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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162892/silencing-of-osgrxs17-in-rice-improves-drought-stress-tolerance-by-modulating-ros-accumulation-and-stomatal-closure
#1
Ying Hu, Qingyu Wu, Zhao Peng, Stuart A Sprague, Wei Wang, Jungeun Park, Eduard Akhunov, Krishna S V Jagadish, Paul A Nakata, Ninghui Cheng, Kendal D Hirschi, Frank F White, Sunghun Park
Glutaredoxins (GRXs) modulate redox-dependent signaling pathways and have emerged as key mediators in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Here we report that RNAi-mediated suppression of Oryza sativa GRXS17 (OsGRXS17) improved drought tolerance in rice. Gene expression studies showed that OsGRXS17 was present throughout the plant and that transcript abundance increased in response to drought stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Localization studies, utilizing GFP-OsGRXS17 fusion proteins, indicated that OsGRXS17 resides in both the cytoplasm and the nuclear envelope...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150488/membrane-binding-of-and-a-self-inhibitory-interaction-within-nup155-are-required-for-nuclear-pore-complex-formation
#2
Paola De Magistris, Marianna Tatarek-Nossol, Manfred Dewor, Wolfram Antonin
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the gateways through the nuclear envelope. How they form into a structure containing three rings and integrate into the nuclear envelope remains a challenging paradigm for coordinated assembly of macro-complexes. In vertebrates, the cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic rings of NPCs are mostly formed by multiple copies of the Nup107-Nup160 complex, whereas the central, or inner ring is composed of Nup53, Nup93, Nup155 and the two paralogues Nup188 and Nup205. Inner ring assembly is only partially understood...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149836/are-there-different-kinds-of-aging
#3
Amalia Gabriela Diaconeasa
A critical analysis of the accelerated aging syndromes may explain what aging is, but also why some tissues and organs age at accelerated rates in comparison with aging rates of other tissues. Syndromes of accelerated aging are caused by mutations affecting the integrity of the genetic material. Among them, the most studied is Werner's syndrome, "adult progeria", caused by a recessive autosomal mutation with a frequency of 1 in 10 millions, which affects a helicase involved in DNA repair. In Werner syndrome, there is a loss of heterochromatin, though the stability of heterochromatin is also affected in "normal" aging...
November 16, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149609/snapshot-functions-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-membrane-contact-sites
#4
Raquel Salvador-Gallego, Melissa J Hoyer, Gia K Voeltz
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of the nuclear envelope and a reticulated interconnected network of tubules and sheets. ER sheets are studded with ribosomes and provide the entryway for proteins into the secretory pathway. ER tubules move dynamically on microtubules and form membrane contact sites with other organelles, where membranes are tethered, but not fused. This Snapshot reviews key biological processes that take place at ER contact sites with the Golgi, endosomes, and mitochondria.
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142109/the-ndc80-complex-targets-bod1-to-human-mitotic-kinetochores
#5
Katharina Schleicher, Michael Porter, Sara Ten Have, Ramasubramanian Sundaramoorthy, Iain M Porter, Jason R Swedlow
Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by endogenous protein inhibitors is an important mechanism to control protein phosphorylation in cells. We recently identified Biorientation defective 1 (Bod1) as a small protein inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A containing the B56 regulatory subunit (PP2A-B56). This phosphatase controls the amount of phosphorylation of several kinetochore proteins and thus the establishment of load-bearing chromosome-spindle attachments in time for accurate separation of sister chromatids in mitosis...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141207/distinct-terb1-domains-regulate-different-protein-interactions-in-meiotic-telomere-movement
#6
Jingjing Zhang, Zhaowei Tu, Yoshinori Watanabe, Hiroki Shibuya
Meiotic telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope (NE) and drive the chromosome movement required for the pairing of homologous chromosomes. The meiosis-specific telomere proteins TERB1, TERB2, and MAJIN are required to regulate these events, but their assembly processes are largely unknown. Here, we developed a germ-cell-specific knockout mouse of the canonical telomere-binding protein TRF1 and revealed an essential role for TRF1 in directing the assembly of TERB1-TERB2-MAJIN. Further, we identified a TERB2 binding (T2B) domain in TERB1 that is dispensable for the TRF1-TERB1 interaction but is essential for the subsequent TERB1-TERB2 interaction and therefore for telomere attachment to the NE...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120369/begomoviral-movement-protein-effects-in-human-and-plant-cells-towards-new-potential-interaction-partners
#7
Susanna Krapp, Christian Schuy, Eva Greiner, Irina Stephan, Barbara Alberter, Christina Funk, Manfred Marschall, Christina Wege, Susanne M Bailer, Tatjana Kleinow, Björn Krenz
Geminiviral single-stranded circular DNA genomes replicate in nuclei so that the progeny DNA has to cross both the nuclear envelope and the plasmodesmata for systemic spread within plant tissues. For intra- and intercellular transport, two proteins are required: a nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) and a movement protein (MP). New characteristics of ectopically produced Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) MP (MP(AbMV)), either authentically expressed or fused to a yellow fluorescent protein or epitope tags, respectively, were determined by localization studies in mammalian cell lines in comparison to plant cells...
