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Nuclear envelope

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226231/cell-biology-of-the-plant-nucleus
#1
Iris Meier, Eric J Richards, David E Evans
The eukaryotic nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope, which is perforated by the nuclear pores, the gateways of macromolecular exchange between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is organized in a complex three-dimensional fashion that changes over time and in response to stimuli. Within the cell, the nucleus must be viewed as an organelle (albeit a gigantic one) that is a recipient of cytoplasmic forces and capable of morphological and positional dynamics. The most dramatic reorganization of this organelle occurs during mitosis and meiosis...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218637/mechanisms-of-chromosome-congression-during-mitosis
#2
REVIEW
Helder Maiato, Ana Margarida Gomes, Filipe Sousa, Marin Barisic
Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214269/immunohistochemistry-on-a-panel-of-emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy-samples-reveals-nuclear-envelope-proteins-as-inconsistent-markers-for-pathology
#3
Phu Le Thanh, Peter Meinke, Nadia Korfali, Vlastimil Srsen, Michael I Robson, Manfred Wehnert, Benedikt Schoser, Caroline A Sewry, Eric C Schirmer
Reports of aberrant distribution for some nuclear envelope proteins in cells expressing a few Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy mutations raised the possibility that such protein redistribution could underlie pathology and/or be diagnostic. However, this disorder is linked to 8 different genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins, raising the question of whether a particular protein is most relevant. Therefore, myoblast/fibroblast cultures from biopsy and tissue sections from a panel of nine Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy patients (4 male, 5 female) including those carrying emerin and FHL1 (X-linked) and several lamin A (autosomal dominant) mutations were stained for the proteins linked to the disorder...
December 21, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202688/super-resolution-mapping-of-scaffold-nucleoporins-in-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#4
Jiong Ma, Joseph M Kelich, Samuel L Junod, Weidong Yang
The nuclear pore complex (NPC), composed of ∼30 different nucleoporins (Nups), is one of the largest supramolecular structures in eukaryotic cells. Its octagonal ring-scaffold perforates the nuclear envelope and features a unique molecular machinery that regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport. However, the precise copy number and the spatial location of each Nup in the native NPC remain obscure due to the inherent difficulty of counting and localizing proteins inside the sub-micrometer supramolecular complex...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196807/correction-microtubule-induced-nuclear-envelope-fluctuations-control-chromatin-dynamics-in-drosophila-embryos
#5
Bernhard Hampoelz, Yannick Azou-Gros, Roxane Fabre, Olga Markova, Pierre-Henri Puech, Thomas Lecuit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193847/dna-damage-response-independent-role-for-mdc1-in-maintaining-genomic-stability
#6
Zhiguo Li, Chen Shao, Yifan Kong, Colin Carlock, Nihal Ahmad, Xiaoqi Liu
MDC1 is a central player in checkpoint activation and subsequent DNA repair following DNA damage. Although MDC1 has been extensively studied, much of its known functions to date pertains to the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. Herein, we report a novel function of phosphorylated MDC1, independent of ATM and DNA damage, which is required for proper mitotic progression and maintenance of genomic stability. We demonstrate that MDC1 is an in vivo target of Plk1 and that the phosphorylated MDC1 is dynamically localized to nuclear envelopes, centrosomes, kinetochores and the midbodies...
February 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190577/dilated-cardiomyopathy
#7
REVIEW
Robert G Weintraub, Christopher Semsarian, Peter Macdonald
Dilated cardiomyopathy is defined by the presence of left ventricular dilatation and contractile dysfunction. Genetic mutations involving genes that encode cytoskeletal, sarcomere, and nuclear envelope proteins, among others, account for up to 35% of cases. Acquired causes include myocarditis and exposure to alcohol, drugs and toxins, and metabolic and endocrine disturbances. The most common presenting symptoms relate to congestive heart failure, but can also include circulatory collapse, arrhythmias, and thromboembolic events...
February 9, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189102/coordinated-events-of-nuclear-assembly
#8
REVIEW
Dollie LaJoie, Katharine S Ullman
Each time a metazoan cell undergoes open mitosis, the nucleus is dismantled in order to partition DNA content to the daughter cells. After chromosomes separate, changes at the chromatin surface usher in reestablishment of nuclear architecture. Proteins destined for the nuclear envelope are attracted to chromatin and concomitantly recruit membrane. As nuclear envelope and protein constituents spread to coat chromatin, distinct regions emerge-some rich in rapid pore formation, others occupied by microtubules that remain attached to kinetochores...
