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Human immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324170/microscopic-and-ultrastructural-evidences-in-human-skin-following-calcium-hydroxylapatite-filler-treatment
#1
Nicola Zerbinati, Edoardo D'Este, Pier Camillo Parodi, Alberto Calligaro
This study uses light and electron microscopes to gain a better knowledge of the interactions of calcium hydroxylapatite filler with the connective tissue of the skin and the modifications of the human deep dermis, after 2 months of treatment. Some morphological evidences of this observational study of filler treated tissue support-specific mechanism involved in the structural modifications of both filler microspherules and cells of the connective tissue. They demonstrate the absence of any immunological reaction and show that the used filler is modified very slowly over time by the action of cells of the connective tissue closely related to the filler without any activity of phagocytosis...
March 21, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320105/anti-fibrotic-potential-of-human-umbilical-cord-mononuclear-cells-and-mouse-bone-marrow-cells-in-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#2
Nageh Ahmed Elmahdy, Samia Salem Sokar, Mohamed Labib Salem, Naglaa Ibrahim Sarhan, Sherin Hamed Abou-Elela
Liver fibrosis is the consequence of hepatocyte injury that leads to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). The treatment of choice is Liver transplantation; however, it has many problems such as surgery-related complications, immunological rejection and high costs associated with the procedure. Stem cell-based therapy would be a potential alternative, so the aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (MNC) and mouse bone marrow cells (BMC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver fibrosis in mice and compare it with that of silymarin...
March 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319902/ultra-high-sensitivity-of-the-non-immunological-affinity-of-graphene-oxide-peptide-based-surface-plasmon-resonance-biosensors-to-detect-human-chorionic-gonadotropin
#3
Nan-Fu Chiu, Chia-Tzu Kuo, Ting-Li Lin, Chia-Chen Chang, Chen-Yu Chen
Specific peptide aptamers can be used in place of expensive antibody proteins, and they are gaining increasing importance as sensing probes due to their potential in the development of non-immunological assays with high sensitivity, affinity and specificity for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) protein. We combined graphene oxide (GO) sheets with a specific peptide aptamer to create a novel, simple and label-free tool to detect abnormalities at an early stage of pregnancy, a GO-peptide-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor...
March 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319446/good-laboratory-practice-preclinical-safety-studies-for-gsk2696273-mlv-vector-based-ex-vivo-gene-therapy-for-adenosine-deaminase-deficiency-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-in-nsg-mice
#4
Nicola Carriglio, Jan Klapwijk, Raisa Jofra Hernandez, Michela Vezzoli, Franck Chanut, Rhiannon Lowe, Draghici Elena, Melanie Nord, Paola Albertini, Patrizia Cristofori, Jane Richards, Hazel Staton, Jonathan Appleby, Alessandro Aiuti, Aisha V Sauer
GSK2696273 (autologous CD34+ cells transduced with retroviral vector that encodes for the human adenosine deaminase [ADA] enzyme) is a gamma-retroviral ex vivo gene therapy of bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells for the treatment of adenosine deaminase deficiency severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID). ADA-SCID is a severe monogenic disease characterized by immunologic and nonimmunologic symptoms. Bone-marrow transplant from a matched related donor is the treatment of choice, but it is available for only a small proportion of patients...
