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Human immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331323/regulation-of-inflammatory-factors-by-double-stranded-rna-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells
#1
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331021/onset-progression-and-resolution-of-experimental-peri-implant-mucositis-at-different-abutment-surfaces-a-randomized-controlled-two-center-study
#2
F Schwarz, J Becker, C Sara, D Hazar, T Iglhaut, G Iglhaut
OBJECTIVES: To assess the onset, progression and resolution of experimentally induced peri-implant mucositis lesions at abutments with different microstructures in humans. MATERIAL & METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, interventional two-center study, a total of 28 patients had received 28 target implants and were randomly allocated to either partially microgrooved- (test) or machined (control) healing abutments. The study was accomplished in 3 phases, including a wound healing period (WH) following implant placement (12 weeks), a plaque exposure phase (EP - 21 days) and a resolution phase (RP - 16 weeks)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330750/immunologic-and-gene-expression-profiles-of-spontaneous-canine-oligodendrogliomas
#3
Anna Filley, Mario Henriquez, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Brij Nath Tewari, Xi Rao, Jun Wan, Margaret A Miller, Yunlong Liu, R Timothy Bentley, Mahua Dey
Malignant glioma (MG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is extremely aggressive and uniformly fatal. Several treatment strategies have shown significant preclinical promise in murine models of glioma; however, none have produced meaningful clinical responses in human patients. We hypothesize that introduction of an additional preclinical animal model better approximating the complexity of human MG, particularly in interactions with host immune responses, will bridge the existing gap between these two stages of testing...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328787/immune-responses-to-retroviruses
#4
Asier Saez-Cirion, Nicolas Manel
Retroviruses are genome invaders that have shared a long history of coevolution with vertebrates and their immune system. Found endogenously in genomes as traces of past invasions, retroviruses are also considerable threats to human health when they exist as exogenous viruses such as HIV. The immune response to retroviruses is engaged by germline-encoded sensors of innate immunity that recognize viral components and damage induced by the infection. This response develops with the induction of antiviral effectors and launching of the clonal adaptive immune response, which can contribute to protective immunity...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327280/comparison-of-the-ding-protein-from-the-archaeon-sulfolobus-solfataricus-with-human-phosphate-binding-protein-and-pseudomonas-fluorescence-ding-counterparts
#5
Elena Porzio, Anna De Maio, Teresa Ricciardi, Carmela Mistretta, Giuseppe Manco, Maria Rosaria Faraone-Mennella
DING proteins represent a new group of 40 kDa-related members, ubiquitous in living organisms. The family also include the DING protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus, functionally related to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Here, the archaeal protein has been compared with the human Phosphate-Binding Protein and the Pseudomonas fluorescence DING enzyme, by enzyme assays and immune cross-reactivity. Surprisingly, as the Sulfolobus enzyme, the Human and Pseudomonas proteins display poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, whereas a phosphatase activity was only present in Sulfolobus and human protein, despite the conserved phosphate-binding site residues in Pseudomonas DING...
