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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918797/going-nuclear-evidence-implicating-the-cell-nucleus-in-mechanotransduction
#1
Spencer E Szczesny, Robert L Mauck
Biophysical stimuli presented to cells via micro-environmental properties (e.g., alignment, stiffness) or external forces have a significant impact on their function and behavior. Recently, the cell nucleus has been identified as a mechano-responsive organelle that contributes to the perception and response to mechanical stimuli. However, the specific mechanotransduction mechanisms that mediate these effects have not been clearly defined. Here, we review the evidence supporting (and refuting) three hypothetical nuclear mechanotransduction mechanisms: physical reorganization of chromatin, signaling at the nuclear envelope, and altered cytoskeletal structure/tension due to nuclear remodeling...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911330/fhl1b-interacts-with-lamin-a-c-and%C3%A2-emerin-at-the-nuclear-lamina-and%C3%A2-is%C3%A2-misregulated-in-emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Esma Ziat, Kamel Mamchaoui, Maud Beuvin, Isabelle Nelson, Feriel Azibani, Simone Spuler, Gisèle Bonne, Anne T Bertrand
BACKGROUND: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is associated with mutations in EMD and LMNA genes, encoding for the nuclear envelope proteins emerin and lamin A/C, indicating that EDMD is a nuclear envelope disease. We recently reported mutations in FHL1 gene in X-linked EDMD. FHL1 encodes FHL1A, and the two minor isoforms FHL1B and FHL1C. So far, none have been described at the nuclear envelope. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the pathophysiology of EDMD, we focused our attention on the poorly characterized FHL1B isoform...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910894/calcium-ions-function-as-a-booster-of-chromosome-condensation
#3
Rinyaporn Phengchat, Hideaki Takata, Kenichi Morii, Noriko Inada, Hideji Murakoshi, Susumu Uchiyama, Kiichi Fukui
Chromosome condensation is essential for the faithful transmission of genetic information to daughter cells during cell division. The depletion of chromosome scaffold proteins does not prevent chromosome condensation despite structural defects. This suggests that other factors contribute to condensation. Here we investigated the contribution of divalent cations, particularly Ca(2+), to chromosome condensation in vitro and in vivo. Ca(2+) depletion caused defects in proper mitotic progression, particularly in chromosome condensation after the breakdown of the nuclear envelope...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889481/mitotic-nuclear-envelope-breakdown-and-spindle-nucleation-are-controlled-by-interphase-contacts-between-centromeres-and-the-nuclear-envelope
#4
Alfonso Fernández-Álvarez, Cécile Bez, Eileen T O'Toole, Mary Morphew, Julia Promisel Cooper
Faithful genome propagation requires coordination between nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown, spindle formation, and chromosomal events. The conserved linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex connects fission yeast centromeres and the centrosome, across the NE, during interphase. During meiosis, LINC connects the centrosome with telomeres rather than centromeres. We previously showed that loss of telomere-LINC contacts compromises meiotic spindle formation. Here, we define the precise events regulated by telomere-LINC contacts and address the analogous possibility that centromeres regulate mitotic spindle formation...
November 22, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882103/identification-of-proteins-suppressing-the-functions-of-oncogenic-phosphatase-of-regenerating-liver-1-and-3
#5
Ju-Dong Lee, Haiyoung Jung, Sang-Hyun Min
The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family, including PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3, comprises protein tyrosine phosphatases whose deregulation is associated with the tumorigenesis and metastasis of many types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, aiming to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of PRL-1 and PRL-3, a yeast two-hybrid system was employed to screen for their interacting proteins. Alignment with the NCBI BLAST database revealed 12 interactive proteins: Synaptic nuclear envelope protein 2, emerin, mannose 6-phosphate receptor-binding protein 1, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10, Rab acceptor 1, tumor protein D52-like 2, selectin P ligand (SELPLG), guanylate binding protein 1, transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 2, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8, syndecan 4 and FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8)...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876470/mechanotransduction-via-the-nuclear-envelope-a-distant-reflection-of-the-cell-surface
#6
REVIEW
Julien Aureille, Néjma Belaadi, Christophe Guilluy
As the largest and stiffest organelle in the cell, the nucleus can be subjected to significant forces generated by the cytoskeleton to adjust its shape and position, and accommodate the cellular machinery during cell migration, differentiation or division. As it was anticipated, recent work showed that mechanosensitive mechanisms exist in the nucleus and regulate its structure and function in response to mechanical force. While the molecular mechanisms that mediate this response are only beginning to be elucidated, the nuclear envelope seems to play a central role in this process...