March 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319051/tissue-specific-exosome-biomarkers-for-noninvasively-monitoring-immunologic-rejection-of-transplanted-tissue
#5
Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Laxminarayana Korutla, Andreas Habertheuer, Ming Yu, Susan Rostami, Chao-Xing Yuan, Sanjana Reddy, Chengyang Liu, Varun Korutla, Brigitte Koeberlein, Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Michael R Rickels, Ali Naji
In transplantation, there is a critical need for noninvasive biomarker platforms for monitoring immunologic rejection. We hypothesized that transplanted tissues release donor-specific exosomes into recipient circulation and that the quantitation and profiling of donor intra-exosomal cargoes may constitute a biomarker platform for monitoring rejection. Here, we have tested this hypothesis in a human-into-mouse xenogeneic islet transplant model and validated the concept in clinical settings of islet and renal transplantation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319047/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutations-suppress-stat1-and-cd8-t-cell-accumulation-in-gliomas
#6
Gary Kohanbash, Diego A Carrera, Shruti Shrivastav, Brian J Ahn, Naznin Jahan, Tali Mazor, Zinal S Chheda, Kira M Downey, Payal B Watchmaker, Casey Beppler, Rolf Warta, Nduka A Amankulor, Christel Herold-Mende, Joseph F Costello, Hideho Okada
Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes IDH1 and IDH2 are among the first genetic alterations observed during the development of lower-grade glioma (LGG). LGG-associated IDH mutations confer gain-of-function activity by converting α-ketoglutarate to the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Clinical samples and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrate reduced expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated genes and IFN-γ-inducible chemokines, including CXCL10, in IDH-mutated (IDH-MUT) tumors compared with IDH-WT tumors...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317886/systems-pharmacology-based-strategy-to-screen-new-adjuvant-for-hepatitis-b-vaccine-from-traditional-chinese-medicine-ophiocordyceps-sinensis
#7
Jingbo Wang, Rui Liu, Baoxiu Liu, Yan Yang, Jun Xie, Naishuo Zhu
Adjuvants are common component for many vaccines but there are still few licensed for human use due to low efficiency or side effects. The present work adopted Systems Pharmacology analysis as a new strategy to screen adjuvants from traditional Chinese medicine. Ophiocordyceps sinensis has been used for many years in China and other Asian countries with many biological properties, but the pharmacological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. First in this study, 190 putative targets for 17 active compounds in Ophiocordyceps sinensis were retrieved and a systems pharmacology-based approach was applied to provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of the drug...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317209/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-expression-of-canine-regulatory-t-cell-markers
#8
Noemi Tarpataki, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Cezmi A Akdis, Beate Rückert, Marina L Meli, Nina M Fischer, Claude Favrot, Ana Rostaher
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells have been described as key regulators in various immunological processes and are of growing interest in veterinary allergy. Cryopreservation of immune cells is performed routinely in human basic science research and in clinical studies. As such, it allows batch testing of collected samples at a single time point, resulting in a significant reduction in sample variability. Data which describe the effects of cryopreservation on Treg cell frequency and functionality in the canine species are important to inform future research...
March 19, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315853/effects-of-extracts-and-compounds-from-tricholoma-populinum-lange-on-degranulation-and-il-2-il-8-secretion-of-immune-cells
#9
Simon Merdivan, Kristina Jenett-Siems, Karsten Siems, Timo H J Niedermeyer, Nadin Schultze, Carmen Steinborn, Carsten Gründemann, Ulrike Lindequist
Tricholoma populinum Lange is an edible basidiomycete from the family Tricholomataceae. Extracts, fractions, and different metabolites isolated from the fruiting bodies of this mushroom were tested for degranulation-inhibiting activities on RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophils). Dichloromethane extracts decreased degranulation significantly, as did a fraction after column chromatography. In addition, the extract decreased the IL-2 release from Jurkat T cells and the release of IL-8 from HMC-1 human mast cells. The results show the significant effects of extracts of T...