February 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179150/transporter-mediated-nuclear-entry-of-jasmonoyl-isoleucine-is-essential-for-jasmonate-signaling
#9
Qingqing Li, Jian Zheng, Shuaizhang Li, Guanrong Huang, Stephen J Skilling, Lijian Wang, Ling Li, Mengya Li, Lixing Yuan, Pei Liu
To control gene expression directly by hormone concentrations, both animal and plant cells have exploited comparable mechanisms to sense small molecular hormones in nucleus. Whether nuclear entry of these hormones is actively transported or passively diffused, as conventionally postulated, through nuclear pore complex remains enigmatic. Here, we identified and characterized a jasmonate transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtJAT1/ AtABCG16, which exhibits an unexpected dual localization in the nuclear envelope and plasma membrane...
February 4, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178086/identification-of-rare-nonsynonymous-variants-in-syne1-cpg2-in-bipolar-affective-disorder
#10
Sally I Sharp, Jenny Lange, Radhika Kandaswamy, Mazen Daher, Adebayo Anjorin, Nicholas J Bass, Andrew McQuillin
BACKGROUND: Bipolar affective disorder (BPD) is a severe mood disorder with a prevalence of ∼1.5% in the population. The pathogenesis of BPD is poorly understood; however, a strong heritable component has been identified. Previous genome-wide association studies have indicated a region on 6q25, coding for the SYNE1 gene, which increases disease susceptibility. SYNE1 encodes the synaptic nuclear envelope protein-1, nesprin-1. A brain-specific splice variant of SYNE1, CPG2 encoding candidate plasticity gene 2, has been identified...
February 7, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174521/deep-sequencing-of-the-human-retinae-reveals-the-expression-of-odorant-receptors
#11
Nikolina Jovancevic, Kirsten A Wunderlich, Claudia Haering, Caroline Flegel, Désirée Maßberg, Markus Weinrich, Lea Weber, Lars Tebbe, Anselm Kampik, Günter Gisselmann, Uwe Wolfrum, Hanns Hatt, Lian Gelis
Several studies have demonstrated that the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) occurs in various tissues. These findings have served as a basis for functional studies that demonstrate the potential of ORs as drug targets for a clinical application. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first evaluation of the mRNA expression of ORs and the localization of OR proteins in the human retina that set a stage for subsequent functional analyses. RNA-Sequencing datasets of three individual neural retinae were generated using Next-generation sequencing and were compared to previously published but reanalyzed datasets of the peripheral and the macular human retina and to reference tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164360/new-insights-into-the-spermatogenesis-of-the-black-tiger-prawn-penaeus-monodon
#12
Tianyi Feng, Brian Paterson, Stephen Johnston
This study reports a comprehensive description of penaeid spermatogenesis (Penaeus monodon) by light and transmission electron microscopy. A conspicuous characteristic of spermatocytogenesis was a ring-like structure with high electron-density adjacent to the nucleus of a primary spermatocyte. During the spermiogenesis from stage I (StI) to stage VI spermatid (StVI), the formation of the acrosome and decondensation of the nucleus were the most notable morphological transformations. StIs were small and compact and they were contained in the syncytia...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163791/mechanobiology-of-chromatin-and-the-nuclear-interior
#13
Stephen T Spagnol, Travis J Armiger, Kris Noel Dahl
The view of the cell nucleus has evolved from an isolated, static organelle to a dynamic structure integrated with other mechanical elements of the cell. Both dynamics and integration appear to contribute to a mechanical regulation of genome expression. Here, we review physical structures inside the nucleus at different length scales and the dynamic reorganization modulated by cellular forces. First, we discuss nuclear organization focusing on self-assembly and disassembly of DNA structures and various nuclear bodies...
June 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163061/importins-in-the-maintenance-and-lineage-commitment-of-es-cells
#14
REVIEW
Noriko Yasuhara, Yoshihiro Yoneda
The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope, and nuclear pores within the envelope facilitate nucleocytoplasmic transport and the exchange of information. Gene regulation is a key component of biological activity regulation in the cell. Transcription factors control the expression levels of various genes that are necessary for the maintenance or conversion of cellular states during animal development. Because transcription factor activities determine the extent of transcription of target genes, the number of active transcription factors must be tightly regulated...