October 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875985/nuclear-envelope-structural-defect-underlies-the-main-cause-of-aneuploidy-in-ovarian-carcinogenesis
#7
Callinice D Capo-Chichi, Toni M Yeasky, Elizabeth R Smith, Xiang-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND: The Cancer Atlas project has shown that p53 is the only commonly (96 %) mutated gene found in high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer, the major histological subtype. Another general genetic change is extensive aneuploidy caused by chromosomal numerical instability, which is thought to promote malignant transformation. Conventionally, aneuploidy is thought to be the result of mitotic errors and chromosomal nondisjunction during mitosis. Previously, we found that ovarian cancer cells often lost or reduced nuclear lamina proteins lamin A/C, and suppression of lamin A/C in cultured ovarian epithelial cells leads to aneuploidy...
November 22, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875273/sirt2-regulates-nuclear-envelope-reassembly-via-ankle2-deacetylation
#8
Tanja Kaufmann, Eva Kukolj, Andreas Brachner, Etienne Beltzung, Melania Bruno, Sebastian Kostrhon, Susanne Opravil, Otto Hudecz, Karl Mechtler, Graham Warren, Dea Slade
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD-dependent deacetylase known to regulate microtubule dynamics and cell cycle progression. SIRT2 has also been implicated in the pathology of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and progeria. Here we show that SIRT2 depletion or overexpression causes nuclear envelope reassembly defects. We link this phenotype to the recently identified regulator of nuclear envelope reassembly ANKLE2. ANKLE2 acetylation at K302 and phosphorylation at S662 are dynamically regulated throughout the cell cycle by SIRT2 and are essential for normal nuclear envelope reassembly...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868386/structure-of-the-transmembrane-domain-of-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein
#9
REVIEW
Bing Chen, James J Chou
HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a heavily glycosylated, type I membrane protein that mediates fusion of viral and cell membranes to initiate infection. It is also a primary target of neutralizing antibodies and thus an important candidate for vaccine development. We have recently reported a nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in a membrane-like environment. Taking HIV-1 as an example, we discuss here how a TM domain can anchor, stabilize, and modulate a viral envelope spike and how its high-resolution structure can contribute to understanding viral membrane fusion and to immunogen design...
November 5, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865844/perturbations-of-carotenoid-and-tetrapyrrole-biosynthetic-pathways-result-in-differential-alterations-in-chloroplast-function-and-plastid-signaling
#10
Joon-Heum Park, Sunyo Jung
In this study, we used the biosynthetic inhibitors of carotenoid and tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathways, norflurazon (NF) and oxyfluorfen (OF), as tools to gain insight into mechanisms of photooxidation in rice plants. NF resulted in bleaching symptom on leaves of the treated plants, whereas OF treatment developed a fast symptom of an apparent necrotic phenotype. Both plants exhibited decreases in photosynthetic efficiency, as indicated by Fv/Fm. NF caused severe disruption in thylakoid membranes, whereas OF-treated plants exhibited disruption of chloroplast envelope and plasma membrane...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864738/biochemical-and-histological-biomarkers-in-the-midgut-of-apis-mellifera-from-polluted-environment-at-beheira-governorate-egypt
#11
Ahmed M Abu El-Saad, Dalia A Kheirallah, Lamia M El-Samad
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of organophosphorus (OP) pollutants on oxidative stress and ultrastructural biomarkers in the midgut of the honeybee Apis mellifera collected from three locations that differ in their extent of spraying load with OP insecticides: a weakly anthropised rural site, Bolin which is considered as a reference site; moderately spraying site, El Kaza; and a strongly anthropised urban site, Tiba with a long history of pesticide use. Results showed that high concentrations of chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in midgut at locations with extensive pesticide spraying...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863227/control-of-nfat-isoform-activation-and-nfat-dependent-gene-expression-through-two-coincident-and-spatially-segregated-intracellular-ca-2-signals
#12
Pulak Kar, Gary R Mirams, Helen C Christian, Anant B Parekh
Excitation-transcription coupling, linking stimulation at the cell surface to changes in nuclear gene expression, is conserved throughout eukaryotes. How closely related coexpressed transcription factors are differentially activated remains unclear. Here, we show that two Ca(2+)-dependent transcription factor isoforms, NFAT1 and NFAT4, require distinct sub-cellular InsP3 and Ca(2+) signals for physiologically sustained activation. NFAT1 is stimulated by sub-plasmalemmal Ca(2+) microdomains, whereas NFAT4 additionally requires Ca(2+) mobilization from the inner nuclear envelope by nuclear InsP3 receptors...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862269/arp2-3-complex-and-mps3-are-required-for-regulation-of-ribosome-biosynthesis-in-the-secretory-stress-response
#13
Yukari Yabuki, Masako Katayama, Yushi Kodama, Akiko Sakamoto, Ayumi Yatsuhashi, Kouichi Funato, Keiko Mizuta
Secretory defects cause transcriptional repression of ribosome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the molecular mechanism underlying secretory defect-induced transcriptional repression of ribosome biogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the Arp2/3 complex was required for reduction of ribosome protein gene expression in response to defective secretion by addition of tunicamycin. Two cmd1 mutants, cmd1-228 and cmd1-239 that cause mislocalization of calmodulin and defective mitotic spindle formation, respectively, fail to interact with Arc35, a component of the Arp2/3 complex...