March 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315353/crystal-structure-of-the-extracellular-domain-of-the-human-dendritic-cell-surface-marker-cd83
#10
Christiane S Heilingloh, Stefan Klingl, Claudia Egerer-Sieber, Benedikt Schmid, Sigrid Weiler, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Jörg Hofmann, Joachim D Stump, Heinrich Sticht, Mirko Kummer, Alexander Steinkasserer, Yves A Muller
CD83 is a type-I membrane protein and an efficient marker for identifying mature dendritic cells. Whereas membrane-bound full-length CD83 co-stimulates the immune system, a soluble variant (sCD83), consisting of the extracellular domain, only, displays strong immune-suppressive activities. Besides a prediction that sCD83 adopts a V-set Ig-like fold, however, little is known about the molecular architecture of CD83 and the mechanism by which CD83 exerts is function on dendritic cells and additional immune cells...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315222/tetramer-guided-epitope-mapping-a-rapid-approach-to-identify-hla-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-from-composite-allergens
#11
Luis L Diego Archila, William W Kwok
Tetramer-guided epitope mapping (TGEM) is a technique in immunology that permits the rapid identification of allergenic epitopes through peptide screening procedures utilizing human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) class II tetramers as staining reagents for detection. The identification of allergenic epitopes is a prerequisite for the accurate characterization of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells without in vitro stimulation. Additionally, these MHC-II/peptide complexes that interact with T-cell receptors (TCR) of pathogenic CD4(+) T cells are compatible with a different number of assays like Intracelullar Cytokine Staining (ICS), and Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) making it a robust technology to study the functionality of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315060/results-of-a-phase-ib-trial-of-combination-immunotherapy-with-a-cd8-%C3%A2-t-cell-eliciting-vaccine-and-trastuzumab-in-breast-cancer-patients
#12
G Travis Clifton, Jennifer K Litton, Karen Arrington, Sathibalan Ponniah, Nuhad K Ibrahim, Victor Gall, Gheath Alatrash, George E Peoples, Elizabeth A Mittendorf
BACKGROUND: CD8+ T cell-eliciting vaccines are being investigated in breast cancer patients. Preclinical data showed that trastuzumab increases the susceptibility of tumor cells to lysis by vaccine-generated CD8+ T cells, suggesting potential benefit of a combination immunotherapy strategy. The current trial was undertaken to demonstrate the safety of this approach. METHODS: This study was designed as a dose-escalation trial enrolling clinically disease-free, human leukocyte antigen A2+ or A3+ , human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306573/redefining-progressive-encephalomyelitis-with-rigidity-and-myoclonus-after-the-discovery-of-antibodies-to-glycine-receptors
#13
Sarah J Crisp, Bettina Balint, Angela Vincent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the recent discovery of antibodies to glycine receptor (GlyR-Ab) and discusses the relationship between these antibodies and neurological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the initial description in 2008 of antibodies to glycine receptors (GlyR-Abs) in a patient with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), these antibodies have been found in PERM and in some patients with a variety of stiff person spectrum (SPS) or related disorders...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303960/the-immune-correlates-of-protection-for-an-avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccine-in-the-ferret-model-using-oil-in-water-adjuvants
#14
Sook-San Wong, Susu Duan, Jennifer DeBeauchamp, Mark Zanin, Lisa Kercher, Stephanie Sonnberg, Thomas Fabrizio, Trushar Jeevan, Jeri-Carol Crumpton, Christine Oshansky, Yilun Sun, Li Tang, Paul Thomas, Richard Webby
Because of the pathogenicity and low incidence of avian influenza virus infections in humans, the immune correlates of protection for avian influenza vaccines cannot be determined from clinical studies. Here, we used the ferret model to address this for an avian influenza H5N1 vaccine. Using oil-in-water adjuvants, we generated groups of ferrets with undetectable (geometric mean titer [GMT] < 10), low (GMT = 28.3), or high (GMT > 761.1) hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titers to the A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303902/ms4a4a-a-novel-cell-surface-marker-for-m2-macrophages-and-plasma-cells
#15
Ratna Sanyal, Maria J Polyak, Jonathan Zuccolo, Mandip Puri, Lili Deng, Luc Roberts, Ania Zuba, Jan Storek, Joanne M Luider, Ellen M Sundberg, Adnan Mansoor, Eva Baigorri, Michael P Chu, Andrew R Belch, Linda M Pilarski, Julie P Deans
MS4A4A is a member of the membrane-spanning, 4 domain family, subfamily A (MS4A) that includes CD20 (MS4A1), FcRβ (MS4A2) and Htm4 (MS4A3). Like the first three members of this family, transcription of MS4A4A appears to be limited to hematopoietic cells. To evaluate expression of the MS4A4A protein in hematopoietic cell lineages and subsets we generated monoclonal antibodies against extracellular epitopes for use in flow cytometry. In human peripheral blood we found that MS4A4A is expressed at the plasma membrane in monocytes but not in granulocytes or lymphocytes...
