Nup2, a nonessential nucleoporin with a known role in tethering interstitial chromosomal loci to the nuclear pore complex...
April 28, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452496/thermodynamic-paradigm-for-solution-demixing-inspired-by-nuclear-transport-in-living-cells
#15
Ching-Hao Wang, Pankaj Mehta, Michael Elbaum
Living cells display a remarkable capacity to compartmentalize their functional biochemistry. A particularly fascinating example is the cell nucleus. Exchange of macromolecules between the nucleus and the surrounding cytoplasm does not involve traversing a lipid bilayer membrane. Instead, large protein channels known as nuclear pores cross the nuclear envelope and regulate the passage of other proteins and RNA molecules. Beyond simply gating diffusion, the system of nuclear pores and associated transport receptors is able to generate substantial concentration gradients, at the energetic expense of guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450453/microtubule-dynamics-drive-enhanced-chromatin-motion-and-mobilize-telomeres-in-response-to-dna-damage
#16
Josh Lawrimore, Timothy M Barry, Raymond M Barry, Alyssa C York, Diana M Cook, Kristen Akialis, Jolien Tyler, Paula Vasquez, Elaine Yeh, Kerry Bloom
Chromatin exhibits increased mobility upon DNA damage, but the biophysical basis for this behavior remains unknown. To explore the mechanisms that drive DNA damage-induced chromosome mobility, we employ single-particle tracking of tagged chromosomal loci during interphase in live yeast cells together with polymer models of chromatin chains. Telomeres become mobilized from sites on the nuclear envelope and the pericentromere expands following exposure to DNA damaging agents. The magnitude of chromatin mobility induced by a single double strand break requires active microtubule function...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449239/the-role-of-the-nuclear-envelope-protein-man1-in-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#17
Sandra Bermeo, Ahmed Al-Saedi, Moustapha Kassem, Christopher Vidal, Gustavo Duque
Mutations in MAN1, a protein of the nuclear envelope, cause bone phenotypes characterized by hyperostosis. The mechanism of this pro-osteogenic phenotype remains unknown. We increased and decreased MAN1 expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) upon which standard osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were performed. MAN1 knockdown increased osteogenesis and mineralization. In contrast, osteogenesis remained stable upon MAN1 overexpression. Regarding a mechanism, we found that low levels of MAN1 facilitated the nuclear accumulation of regulatory smads and smads-related complexes, with a concurrently high expression of nuclear β-Catenin...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447612/distinct-molecular-cues-ensure-a-robust-microtubule-dependent-nuclear-positioning-in-the-drosophila-oocyte
#18
Nicolas Tissot, Jean-Antoine Lepesant, Fred Bernard, Kevin Legent, Floris Bosveld, Charlotte Martin, Orestis Faklaris, Yohanns Bellaïche, Maïté Coppey, Antoine Guichet
Controlling nucleus localization is crucial for a variety of cellular functions. In the Drosophila oocyte, nuclear asymmetric positioning is essential for the reorganization of the microtubule (MT) network that controls the polarized transport of axis determinants. A combination of quantitative three-dimensional live imaging and laser ablation-mediated force analysis reveal that nuclear positioning is ensured with an unexpected level of robustness. We show that the nucleus is pushed to the oocyte antero-dorsal cortex by MTs and that its migration can proceed through distinct tracks...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446672/cellular-cholesterol-facilitates-the-post-entry-replication-cycle-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1
#19
George A Wudiri, Anthony V Nicola
Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and is required for HSV-1 entry (1-3). Treatment of HSV-1-infected Vero cells with methyl beta-cyclodextrin from 2 - 9 hours post-entry reduced plaque numbers. Transport of incoming viral capsids to the nuclear periphery was unaffected by cholesterol reduction suggesting that cell cholesterol is important for the HSV-1 replicative cycle at a stage(s) beyond entry after the arrival of capsids at the nucleus. The synthesis and release of infectious HSV-1 and cell-to-cell spread of infection were all impaired in cholesterol-reduced cells...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443609/the-hiv-1-viral-synapse-signals-human-foreskin-keratinocytes-to-secrete-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-facilitating-hiv-1-foreskin-entry
#20
Z Zhou, L Xu, A Sennepin, C Federici, Y Ganor, D Tudor, D Damotte, N Barry Delongchamps, M Zerbib, M Bomsel
The complexity of signal transduction resulting from the contact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells and mucosal cells has hampered our comprehension of HIV-1 mucosal entry. Such process is driven efficiently only by viral synapse contacts, whereas cell-free HIV-1 remains poorly infectious. Using CD4(+) T-cells expressing only HIV-1 envelope inoculated on human adult foreskin tissues, we designed methodologies to identify the signals transduced in foreskin keratinocytes following HIV-1-envelope-dependent viral synapse formation...
April 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
keyword
keyword
58474
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"