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Nuclear envelope

Rugang Geng, Ram C Subedi, Hoang M Luong, Minh T Pham, Weichuan Huang, Xiaoguang Li, Kunlun Hong, Ming Shao, Kai Xiao, Lawrence A Hornak, Tho D Nguyen
Hyperfine interaction (HFI), originating from the coupling between spins of charge carriers and nuclei, has been demonstrated to strongly influence the spin dynamics of localized charges in organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, the role of charge localization on the HFI strength in organic thin films has not yet been experimentally investigated. In this study, the statistical relation hypothesis that the effective HFI of holes in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is proportional to 1/N^{0.5} has been examined, where N is the number of the random nuclear spins within the envelope of the hole wave function...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Susan E Hepp, Gina M Borgo, Simina Ticau, Taro Ohkawa, Matthew D Welch
The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the type species of alphabaculoviruses, is an enveloped DNA virus that infects lepidopteran insects and is commonly known as a vector for protein expression and cell transduction. AcMNPV belongs to a diverse group of viral and bacterial pathogens that target the host cell actin cytoskeleton during infection. AcMNPV is unusual, however, in that it absolutely requires actin translocation into the nucleus early in infection, and actin polymerization within the nucleus late in infection coincident with viral replication...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Zeinab Jahed, Darya Fadavi, Uyen T Vu, Ehsaneddin Asgari, G W Gant Luxton, Mohammad R K Mofrad
The LINC complex is found in a wide variety of organisms and is formed by the transluminal interaction between outer- and inner-nuclear-membrane KASH and SUN proteins, respectively. Most extensively studied are SUN1 and SUN2 proteins, which are widely expressed in mammals. Although SUN1 and SUN2 play functionally redundant roles in several cellular processes, more recent studies have revealed diverse and distinct functions for SUN1. While several recent in vitro structural studies have revealed the molecular details of various fragments of SUN2, no such structural information is available for SUN1...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Agnese Secondo, Alba Esposito, Tiziana Petrozziello, Francesca Boscia, Pasquale Molinaro, Valentina Tedeschi, Anna Pannaccione, Roselia Ciccone, Natascia Guida, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato
Nuclear envelope (NE) is a Ca2+ -storing organelle controlling neuronal differentiation through nuclear Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]n ). However, how [Ca2+ ]n regulates this important function remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the nuclear form of the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger 1(nuNCX1) during the different stages of neuronal differentiation and the involvement of PTEN/PI3'K/Akt pathway. In neuronal cells, nuNCX1 was detected on the inner membrane of the NE where protein expression and activity of the exchanger increased during NGF-induced differentiation...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Anvita Bhargava, Xavier Lahaye, Nicolas Manel
The nuclear envelope is a physical barrier that isolates the cellular DNA from the rest of the cell, thereby limiting pathogen invasion. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has a remarkable ability to enter the nucleus of non-dividing target cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. While this step is critical for replication of the virus, it remains one of the less understood aspects of HIV infection. Here, we review the viral and host factors that favor or inhibit HIV entry into the nucleus, including the viral capsid, integrase, the central viral DNA flap, and the host proteins CPSF6, TNPO3, Nucleoporins, SUN1, SUN2, Cyclophilin A and MX2...
February 27, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Tong Liu, Jian Zhao, Cristian Ibarra, Maxime U Garcia, Per Uhlén, Monica Nistér
The Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) is a membrane antiporter that has been identified in the plasma membrane, the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In humans, three genes have been identified, encoding unique NCX proteins. Although extensively studied, the NCX's sub-cellular localization and mechanisms regulating the activity of different subtypes are still ambiguous. Here we investigated the subcellular localization of the NCX subtype 3 (NCX3) and its impact on the cell cycle...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Carl Barton, Sandro Morganella, Øyvind Ødegård-Fougner, Stephanie Alexander, Jonas Ries, Tomas Fitzgerald, Jan Ellenberg, Ewan Birney
The 3D structure of chromatin plays a key role in genome function, including gene expression, DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair. Furthermore the location of genomic loci within the nucleus, especially relative to each other and nuclear structures such as the nuclear envelope and nuclear bodies strongly correlates with aspects of function such as gene expression. Therefore, determining the 3D position of the 6 billion DNA base pairs in each of the 23 chromosomes inside the nucleus of a human cell is a central challenge of biology...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
You Kure Wu, Hiroki Umeshima, Junko Kurisu, Mineko Kengaku
Nuclear migration of newly born neurons is essential for cortex formation in the brain. The nucleus is translocated by actin and microtubules, yet the actual force generated by the interplay of these cytoskeletons remains elusive. High-resolution time-lapse observation of migrating murine cerebellar granule cells revealed that the nucleus actively rotates along the direction of its translocation, independently of centrosome motion. Pharmacological and molecular perturbation indicated that spin torque is primarily generated by microtubule motors through the LINC complex in the absence of actomyosin contractility...