March 17, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303661/immunological-and-physiological-observations-in-baboons-with-life-supporting-genetically-engineered-pig-kidney-grafts
#16
Hayato Iwase, Hidetaka Hara, Mohamed Ezzelarab, Tao Li, Zhongqiang Zhang, Bingsi Gao, Hong Liu, Cassandra Long, Yi Wang, Amy Cassano, Edwin Klein, Carol Phelps, David Ayares, Abhinav Humar, Martin Wijkstrom, David K C Cooper
BACKGROUND: Genetically engineered pigs could provide a source of kidneys for clinical transplantation. The two longest kidney graft survivals reported to date have been 136 and 310 days, but graft survival >30 days has been unusual until recently. METHODS: Donor pigs (n=4) were on an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO)/human complement regulatory protein (CD46) background (GTKO/CD46). In addition, the pigs were transgenic for at least one human coagulation regulatory protein...
March 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303138/importance-of-salmonella-typhi-responsive-cd8-t-cell-immunity-in-a-human-typhoid-fever-challenge-model
#17
Stephanie Fresnay, Monica A McArthur, Laurence S Magder, Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Claire S Waddington, Christoph J Blohmke, Brian Angus, Myron M Levine, Andrew J Pollard, Marcelo B Sztein
Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), constitutes a major global health problem. The development of improved attenuated vaccines is pressing, but delayed by the lack of appropriate preclinical models. Herein, we report that high levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T cells at baseline significantly correlate with an increased risk of disease in humans challenged with a high dose (~10(4) CFU) wild-type S. Typhi. Typhoid fever development was associated with higher multifunctional S...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301822/elevated-lead-levels-and-changes-in-blood-morphology-and-erythrocyte-cr1-in-preschool-children-from-an-e-waste-area
#18
Yifeng Dai, Xia Huo, Yu Zhang, Tian Yang, Minghui Li, Xijin Xu
Improper dismantling and combustion of electronic waste (e-waste) may release persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals that possess potential risk for human health. Lead (Pb) is carried through the circulatory system by erythrocytes and is known to alter the functions of hematopoietic and immune systems. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on blood morphology and erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1) levels as related to immunologic function in preschool children. We recruited 484 preschool children, 2- to 6-years of age, among whom 332 children were from Guiyu, a typical and primitive e-waste processing area, and 152 children from Haojiang (reference area)...
March 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301273/a-cross-sectional-study-of-changes-in-markers-of-immunological-effects-and-lung-health-due-to-exposure-to-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#19
Jelle Vlaanderen, Anjoeka Pronk, Nathaniel Rothman, Allan Hildesheim, Debra Silverman, H Dean Hosgood, Suzanne Spaan, Eelco Kuijpers, Lode Godderis, Peter Hoet, Qing Lan, Roel Vermeulen
Background Multi Wall Carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are manufactured nanomaterials to which workers and the general population will be increasingly exposed in coming years. Little is known about potential human health effects of exposure to MWCNTs, but effects on the lung and the immune system have been reported in animal and mechanistic studies. Objectives We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the association between occupational exposure to MWCNTs and effects on lung health and the immune system. Methods We assessed fifty-one immune markers and three pneumoproteins in serum, complete blood cell counts (CBC), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), and lung function among twenty-two workers of a MWCNT producing facility and thirty-nine age- and gender-matched, unexposed controls...
March 16, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297082/blood-product-utilization-in-human-upper-extremity-transplantation-challenges-complications-considerations-and-transfusion-protocol-conception
#20
Jay S Raval, Vijay S Gorantla, Jaimie T Shores, W P Andrew Lee, Raymond M Planinsic, Marian A Rollins-Raval, Gerald Brandacher, Karen E King, Joseph E Losee, Joseph E Kiss
BACKGROUND: Upper-extremity transplantation (UET) is a reality. Immunologic, functional, and graft survival outcomes have been encouraging. However, these complex reconstructions have unique considerations that pose distinct challenges. Transplant programs have reported morbidity and mortality due to significant intraoperative blood losses, but similar data are scant during other phases of recovery. We report experience from two centers on complete blood component demands and utilization with UET...
March 2017: Transfusion
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