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Human immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110210/il-12-and-il-23-modulate-plasticity-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-human-leprosy
#1
Mohd Tarique, Chaman Saini, Raza Ali Naqvi, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma, D N Rao
Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108942/compartmentalized-culture-of-perivascular-stroma-and-endothelial-cells-in-a-microfluidic-model-of-the-human-endometrium
#2
Juan S Gnecco, Virginia Pensabene, David J Li, Tianbing Ding, Elliot E Hui, Kaylon L Bruner-Tran, Kevin G Osteen
The endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus. Following specific cyclic hormonal stimulation, endometrial stromal fibroblasts (stroma) and vascular endothelial cells exhibit morphological and biochemical changes to support embryo implantation and regulate vascular function, respectively. Herein, we integrated a resin-based porous membrane in a dual chamber microfluidic device in polydimethylsiloxane that allows long term in vitro co-culture of human endometrial stromal and endothelial cells. This transparent, 2-μm porous membrane separates the two chambers, allows for the diffusion of small molecules and enables high resolution bright field and fluorescent imaging...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108746/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-can-be-efficiently-generated-from-human-hematopoietic-progenitors-and-peripheral-blood-monocytes
#3
Sílvia Casacuberta-Serra, Marta Parés, Arantxa Golbano, Elisabet Coves, Carmen Espejo, Jordi Barquinero
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an important role in controlling inflammation. As such, they are both a therapeutic target and, based on the administration of ex-vivo-generated MDSCs, a therapeutic tool. However, there are relatively few reports describing methods to generate human MDSCs, and most of them rely on cells obtained from peripheral blood monocytes. We investigated alternative approaches to the generation of MDSCs from hematopoietic progenitors and monocytes. Purified CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors from apheresis products and CD14(+) cells isolated from buffy coats were cultured in the presence of different combinations of cytokines...
January 21, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107746/induced-differentiation-of-human-gingival-fibroblasts-into-vsmc-like-cells
#4
Xuqian Liu, Jie Wang, Fusheng Dong, Hexiang Li, Yali Hou
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are major component of the vascular wall, and they play an essential role in maintaining the basic physiological function and stable structure of the vascular wall. In the present study, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were cultured and induced into VSMC-like cells in vitro to confirm that HGFs with properties of stem cells have the potential for differentiation. The epithelium isolated from patients was extracted from normal human gingiva consisting of epithelium and connective tissue...
January 17, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107457/novel-analysis-of-immune-cells-from-nasal-microbiopsy-demonstrates-reliable-reproducible-data-for-immune-populations-and-superior-cytokine-detection-compared-to-nasal-wash
#5
Simon P Jochems, Katherine Piddock, Jamie Rylance, Hugh Adler, Beatriz F Carniel, Andrea Collins, Jenna F Gritzfeld, Carole Hancock, Helen Hill, Jesus Reiné, Alexandra Seddon, Carla Solórzano, Syba Sunny, Ashleigh Trimble, Angela D Wright, Seher Zaidi, Stephen B Gordon, Daniela M Ferreira
The morbidity and mortality related to respiratory tract diseases is enormous, with hundreds of millions of individuals afflicted and four million people dying each year. Understanding the immunological processes in the mucosa that govern outcome following pathogenic encounter could lead to novel therapies. There is a need to study responses at mucosal surfaces in humans for two reasons: (i) Immunological findings in mice, or other animals, often fail to translate to humans. (ii) Compartmentalization of the immune system dictates a need to study sites where pathogens reside...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107430/discontinuation-from-antiretroviral-therapy-a-continuing-challenge-among-adults-in-hiv-care-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael Hajito, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Leila Mohammadi, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106745/recent-advances-in-phospholipids-from-colostrum-milk-and-dairy-by-products
#7
REVIEW
Vito Verardo, Ana Maria Gómez-Caravaca, David Arráez-Román, Kasper Hettinga
Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106268/innate-immune-defense-in-the-inner-ear-mucines-are-expressed-by-the-human-endolymphatic-sac
#8
Martin N Møller, Svend Kirkeby, Per Cayé-Thomasen
The human endolymphatic sac has been shown recently to have immunological capacities and has thus been proposed as the main entity protecting the inner ear from pathogen invasion, equivalent to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Although the sac expresses molecules of the innate immune system, the potential expression of members of the important mucin family has not been detailed. Thus, this paper explores endolymphatic sac expression of a number of mucins and mucin precursors. Twelve fresh tissue samples from the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during translabyrinthine surgery...