November 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119545/mechanisms-of-nuclear-pore-complex-assembly-two-different-ways-of-building-one-molecular-machine
#8
REVIEW
Shotaro Otsuka, Jan Ellenberg
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates all macromolecular transport across the nuclear envelope. In higher eukaryotes that have an open mitosis, NPCs assemble at two points in the cell-cycle: during nuclear assembly in late mitosis and during nuclear growth in interphase. How the NPC, the largest non-polymeric protein complex in eukaryotic cells, self-assembles inside cells remained unclear. Recent studies have started to uncover the assembly process, and evidence has been accumulating that postmitotic and interphase NPC assembly use fundamentally different mechanisms; the duration, structural intermediates, and regulation by molecular players are different and different types of membrane deformation are involved...
November 8, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117147/the-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-subunit-isoforms-expression-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-moonlighting-roles
#9
Deborah Rotoli, Mariana-Mayela Cejas, María-Del-Carmen Maeso, Natalia-Dolores Pérez-Rodríguez, Manuel Morales, Julio Ávila, Ali Mobasheri, Pablo Martín-Vasallo
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma. Recent studies point out that gliomas exploit ion channels and transporters, including Na, K-ATPase, to sustain their singular growth and invasion as they invade the brain parenchyma. Moreover, the different isoforms of the β-subunit of Na, K-ATPase have been implicated in regulating cellular dynamics, particularly during cancer progression. The aim of this study was to determine the Na, K-ATPase β subunit isoform subcellular expression patterns in all cell types responsible for microenvironment heterogeneity of GBM using immunohistochemical analysis...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110394/methylisothiazolinone-may-induce-cell-death-and-inflammatory-response-through-dna-damage-in-human-liver-epithelium-cells
#10
Eun-Jung Park, Sanghwa Kim, Jaerak Chang
Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) is a powerful biocide and preservative, which is widely used alone or in a 1:3 ratio with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCIT) under the trade name of Kathons in the manufacture of numerous personal and household products. Considering that Kathons injected intravenously is distributed in the blood and then in the liver, we explored the toxic mechanism of MIT on human liver epithelium cells. At 24 h after exposure, MIT bound to the plasma membrane and the inner wall of vacuoles in the cells, and rupture of the cell membrane and nuclear envelop, autophagosome-like vacuoles formation and mitochondrial damage were observed...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103955/cell-cycle-proteins-control-production-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#11
Borko Amulic, Sebastian Lorenz Knackstedt, Ulrike Abu Abed, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Christopher J Harbort, Brian E Caffrey, Volker Brinkmann, Frank L Heppner, Philip W Hinds, Arturo Zychlinsky
Neutrophils are essential for immune defense and can respond to infection by releasing chromatin in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Here we show that NETs are induced by mitogens and accompanied by induction of cell-cycle markers, including phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and lamins, nuclear envelope breakdown, and duplication of centrosomes. We identify cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) as essential regulators of NETs and show that the response is inhibited by the cell-cycle inhibitor p21(Cip)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096075/getting-mrna-containing-ribonucleoprotein-granules-out-of-a-nuclear-back-door
#12
REVIEW
Anup Parchure, Mary Munson, Vivian Budnik
A pivotal feature of long-lasting synaptic plasticity is the localization of RNAs and the protein synthesis machinery at synaptic sites. How and where ribonucleoprotein (RNP) transport granules that support this synthetic activity are formed is of fundamental importance. The prevailing model poses that the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the sole gatekeeper for transit of cellular material in and out of the nucleus. However, insights from the nuclear assembly of large viral capsids highlight a back door route for nuclear escape, a process referred to nuclear envelope (NE) budding...
November 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095096/nuclear-pore-complexes-as-hubs-for-gene-regulation
#13
Maximiliano A D'Angelo
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), the channels connecting the nucleus with the cytoplasm, are the largest protein structures of the nuclear envelope. In addition to their role in regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport, increasing evidence shows that these multiprotein structures play central roles in the regulation of gene activity. In light of recent discoveries, NPCs are emerging as scaffolds that mediate the regulation of specific gene sets at the nuclear periphery. The function of NPCs as genome organizers and hubs for transcriptional regulation provides additional evidence that the compartmentalization of genes and transcriptional regulators within the nuclear space is an important mechanism of gene expression regulation...