January 11, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327244/antibody-based-delivery-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-l19-tnf%C3%AE-and-interleukin-2-l19-il2-to-tumor-associated-blood-vessels-has-potent-immunological-and-anticancer-activity-in-the-syngeneic-j558l-balb-c-myeloma-model
#6
Hans D Menssen, Ulf Harnack, Ulrike Erben, Dario Neri, Burkhard Hirsch, Horst Dürkop
PURPOSE: To analyze the impact of TNFα or IL2 on human lymphocytes in vitro and the anti-tumor and immune-modifying effects of L19-IL2 and L19-TNFα on subcutaneously growing J558L myeloma in immunocompetent mice. METHODS: PBMCs from three healthy volunteers were incubated with IL2, TNFα, or with IL2 plus addition of TNFα (final 20 h). BALB/c J558L mice with subcutaneous tumors were treated with intravenous L19-TNFα plus L19-IL2, or controls. Tumor growth and intra- and peri-tumoral tissues were analyzed for micro-vessel density, necrosis, immune cell composition, and PD1 or PD-L1 expressing cells...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326851/recent-advancements-in-gene-therapy-for-hereditary-retinal-dystrophies
#7
REVIEW
Ayşe Öner
Hereditary retinal dystrophies (HRDs) are degenerative diseases of the retina which have marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Common presentations among these disorders include night or colour blindness, tunnel vision, and subsequent progression to complete blindness. The known causative disease genes have a variety of developmental and functional roles, with mutations in more than 120 genes shown to be responsible for the phenotypes. In addition, mutations within the same gene have been shown to cause different disease phenotypes, even amongst affected individuals within the same family, highlighting further levels of complexity...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324815/biophysical-insights-from-a-single-chain-camelid-antibody-directed-against-the-disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1-protein
#8
Antony S K Yerabham, Andreas Müller-Schiffmann, Tamar Ziehm, Andreas Stadler, Sabrina Köber, Xela Indurkhya, Rita Marreiros, Svenja V Trossbach, Nicholas J Bradshaw, Ingrid Prikulis, Dieter Willbold, Oliver H Weiergräber, Carsten Korth
Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for the Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein in neurodevelopment and chronic mental illness. In particular, the C-terminal 300 amino acids of DISC1 have been found to mediate important protein-protein interactions and to harbor functionally important phosphorylation sites and disease-associated polymorphisms. However, long disordered regions and oligomer-forming subdomains have so far impeded structural analysis. VHH domains derived from camelid heavy chain only antibodies are minimal antigen binding modules with appreciable solubility and stability, which makes them well suited for the stabilizing proteins prior to structural investigation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324233/bcg-vaccination-protects-against-experimental-viral-infection-in-humans-through-the-induction-of-cytokines-associated-with-trained-immunity
#9
Rob J W Arts, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Boris Novakovic, Yang Li, Shuang-Yin Wang, Marije Oosting, Vinod Kumar, Ramnik J Xavier, Cisca Wijmenga, Leo A B Joosten, Chantal B E M Reusken, Christine S Benn, Peter Aaby, Marion P Koopmans, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain. Epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied by functional changes indicative of trained immunity...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324175/radiation-and-age-associated-changes-in-peripheral-blood-dendritic-cell-populations-among-aging-atomic-bomb-survivors-in-japan
#10
Junko Kajimura, Heather E Lynch, Susan Geyer, Benjamin French, Mika Yamaoka, Ivo D Shterev, Gregory D Sempowski, Seishi Kyoizumi, Kengo Yoshida, Munechika Misumi, Waka Ohishi, Tomonori Hayashi, Kei Nakachi, Yoichiro Kusunoki
Previous immunological studies in atomic bomb survivors have suggested that radiation exposure leads to long-lasting changes, similar to immunological aging observed in T-cell-adaptive immunity. However, to our knowledge, late effects of radiation on dendritic cells (DCs), the key coordinators for activation and differentiation of T cells, have not yet been investigated in humans. In the current study, we hypothesized that numerical and functional decreases would be observed in relationship to radiation dose in circulating conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) among 229 Japanese A-bomb survivors...