February 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103602/intraocular-cytokines-and-their-correlations-with-clinical-parameters-in-patients-with-myopic-choroidal-neovascularization
#9
Andrey G Shchuko, Natalia V Zaitseva, Tatyana N Yurieva, Elena R Chernykh, Isay M Mikhalevich, Ekaterina Y Shevela, Alina V Grigorieva
PURPOSE: To study cytokine levels in aqueous humor of patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV), their correlations with each other and ocular parameters. METHODS: Ophthalmological examination and immunological study of aqueous humor with cytokine levels measurement (Bio-Plex™ Human Cytokine 27-Plex panel; Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA) were performed in 19 patients (19 eyes) with ranibizumab-treated mCNV and compared to 15 patients (15 eyes) with myopia without CNV...
January 20, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100681/lfa-1-activation-in-nk-cells-and-their-subsets-influence-of-receptors-maturation-and-cytokine-stimulation
#10
Doris Urlaub, Kristine Höfer, Martha-Lena Müller, Carsten Watzl
The integrin LFA-1 is essential for efficient activation and for cytotoxicity of NK cells because it initiates the assembly of the immunological synapse and mediates firm adhesion to the target. LFA-1 is also needed to polarize the cytotoxic machinery of the NK cell toward the target cell. The binding affinity and avidity of integrins can be regulated via inside-out signals from other receptors. In this article, we investigate the signals necessary to activate LFA-1 in human NK cells. Our data show that LFA-1 has a low ligand-binding activity in resting human NK cells, but it can be stimulated by triggering activating receptors, such as 2B4 or CD16, or by coactivation of different receptor combinations...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099874/igm-lgg-and-il-6-profiles-in-the-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei-monkey-model-of-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#11
Maxwell W Waema, Naomi W Maina, Maina Ngotho, Simon M Karanja, Beatrice M Gachie, Dawn N Maranga, John M Kagira
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients manifest immunological profiles, whose variations over time can be used to indicate disease progression. However, monitoring of these biomarkers in human patients is beset by several limitations which can be offset by using chronic animal models. A recent improved monkey model of HAT using a Trypanosoma brucei brucei isolate has been developed but the immunological profile has not been elucidated. The objectives of the current study was to determine the IgM, IgG and IL-6 profiles in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in vervet monkeys infected with T...
January 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099447/genome-wide-immune-modulation-of-tlr3-mediated-inflammation-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-differs-between-single-and-multi-strain-probiotic-combination
#12
Chad W MacPherson, Padmaja Shastri, Olivier Mathieu, Thomas A Tompkins, Pierre Burguière
Genome-wide transcriptional analysis in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) can aid in elucidating the impact of single versus multi-strain probiotic combinations on immunological and cellular mechanisms of action. In this study we used human expression microarray chips in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model to investigate the impact of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 (Lh-R0052), Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 (Bl-R0033) and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (Bb-R0071) individually and in combination, and of a surface-layer protein (SLP) purified from Lh-R0052, on HT-29 cells' transcriptional profile to poly(I:C)-induced inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098886/novel-zinc-phthalocyanine-as-a-promising-photosensitizer-for-photodynamic-treatment-of-esophageal-cancer
#13
Weronika Kuzyniak, Jacob Schmidt, Wojciech Glac, Janine Berkholz, Gustav Steinemann, Björn Hoffmann, Eugeny A Ermilov, Ayşe Gül Gürek, Vefa Ahsen, Bianca Nitzsche, Michael Höpfner
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gathered much attention in the field of cancer treatment and is increasingly used as an alternative solution for esophageal cancer therapy. However, there is a constant need for improving the effectiveness and tolerability of the applied photosensitizers (PS). Here, we propose tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as a promising PS for photodynamic treatment of esophageal cancer. ZnPc-induced phototoxicity was studied in two human esophageal cancer cell lines: OE-33 (adenocarcinoma) and Kyse-140 (squamous cell carcinoma)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098247/c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-2-promotes-enterocyte-survival-and-goblet-cell-differentiation-in-the-inflamed-intestine
#14
A D Mandić, E Bennek, J Verdier, K Zhang, S Roubrocks, R J Davis, B Denecke, N Gassler, K Streetz, A Kel, M Hornef, F J Cubero, C Trautwein, G Sellge
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) contribute to immune signaling but their functional role during intestinal mucosal inflammation has remained ill defined. Using genetic mouse models, we characterized the role of JNK1 and JNK2 during homeostasis and acute colitis. Epithelial apoptosis, regeneration, differentiation, and barrier function were analyzed in intestinal epithelium-specific (ΔIEC) or complete JNK1 and bone marrow chimeric or complete JNK2 deficient mice as well as double-knockout animals (JNK1(ΔIEC)JNK2(-/-)) during homeostasis and acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
