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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350170/atypical-lower-motor-neuron-disease-with-enlargement-of-nissl-substance-report-of-an-autopsy-case
#1
Masayuki Shintaku, Daita Kaneda, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi
The patient was an 81-year-old woman diagnosed with atypical motor neuron disease who died after a long clinical course (7.5 years without mechanical assistance of ventilation) characterized by lower motor neuron signs and symptoms. Upper motor neuron signs and cognitive impairment were not apparent. Autopsy demonstrated severe neuronal loss in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, and some of the remaining neurons showed enlargement of Nissl substance and apparent thickening of the nuclear envelopes. No Bunina bodies, skein-like inclusions, or structures immunoreactive for phosphorylated transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 were found...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348472/viral-highway-to-nucleus-exposed-by-image-correlation-analyses
#2
Elina Mäntylä, Jenu V Chacko, Vesa Aho, Colin R Parrish, Victor Shahin, Michael Kann, Michelle A Digman, Enrico Gratton, Maija Vihinen-Ranta
Parvoviral genome translocation from the plasma membrane into the nucleus is a coordinated multistep process mediated by capsid proteins. We used fast confocal microscopy line scan imaging combined with image correlation methods including auto-, pair- and cross-correlation, and number and brightness analysis, to study the parvovirus entry pathway at the single-particle level in living cells. Our results show that the endosome-associated movement of virus particles fluctuates from fast to slow. Fast transit of single cytoplasmic capsids to the nuclear envelope is followed by slow movement of capsids and fast diffusion of capsid fragments in the nucleoplasm...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344723/structural-associations-between-organelle-membranes-in-nectary-parenchyma-cells
#3
Silvia Rodrigues Machado, Elisa A Gregório, Tatiane M Rodrigues
The close association between membranes and organelles, and the intense chloroplast remodeling in parenchyma cells of extrafloral nectaries occurred only at the secretion time and suggest a relationship with the nectar secretion. Associations between membranes and organelles have been well documented in different tissues and cells of plants, but poorly explored in secretory cells. Here, we described the close physical juxtaposition between membranes and organelles, mainly with chloroplasts, in parenchyma cells of Citharexylum myrianthum (Verbenaeceae) extrafloral nectaries under transmission electron microscopy, using conventional and microwave fixation...
January 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342872/human-cytomegalovirus-nuclear-capsids-associate-with-the-core-nuclear-egress-complex-and-the-viral-protein-kinase-pul97
#4
Jens Milbradt, Eric Sonntag, Sabrina Wagner, Hanife Strojan, Christina Wangen, Tihana Lenac Rovis, Berislav Lisnic, Stipan Jonjic, Heinrich Sticht, William J Britt, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Manfred Marschall
The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined...
January 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339158/myosin-xi-localizes-at-the-mitotic-spindle-and-along-the-cell-plate-during-plant-cell-division-in-physcomitrella-patens
#5
Hao Sun, Fabienne Furt, Luis Vidali
Cell division is a fundamental biological process that has been extensively investigated in different systems. Similar to most eukaryotic cells, plant cells assemble a mitotic spindle to separate replicated chromosomes. In contrast, to complete cell division, plant cells assemble a phragmoplast, which is composed of aligned microtubules and actin filaments. This structure helps transport vesicles containing new cell wall material, which then fuse to form the cell plate; the cell plate will expand to create the new dividing cell wall...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337275/the-o-%C3%AE-linked-n-acetylglucosaminylation-of-the-lamin-b-receptor-and-its-impact-on-dna-binding-and-phosphorylation
#6
Caroline Smet-Nocca, Adeline Page, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Eleni Nikolakaki, Isabelle Landrieu, Thomas Giannakouros
Lamin B Receptor (LBR) is an integral protein of the interphase inner nuclear membrane that is implicated in chromatin anchorage to the nuclear envelope. Phosphorylation of a stretch of arginine-serine (RS) dipeptides in the amino-terminal nucleoplasmic domain of LBR regulates the interactions of the receptor with other nuclear proteins, DNA and RNA and thus modulates tethering of heterochromatin to the nuclear envelope. While phosphorylation has been extensively studied, very little is known about other post-translational modifications of the protein...