March 8, 2018: Development
Marie Rogne, Oksana Svaerd, Julia Madsen-Østerbye, Adnan Hashim, Geir E Tjønnfjord, Judith Staerk
Cytokinesis failure leads to the emergence of tetraploid cells and multiple centrosomes. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common haematological malignancy in adults and is characterized by clonal B cell expansion. Here, we show that a significant number of peripheral blood CLL cells are arrested in cytokinesis and that this event occurred after nuclear envelope reformation and before cytoplasmic abscission. mRNA expression data showed that several genes known to be crucial for cell cycle regulation, checkpoint and centromere function, such as ING4, ING5, CDKN1A and CDK4, were significantly dysregulated in CLL samples...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Hironori Funabiki, Christopher Jenness, Christian Zierhut
The majority of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA exists in the form of nucleosomes, where ∼147 bp DNA wraps around histone hetero-octamers, composed of histone H3, H4, H2A, and H2B. Despite their obvious importance in DNA compaction and accessibility, studying their specific roles, such as regulation of mitotic progression, in a physiological environment is associated with critical caveats because of their major contributions in transcriptional control. Through establishing a method to deplete endogenous histones H3 and H4 from frog egg extracts and complementing their functions using recombinant nucleosome arrays, we are now able to analyze their roles in mitotic progression without affecting overall transcriptomic profiles...
March 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Jared Hennen, Cosmo A Saunders, Joachim D Mueller, G W Gant Luxton
Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes are conserved molecular bridges within the nuclear envelope that mediate mechanical force transmission into the nucleoplasm. The core of the LINC complex is formed by a transluminal interaction between the outer and inner nuclear membrane KASH and SUN proteins, respectively. Mammals encode six KASH proteins and five SUN proteins. Recently, KASH proteins were shown to bind to the domain interfaces of trimeric SUN2 proteins in vitro However neither the existence of SUN2 trimers in living cells nor the extent to which other SUN proteins conform to this assembly state have been tested experimentally...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Yu You, Tian Liu, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, XinXin Zhao, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu, Ling Zhang
To analyse the function of the duck plague virus (DPV) glycoprotein J homologue (gJ), two different mutated viruses, a gJ deleted mutant ΔgJ and a gJR rescue mutant gJR with US5 restored were generated. All recombinant viruses were constructed by using two-step of RED recombination system implemented on the duck plague virus Chinese virulent strain (DPV CHv) genome cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. DPV-mutants were characterized on non-complementing DEF cells compared with parental virus. Viral replication kinetics of intracellular and extracellular viruses revealed that the ΔgJ virus produce a 10-fold reduction of viral titers than the gJR and parental virus, which especially the production of extracellular infectivity was affected...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Balaje Vijayaraghavan, Ricardo A Figueroa, Cecilia Bergqvist, Amit J Gupta, Paulo Sousa, Einar Hallberg
Samp1, spindle associated membrane protein 1, is a type II integral membrane protein localized in the inner nuclear membrane. Recent studies have shown that the inner nuclear membrane protein, Emerin and the small monomeric GTPase, Ran are direct binding partners of Samp1. Here we addressed the question whether Ran could regulate the interaction between Samp1 and Emerin in the inner nuclear membrane. To investigate the interaction between Samp1 and Emerin in live cells, we performed FRAP experiments in cells overexpressing YFP-Emerin...