January 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098168/the-il-17a-rs2275913-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-is-associated-with-protection-to-tuberculosis-but-related-to-higher-disease-severity-in-argentina
#15
A Rolandelli, R E Hernández Del Pino, J M Pellegrini, N L Tateosian, N O Amiano, S de la Barrera, N Casco, M Gutiérrez, D J Palmero, V E García
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes nearly 10 millions of new tuberculosis disease cases annually. However, most individuals exposed to Mtb do not develop tuberculosis, suggesting the influence of a human genetic component. Here, we investigated the association of the rs2275913 SNP (G → A) from IL-17A and tuberculosis in Argentina by a case-control study. Furthermore, we evaluated in vitro the functional relevance of this SNP during the immune response of the host against Mtb and analyzed its impact on clinical parameters of the disease...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097472/proceedings-of-the-third-international-molecular-pathological-epidemiology-mpe-meeting
#16
REVIEW
Peter T Campbell, Timothy R Rebbeck, Reiko Nishihara, Andrew H Beck, Colin B Begg, Alexei A Bogdanov, Yin Cao, Helen G Coleman, Gordon J Freeman, Yujing J Heng, Curtis Huttenhower, Rafael A Irizarry, N Sertac Kip, Franziska Michor, Daniel Nevo, Ulrike Peters, Amanda I Phipps, Elizabeth M Poole, Zhi Rong Qian, John Quackenbush, Harlan Robins, Peter K Rogan, Martha L Slattery, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Mingyang Song, Tyler J VanderWeele, Daniel Xia, Emily C Zabor, Xuehong Zhang, Molin Wang, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is a transdisciplinary and relatively new scientific discipline that integrates theory, methods, and resources from epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. The underlying objective of MPE research is to better understand the etiology and progression of complex and heterogeneous human diseases with the goal of informing prevention and treatment efforts in population health and clinical medicine. Although MPE research has been commonly applied to investigating breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, its methodology can be used to study most diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096863/seroepidemiological-study-of-toxocariasis-in-the-owners-of-domestic-cats-and-dogs-in-mashhad-northeastern-iran
#17
Fariba Berenji, Ali Pouryousef, Abdolmajid Fata, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Maryam Salehi, Javad Khoshnegah
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is the clinical terms applied to infection of human with Ascarid nematodes in the order Ascaridida, named Toxocara canis and T. cati. Because in recent years in Iran many people desire to keep pets (cats and dogs), and lacking of seroepidemiological study of toxocariasis in Mashhad, we decided to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among people who own cats and dogs in comparison with control group. METHODS: A serological study for detection antibodies to Toxocara in two groups (93 cat and dog owners and 93 healthy people as control group) was conducted from Feb 2013 to Dec 2013...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096374/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-human-antibody-repertoire-reveals-quantitative-signatures-of-immune-senescence-and-aging
#18
Charles F A de Bourcy, Cesar J Lopez Angel, Christopher Vollmers, Cornelia L Dekker, Mark M Davis, Stephen R Quake
The elderly have reduced humoral immunity, as manifested by increased susceptibility to infections and impaired vaccine responses. To investigate the effects of aging on B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire evolution during an immunological challenge, we used a phylogenetic distance metric to analyze Ig heavy-chain transcript sequences in both young and elderly individuals before and after influenza vaccination. We determined that BCR repertoires become increasingly specialized over a span of decades, but less plastic...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096237/the-human-microbiome-and-cancer
#19
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Sanjay Vashee, Lauren M Oldfield, Yo Suzuki, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti, Karen E Nelson
Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their by-products including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, microbes may migrate to other locations in the human body and become associated with tumor development...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095616/using-xenopus-to-understand-human-disease-and-developmental-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Amy Sater, Sally A Moody
Model animals are crucial to biomedical research. Among the commonly used model animals, the amphibian, Xenopus, has had tremendous impact because of its unique experimental advantages, cost effectiveness, and close evolutionary relationship with mammals as a tetrapod. Over the past 50 years the use of Xenopus has made possible many fundamental contributions to biomedicine, and it is a cornerstone of research in cell biology, developmental biology, evolutionary biology, immunology, molecular biology, neurobiology, and physiology...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
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