January 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328731/high-resolution-quantum-sensing-with-shaped-control-pulses
#7
J Zopes, K Sasaki, K S Cujia, J M Boss, K Chang, T F Segawa, K M Itoh, C L Degen
We investigate the application of amplitude-shaped control pulses for enhancing the time and frequency resolution of multipulse quantum sensing sequences. Using the electronic spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond and up to 10 000 coherent microwave pulses with a cosine square envelope, we demonstrate 0.6-ps timing resolution for the interpulse delay. This represents a refinement by over 3 orders of magnitude compared to the 2-ns hardware sampling. We apply the method for the detection of external ac magnetic fields and nuclear magnetic resonance signals of ^{13}C spins with high spectral resolution...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325273/-how-to-understand-the-clinical-significance-of-autoantibodies-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#8
H P Yan, H P Zhang, X X Chen
Autoantibodies are important indicators for the diagnosis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). The autoantibodies in PBC patients are mainly antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). AMAs are one of the diagnostic indices of PBC. PBC-specific ANAs (nuclear dots or nuclear envelope, anti-sp100, and anti-gp210) have a high specificity in the diagnosis of AMA-negative PBC. This article reviews the clinical significance of these autoantibodies and analyzes some misconceptions about the clinical diagnosis of AMA-negative PBC and PBC-AIH overlap syndrome...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323269/postmitotic-nuclear-pore-assembly-proceeds-by-radial-dilation-of-small-membrane-openings
#9
Shotaro Otsuka, Anna M Steyer, Martin Schorb, Jean-Karim Hériché, M Julius Hossain, Suruchi Sethi, Moritz Kueblbeck, Yannick Schwab, Martin Beck, Jan Ellenberg
The nuclear envelope has to be reformed after mitosis to create viable daughter cells with closed nuclei. How membrane sealing of DNA and assembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are achieved and coordinated is poorly understood. Here, we reconstructed nuclear membrane topology and the structures of assembling NPCs in a correlative 3D EM time course of dividing human cells. Our quantitative ultrastructural analysis shows that nuclear membranes form from highly fenestrated ER sheets whose holes progressively shrink...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321282/nucleus-assembly-and-import-in-xenopus-laevis-egg-extract
#10
Pan Chen, Daniel L Levy
Xenopus egg extract represents a powerful cell-free biochemical tool for studying organelle assembly and function. Large quantities of cytoplasm can be isolated, and biochemical manipulation of extract composition and cell cycle state is relatively straightforward. In this protocol, we describe the reconstitution of nuclear assembly by adding a chromatin source to interphasic X. laevis egg extract. Intact nuclei assemble within 30-45 min of initiating the reaction, followed by nuclear growth. We also describe methods for imaging and quantifying nuclear import kinetics...
January 10, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316705/translocation-breakpoints-preferentially-occur-in-euchromatin-and-acrocentric-chromosomes
#11
Cheng-Yu Lin, Ankit Shukla, John P Grady, J Lynn Fink, Eloise Dray, Pascal H G Duijf
Chromosomal translocations drive the development of many hematological and some solid cancers. Several factors have been identified to explain the non-random occurrence of translocation breakpoints in the genome. These include chromatin density, gene density and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)/cohesin binding site density. However, such factors are at least partially interdependent. Using 13,844 and 1563 karyotypes from human blood and solid cancers, respectively, our multiple regression analysis only identified chromatin density as the primary statistically significant predictor...
January 8, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311622/dual-roles-of-trf1-in-tethering-telomeres-to-the-nuclear-envelope-and-protecting-them-from-fusion-during-meiosis
#12
Lina Wang, Zhaowei Tu, Chao Liu, Hongbin Liu, Philipp Kaldis, Zijiang Chen, Wei Li
Telomeres integrity is indispensable for chromosomal stability by preventing chromosome erosion and end-to-end fusions. During meiosis, telomeres attach to the inner nuclear envelope and cluster into a highly crowded microenvironment at the bouquet stage, which requires specific mechanisms to protect the telomeres from fusion. Here, we demonstrate that germ cell-specific knockout of a shelterin complex subunit, Trf1, results in arrest of spermatocytes at two different stages. The obliterated telomere-nuclear envelope attachment in Trf1-deficient spermatocytes impairs homologue synapsis and recombination, resulting in a pachytene-like arrest, while the meiotic division arrest might stem from chromosome end-to-end fusion due to the failure of recruiting meiosis specific telomere associated proteins...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311549/lamin-a-c-augments-th1-differentiation-and-response-against-vaccinia-virus-and-leishmania-major
#13
Raquel Toribio-Fernández, Virginia Zorita, Vera Rocha-Perugini, Salvador Iborra, Gloria Martínez Del Hoyo, Raphael Chevre, Beatriz Dorado, David Sancho, Francisco Sanchez-Madrid, Vicente Andrés, Jose-Maria Gonzalez-Granado
Differentiation of naive CD4+ T-cells into functionally distinct T helper (Th) subsets is critical to immunity against pathogen infection. Little is known about the role of signals emanating from the nuclear envelope for T-cell differentiation. The nuclear envelope protein lamin A/C is induced in naive CD4+ T-cells upon antigen recognition and acts as a link between the nucleus and the plasma membrane during T-cell activation. Here we demonstrate that the absence of lamin A/C in naive T-cell reduces Th1 differentiation without affecting Th2 differentiation in vitro and in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306725/messages-from-the-voices-within-regulation-of-signaling-by-proteins-of-the-nuclear-lamina
#14
REVIEW
Larry Gerace, Olga Tapia
The nuclear lamina (NL) is a protein scaffold lining the nuclear envelope that consists of nuclear lamins and associated transmembrane proteins. It helps to organize the nuclear envelope, chromosomes, and the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton. The NL also has an important role in regulation of signaling, as highlighted by the wide range of human diseases caused by mutations in the genes for NL proteins with associated signaling defects. This review will consider diverse mechanisms for signaling regulation by the NL that have been uncovered recently, including interaction with signaling effectors, modulation of actin assembly and compositional alteration of the NL...