March 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jana Chumová, Lucie Trögelová, Hana Kourová, Jindřich Volc, Vadym Sulimenko, Petr Halada, Ondřej Kučera, Oldřich Benada, Anna Kuchařová, Anastasiya Klebanovych, Pavel Dráber, Geoffrey Daniel, Pavla Binarová
γ-Tubulin is essential for microtubule nucleation and also plays less understood roles in nuclear and cell-cycle-related functions. High abundancy of γ-tubulin in acentrosomal Arabidopsis cells facilitated purification and biochemical characterization of large molecular species of γ-tubulin. TEM, fluorescence, and atomic force microscopy of purified high molecular γ-tubulin forms revealed the presence of linear filaments with a double protofilament substructure, filament bundles and aggregates. Filament formation from highly purified γ-tubulin free of γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs) was demonstrated for both plant and human γ-tubulin...
February 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jianxin Tu, Xiaobing Wang, Guannan Geng, Xiangyang Xue, Xiangyang Lin, Xiaochun Zhu, Li Sun
This study was aimed to evaluate the role of B-cell epitopes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Early antigen protein D (EA), envelope glycoprotein GP340/membrane antigen (MA), latent membrane protein (LMP)-1, and LMP-2A in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). B-cell epitopes were predicted by analyzing secondary structure, transmembrane domains, surface properties, and homological comparison. 60 female mice were randomized equally into 12 groups: 1-10 groups were immunized by epitope peptides (EPs) 1-10, respectively, while 11 and 12 groups were PBS and Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) control groups...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ines J de Castro, Raquel Sales Gil, Lorena Ligammari, Maria Laura Di Giacinto, Paola Vagnarelli
Micronuclei (MN) arise from chromosomes or fragments that fail to be incorporated into the primary nucleus after cell division. These structures are a major source of genetic instability caused by DNA repair and replication defects coupled to aberrant Nuclear Envelope (NE). These problems ultimately lead to a spectrum of chromosome rearrangements called chromothripsis, a phenomenon that is a hallmark of several cancers. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanism at the origin of this instability is still not understood...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Can Zhou, Li Rao, Catherine M Shanahan, Qiuping Zhang
Nesprins (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat proteins) are multi-isomeric scaffolding proteins. Nesprin-1 and -2 are highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles and together with SUN (Sad1p/UNC84) domain-containing proteins form the LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex at the nuclear envelope in association with lamin A/C and emerin. Mutations in nesprin-1/2 have been found in patients with autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) as well as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)...
February 27, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Usha P Kar, Himani Dey, Abdur Rahaman
Self-assembly on target membranes is one of the important properties of all dynamin family proteins. Drp6, a dynaminrelated protein in Tetrahymena, controls nuclear remodelling and undergoes cycles of assembly/disassembly on the nuclear envelope. To elucidate the mechanism of Drp6 function, we have characterized its biochemical and biophysical properties using size exclusion chromatography, chemical cross-linking and electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that Drp6 readily forms high-molecular-weight self-assembled structures as determined by size exclusion chromatography and chemical cross-linking...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Holly Whitton, Larry N Singh, Marissa A Patrick, Andrew J Price, Fernando G Osorio, Carlos López-Otín, Irina M Bochkis
Increasing evidence suggests that regulation of heterochromatin at the nuclear envelope underlies metabolic disease susceptibility and age-dependent metabolic changes, but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we profile lamina-associated domains (LADs) using lamin B1 ChIP-Seq in young and old hepatocytes and find that, although lamin B1 resides at a large fraction of domains at both ages, a third of lamin B1-associated regions are bound exclusively at each age in vivo. Regions occupied by lamin B1 solely in young livers are enriched for the forkhead motif, bound by Foxa pioneer factors...
February 27, 2018: Aging Cell
Guan-Ting Liu, Hsiu-Ni Kung, Chung-Kuan Chen, Cheng Huang, Yung-Li Wang, Cheng-Pu Yu, Chung-Pei Lee
Although a vesicular nucleocytoplasmic transport system is believed to exist in eukaryotic cells, the features of this pathway are mostly unknown. Here, we report that the BFRF1 protein of the Epstein-Barr virus improves vesicular transport of nuclear envelope (NE) to facilitate the translocation and clearance of nuclear components. BFRF1 expression induces vesicles that selectively transport nuclear components to the cytoplasm. With the use of aggregation-prone proteins as tools, we found that aggregated nuclear proteins are dispersed when these BFRF1-induced vesicles are formed...
February 26, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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