February 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162953/molecular-architecture-of-the-major-membrane-ring-component-of-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#15
Paula Upla, Seung Joong Kim, Parthasarathy Sampathkumar, Kaushik Dutta, Sean M Cahill, Ilan E Chemmama, Rosemary Williams, Jeffrey B Bonanno, William J Rice, David L Stokes, David Cowburn, Steven C Almo, Andrej Sali, Michael P Rout, Javier Fernandez-Martinez
The membrane ring that equatorially circumscribes the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in the perinuclear lumen of the nuclear envelope is composed largely of Pom152 in yeast and its ortholog Nup210 (or Gp210) in vertebrates. Here, we have used a combination of negative-stain electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and small-angle X-ray scattering methods to determine an integrative structure of the ∼120 kDa luminal domain of Pom152. Our structural analysis reveals that the luminal domain is formed by a flexible string-of-pearls arrangement of nine repetitive cadherin-like Ig-like domains, indicating an evolutionary connection between NPCs and the cell adhesion machinery...
February 2, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158219/tissue-specific-features-of-the-x-chromosome-and-nucleolus-spatial-dynamics-in-a-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-atroparvus
#16
Semen M Bondarenko, Gleb N Artemov, Igor V Sharakhov, Vladimir N Stegniy
Spatial organization of chromosome territories is important for maintenance of genomic stability and regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific features of chromosome attachments to the nuclear envelope in various organisms including malaria mosquitoes. However, other spatial characteristics of nucleus organization, like volume and shape of chromosome territories, have not been studied in Anopheles. We conducted a thorough analysis of tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus volume and shape in follicular epithelium and nurse cells of the Anopheles atroparvus ovaries using a modern open-source software...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152343/transcriptomes-reflect-the-phenotypes-of-undifferentiated-granulocyte-and-macrophage-forms-of-hl-60-s4-cells
#17
David B Mark Welch, Anna Jauch, Jörg Langowski, Ada L Olins, Donald E Olins
In order to understand the chromatin changes underlying differential gene expression during induced differentiation of human leukemic HL-60/S4 cells, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis on quadruplicate cultures of undifferentiated, granulocytic- and macrophage-differentiated cell forms. More than half of mapped genes exhibited altered transcript levels in the differentiated cell forms. In general, more genes showed increased mRNA levels in the granulocytic form and in the macrophage form, than showed decreased levels...
February 2, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148968/mistic-fusion-proteins-as-antigens-for-high-quality-membrane-protein-antibodies
#18
Natalia Silva Alves, Susanne Adina Astrinidis, Nathalie Eisenhardt, Cornelia Sieverding, Josef Redolfi, Michael Lorenz, Marion Weberruss, Daniel Moreno-Andrés, Wolfram Antonin
Lack of high-quality antibodies against transmembrane proteins is a widely recognized hindrance in biomedical and cell biological research. Here we present a robust pipeline for the generation of polyclonal antibodies employing full-length membrane proteins as immunogens to overcome this "antibody bottleneck". We express transmembrane proteins fused to a MISTIC fragment that enhances expression of eukaryotic membrane proteins in E. coli. Purified membrane proteins are used as immunogen for rabbit injection employing standard immunizing protocols...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145223/light-and-transmission-electron-microscopy-of-cepedea-longa-opalinidae-from-fejervarya-limnocharis
#19
Can Li, Xiao Jin, Ming Li, Guitang Wang, Hong Zou, Wenxiang Li, Shangong Wu
Cepedea longa Bezzenberger, 1904, collected from Fejervarya limnocharis (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae) from Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, China in May-July 2016, is described at both light and transmission electron microscope levels. This is the first electron microscopic study of this species. Cepedea longa possesses a developed fibrillar skeletal system, composed of longitudinal fibrillar bands and transversal fibrils as well as numerous thin microfibrils dispersed in the endoplasm, which may play an important role in morphogenesis and offer some resilience to deformations of the cell...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134781/implications-for-diverse-functions-of-the-linc-complexes-based-on-the-structure
#20
REVIEW
Miki Hieda
The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is composed of the outer and inner nuclear membrane protein families Klarsicht, Anc-1, and Syne homology (KASH), and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) homology domain proteins. Increasing evidence has pointed to diverse functions of the LINC complex, such as in nuclear migration, nuclear integrity, chromosome movement and pairing during meiosis, and mechanotransduction to the genome. In metazoan cells, the nuclear envelope possesses the nuclear lamina, which is a thin meshwork of intermediate filaments known as A-type and B-type lamins and lamin binding proteins...
January 26, 2017: Cells
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