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303579/structural-effects-of-ammonia-binding-to-the-mn4cao5-cluster-of-photosystem-ii
#15
David A Marchiori, Paul H Oyala, Richard J Debus, Troy A Stich, R David Britt
The Mn4CaO5 oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II catalyzes the light-driven oxidation of two substrate waters to molecular oxygen. An ELDOR-detected NMR and computational study has indicated that ammonia, a substrate analogue, binds as a terminal ligand to the Mn4A ion trans to the O5 μ4 oxido bridge.[Perez Navarro M., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013, 110, 15561-15566] A subsequent electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) study confirmed this result and showed that ammonia hydrogen bonds to the carboxylate sidechain of D1-Asp61...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298896/mechanistic-insights-into-acephalic-spermatozoa-syndrome-associated-mutations-in-the-human-sun5-gene
#16
Yongliang Shang, Jie Yan, Wenhao Tang, Chao Liu, Sai Xiao, Yueshuai Guo, Li Yuan, Liang Chen, Hui Jiang, Xuejiang Guo, Jie Qiao, Wei Li
Acephalic spermatozoa syndrome has been reported for many decades; it is characterized by very few intact spermatozoa and tailless sperm heads in the semen and causes severe male infertility. The only gene whose mutations have been found to be associated with this syndrome encodes Sad1 and UNC84 domain-containing 5 (SUN5), a testis-specific nuclear envelope protein. The functional role of SUN5 has been well studied in mouse models, but the molecular basis for the pathogenic effects of mutations in the human SUN5 gene remain elusive...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298889/a-role-for-myosin-va-in-human-cytomegalovirus-nuclear-egress
#17
Adrian R Wilkie, Mayuri Sharma, Jean M Pesola, Maria Ericsson, Rosio Fernandez, Donald M Coen
Herpesviruses replicate and package their genomes into capsids in replication compartments within the nuclear interior. Capsids then move to the inner nuclear membrane for envelopment and release into the cytoplasm in a process called nuclear egress. We previously found that nuclear F-actin is induced upon infection with the β-herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus, and is important for nuclear egress and capsid localization away from replication compartment-like inclusions towards the nuclear rim. Despite these and related findings, it has not been shown that any specific motor protein is involved in herpesvirus nuclear egress...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283340/heat-stress-promotes-longevity-in-budding-yeast-by-relaxing-the-confinement-of-age-promoting-factors-in-the-mother-cell
#18
Sandro Baldi, Alessio Bolognesi, Anne Cornelis Meinema, Yves Barral
Although individuals of many species inexorably age, a number of observations established that the rate of ageing is modulated in response to a variety of mild stresses. Here, we investigated how heat stress promotes longevity in yeast. We show that upon growth at higher temperature, yeast cells relax the retention of DNA circles, which act as ageing factors in the mother cell. The enhanced frequency at which circles redistribute to daughter cells was not due to changes of anaphase duration or nuclear shape but solely to the downregulation of the diffusion barrier in the nuclear envelope...
December 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277356/translocation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-egf-to-the-nucleus-has-distinct-kinetics-between-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-a-mesenchymal-cancer-cell-lineage
#19
Camila Cristina Fraga Faraco, Jerusa Araújo Quintão Arantes Faria, Marianna Kunrath Lima, Marcelo Coutinho de Miranda, Mariane Izabella Abreu de Melo, Andrea da Fonseca Ferreira, Michele Angela Rodrigues, Dawidson Assis Gomes
Nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) has been associated with worse prognosis and treatment resistance for several cancer types. After Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) binding, the ligand-receptor complex can translocate to the nucleus where it functions in oncological processes. By three-dimensional quantification analysis of super-resolution microscopy images, we verified the translocation kinetics of fluorescent conjugated EGF to the nucleus in two mesenchymal cell types: human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASC) and SK-HEP-1 tumor cells...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276125/nek9-phosphorylation-defines-a-new-role-for-tpx2-in-eg5-dependent-centrosome-separation-before-nuclear-envelope-breakdown
#20
Susana Eibes, Núria Gallisà-Suñé, Miquel Rosas-Salvans, Paula Martínez-Delgado, Isabelle Vernos, Joan Roig
Centrosomes [1, 2] play a central role during spindle assembly in most animal cells [3]. In early mitosis, they organize two symmetrical microtubule arrays that upon separation define the two poles of the forming spindle. Centrosome separation is tightly regulated [4, 5], occurring through partially redundant mechanisms that rely on the action of microtubule-based dynein and kinesin motors and the actomyosin system [6]. While centrosomes can separate in prophase or in prometaphase after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), prophase centrosome separation optimizes spindle assembly and minimizes the occurrence of abnormal chromosome attachments that could end in aneuploidy [7, 8]...
December 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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