November 10, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859890/phosphorylation-of-serine-148-in-giardia-lamblia-end-binding-1-protein-is-important-for-cell-division
#14
Juri Kim, Hye Yeon Lee, Kyu-Ho Lee, Soon-Jung Park
Giardia lamblia is a unicellular organism, showing a polarity with two nuclei and cytoskeletal structures. Accurate positioning of these organelles is essential for division of G. lamblia, which is poorly understood. G. lamblia end-binding 1 (GlEB1) protein and G. lamblia aurora kinase (GlAK) have been shown to modulate microtubule (MT) distribution during cytokinesis. A direct association between GlEB1 and GlAK was demonstrated. Like GlEB1, GlAK was also found at nuclear envelopes and median bodies of G. lamblia...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859485/previtellogenic-and-vitellogenic-oocytes-in-ovarian-follicles-of-cultured-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-chondrostei-acipenseriformes
#15
Monika Żelazowska, Dorota Fopp-Bayat
Previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes in ovarian follicles from cultured Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii were examined. In previtellogenic oocytes, granular and homogeneous zones in the cytoplasm (the ooplasm) are distinguished. Material of nuclear origin, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, complexes of mitochondria with cement and round bodies are numerous in the granular ooplasm. In vitellogenic oocytes, the ooplasm comprises three zones: perinuclear area, endoplasm and periplasm. The endoplasm contains yolk platelets, lipid droplets, and aggregations of mitochondria and granules immersed in amorphous material...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858498/sun1-splice-variants-sun1_888-sun1_785-and-predominant-sun1_916-variably-function-in-directional-cell-migration
#16
Yu Nishioka, Hiromasa Imaizumi, Junko Imada, Jun Katahira, Nariaki Matsuura, Miki Hieda
The LINC complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, such as nuclear migration, mechanotransduction and chromatin tethering in the meiotic phase. However, it remains unknown how these functions are regulated in different cell contexts. An inner nuclear membrane component of the LINC complex, SUN1, is ubiquitously expressed. The human SUN1 gene produces over 10 variants by alternative splicing. Although functions of SUN1 are relatively well characterized, functional differences among SUN1 splice variants are poorly characterized...
November 18, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856507/perforating-the-nuclear-boundary-how-nuclear-pore-complexes-assemble
#17
REVIEW
Marion Weberruss, Wolfram Antonin
The nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope, a double membrane which creates a selective barrier between the cytoplasm and the nuclear interior. Its barrier and transport characteristics are determined by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) that are embedded within the nuclear envelope, and control molecular exchange between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. In this Commentary, we discuss the biogenesis of these huge protein assemblies from approximately one thousand individual proteins. We will summarize current knowledge about distinct assembly modes in animal cells that are characteristic for different cell cycle phases and their regulation...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854297/prelamin-a-accumulation-attenuates-rac1-activity-and-increases-the-intrinsic-migrational-persistence-of-aged-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Lauren J Porter, Mark R Holt, Daniel Soong, Catherine M Shanahan, Derek T Warren
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) motility is essential during both physiological and pathological vessel remodeling. Although ageing has emerged as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, our understanding of the impact of ageing on VSMC motility remains limited. Prelamin A accumulation is known to drive VSMC ageing and we show that presenescent VSMCs, that have accumulated prelamin A, display increased focal adhesion dynamics, augmented migrational velocity/persistence and attenuated Rac1 activity...
November 15, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854239/kshv-entry-and-trafficking-in-target-cells-hijacking-of-cell-signal-pathways-actin-and-membrane-dynamics
#19
REVIEW
Binod Kumar, Bala Chandran
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with human endothelial cell hyperplastic Kaposi's sarcoma and B-cell primary effusion lymphoma. KSHV infection of adherent endothelial and fibroblast cells are used as in vitro models for infection and KSHV enters these cells by host membrane bleb and actin mediated macropinocytosis or clathrin endocytosis pathways, respectively. Infection in endothelial and fibroblast cells is initiated by the interactions between multiple viral envelope glycoproteins and cell surface associated heparan sulfate (HS), integrins (α3β1, αVβ3 and αVβ5), and EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (EphA2R)...
November 14, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854219/sil1-mutant-mice-elucidate-chaperone-function-in-neurological-disorders
#20
Stephan Buchkremer, José Andrés González Coraspe, Joachim Weis, Andreas Roos
Chaperone dysfunction leading to the build-up of misfolded proteins could frequently be linked to clinical manifestations also affecting the nervous system and the skeletal muscle. In addition, increase in chaperone function is beneficial to antagonize protein aggregation and thus represents a promising target for therapeutic concepts for many genetic and acquired chaperonopathies. However, little is known on the precise molecular mechanisms defining the cell and tissue abnormalities in the case of impaired chaperone function as well as on underlying effects in the case of compensatory up-regulation of chaperones...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
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