November 2, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092105/formation-and-mosaicity-of-coccolith-segment-calcite-of-the-marine-algae-emiliania-huxleyi
#14
Xiaofei Yin, Andreas Ziegler, Klemens Kelm, Ramona Hoffmann, Philipp Watermeyer, Patrick Alexa, Clarissa Villinger, Ulrich Rupp, Lothar Schlüter, Thorsten B H Reusch, Erika Griesshaber, Paul Walther, Wolfgang W Schmahl
Coccolithophores belong to the most abundant calcium carbonate mineralizing organisms. Coccolithophore biomineralization is a complex and highly regulated process, resulting in a product that strongly differs in its intricate morphology from the abiogenically produced mineral equivalent. Moreover, unlike extracellularly formed biological carbonate hard tissues, coccolith calcite is neither a hybrid composite, nor is it distinguished by a hierarchical microstructure. This is remarkable as the key to optimizing crystalline biomaterials for mechanical strength and toughness lies in the composite nature of the biological hard tissue and the utilization of specific microstructures...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065307/channel-nucleoporins-recruit-plk-1-to-nuclear-pore-complexes-to-direct-nuclear-envelope-breakdown-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#15
Lisa Martino, Stéphanie Morchoisne-Bolhy, Dhanya K Cheerambathur, Lucie Van Hove, Julien Dumont, Nicolas Joly, Arshad Desai, Valérie Doye, Lionel Pintard
In animal cells, nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) is required for proper chromosome segregation. Whereas mitotic kinases have been implicated in NEBD, how they coordinate their activity to trigger this event is unclear. Here, we show that both in human cells and Caenorhabditis elegans, the Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) is recruited to the nuclear pore complexes, just prior to NEBD, through its Polo-box domain (PBD). We provide evidence that PLK-1 localization to the nuclear envelope (NE) is required for efficient NEBD...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065306/mitotic-disassembly-of-nuclear-pore-complexes-involves-cdk1-and-plk1-mediated-phosphorylation-of-key-interconnecting-nucleoporins
#16
Monika I Linder, Mario Köhler, Paul Boersema, Marion Weberruss, Cornelia Wandke, Joseph Marino, Caroline Ashiono, Paola Picotti, Wolfram Antonin, Ulrike Kutay
During interphase, the nuclear envelope (NE) serves as a selective barrier between cytosol and nucleoplasm. When vertebrate cells enter mitosis, the NE is dismantled in the process of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). Disassembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is a key aspect of NEBD, required for NE permeabilization and formation of a cytoplasmic mitotic spindle. Here, we show that both CDK1 and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) support mitotic NPC disintegration by hyperphosphorylation of Nup98, the gatekeeper nucleoporin, and Nup53, a central nucleoporin linking the inner NPC scaffold to the pore membrane...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065301/the-plk1-piece-of-the-nuclear-envelope-disassembly-puzzle
#17
T Renee Dawson, Susan R Wente
Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Linder et al. (2017) and Martino et al. (2017) reveal in highly complementary studies that Plk1 is recruited to the nuclear pore complex upon mitotic entry, where it acts with Cdk1 to hyperphosphorylate nucleoporin interfaces to promote NPC disassembly and nuclear envelope breakdown.
October 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054961/cytoplasmic-transport-and-nuclear-import-of-plasmid-dna
#18
Haiqing Bai, Gillian M Schiralli Lester, Laura C Petishnok, David A Dean
Productive transfection and gene transfer requires not simply entry of DNA into cells and subsequent transcription from an appropriate promoter, but also a number of intracellular events that allow the DNA to move from the extracellular surface of the cell into and through the cytoplasm, and ultimately across the nuclear envelope and into the nucleus before any transcription can initiate. Immediately upon entry into the cytoplasm, naked DNA, either delivered through physical techniques or after disassembly of DNA-carrier complexes, associates with a large number of cellular proteins that mediate subsequent interactions with the microtubule network for movement towards the microtubule organizing center and the nuclear envelope...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053766/tor1a-variants-cause-a-severe-arthrogryposis-with-developmental-delay-strabismus-and-tremor
#19
Ariana Kariminejad, Martin Dahl-Halvarsson, Gianina Ravenscroft, Fariba Afroozan, Elham Keshavarz, Hayley Goullée, Mark R Davis, Mehrshid Faraji Zonooz, Hossein Najmabadi, Nigel G Laing, Homa Tajsharghi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050259/characterization-of-the-subcellular-localization-of-epstein-barr-virus-encoded-proteins-in-live-cells
#20
Mingsheng Cai, Zongmin Liao, Tao Chen, Ping Wang, Xingmei Zou, Yuanfang Wang, Zuo Xu, Si Jiang, Jinlu Huang, Daixiong Chen, Tao Peng, Gengde Hong, Meili Li
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the pathogenic factor of numerous human tumors, yet certain of its encoded proteins have not been studied. As a first step for functional identification, we presented the construction of a library of expression constructs for most of the EBV encoded proteins and an explicit subcellular localization map of 81 proteins encoded by EBV in mammalian cells. Viral open reading frames were fused with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) tag in eukaryotic expression plasmid then expressed in COS-7 live cells, and protein localizations were observed by fluorescence microscopy...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
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