January 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323725/serum-igg-antibodies-from-healthy-subjects-up-to-100-years-old-react-to-jc-polyomavirus
#11
Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Silvia Pietrobon, Marco Manfredini, Elena Trregiani, Marika Rossini, Francesca Lotito, Giovanni Guerra, Paola Rizzo, Fernanda Martini, Mauro Tognon
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was identified in 1971 in the brain tissue of a patient (J.C.) affected by the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes for the oncoproteins large T antigen (Tag) and small t-antigen (tag). These oncoproteins are responsible of the cell transformation and tumorigenesis in experimental animals. JCPyV is ubiquitous in human populations. After the primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic, JCPyV remains lifelong in the host in a latent phase. Its reactivation may occur in heathy subjects and immunocompromised patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323137/issues-with-the-specificity-of-immunological-reagents-for-nlrp3-implications-for-age-related-macular-degeneration
#12
Cassandra Kosmidou, Nikolaos E Efstathiou, Mien V Hoang, Shoji Notomi, Eleni K Konstantinou, Masayuki Hirano, Kosuke Takahashi, Daniel E Maidana, Pavlina Tsoka, Lucy Young, Evangelos S Gragoudas, Timothy W Olsen, Yuki Morizane, Joan W Miller, Demetrios G Vavvas
Contradictory data have been presented regarding the implication of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the Western world. Recognizing that antibody specificity may explain this discrepancy and in line with recent National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines requiring authentication of key biological resources, the specificity of anti-NLRP3 antibodies was assessed to elucidate whether non-immune RPE cells express NLRP3...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322922/analysis-of-viral-diversity-for-vaccine-target-discovery
#13
Asif M Khan, Yongli Hu, Olivo Miotto, Natascha M Thevasagayam, Rashmi Sukumaran, Hadia Syahirah Abd Raman, Vladimir Brusic, Tin Wee Tan, J Thomas August
BACKGROUND: Viral vaccine target discovery requires understanding the diversity of both the virus and the human immune system. The readily available and rapidly growing pool of viral sequence data in the public domain enable the identification and characterization of immune targets relevant to adaptive immunity. A systematic bioinformatics approach is necessary to facilitate the analysis of such large datasets for selection of potential candidate vaccine targets. RESULTS: This work describes a computational methodology to achieve this analysis, with data of dengue, West Nile, hepatitis A, HIV-1, and influenza A viruses as examples...
December 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322412/in-vivo-models-for-inflammatory-arthritis
#14
Gareth W Jones, David G Hill, Katie Sime, Anwen S Williams
In vivo mouse models of inflammatory arthritis are extensively used to investigate pathogenic mechanisms governing inflammation-driven joint damage. Two commonly utilized models include collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). These offer unique advantages for modeling different aspects of human disease. CIA involves breach of immunological tolerance resulting in systemic autoantibody-driven arthritis, while AIA results in local resolving inflammatory flares and articular T cell-mediated damage...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322410/citrobacter-rodentium-infection-model-for-the-analysis-of-bacterial-pathogenesis-and-mucosal-immunology
#15
Catherine L Kennedy, Elizabeth L Hartland
Citrobacter rodentium is a mouse restricted pathogen that was originally isolated from laboratory mouse colonies and causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia, characterized by thickening of the colon and inflammation. As a natural pathogen of mice, the infection model has proven critical to the development of our understanding of the pathogenesis of enteric disease and the mucosal immune response. In addition to this, some features of disease such as dysbiosis, inflammation, and wound healing replicate features of human inflammatory bowel diseases...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321308/sustained-specific-and-cross-reactive-t-cell-responses-to-zika-and-dengue-viruses-ns3-in-west-africa
#16
Bobby Brooke Herrera, Wen-Yang Tsai, Charlotte A Chang, Donald J Hamel, Wei-Kung Wang, Yichen Lu, Souleymane Mboup, Phyllis J Kanki
Recent studies on the role of T cells in Zika virus (ZIKV) infection have shown that T cell responses to Asian ZIKV infection are important for protection, and that previous Dengue virus (DENV) exposure amplifies the protective T cell response to Asian ZIKV. Human T cell responses to African ZIKV infection, however, remain unexplored. Here, we utilized the modified anthrax toxin delivery system to develop a flavivirus ELISPOT. Using human ZIKV and DENV samples from Senegal, West Africa, our results demonstrate specific and cross-reactive T cell responses to nonstructural protein 3 (NS3)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320731/durable-interactions-of-t-cells-with-t-cell-receptor-stimuli-in-the-absence-of-a-stable-immunological-synapse
#17
Viveka Mayya, Edward Judokusumo, Enas Abu Shah, Christopher G Peel, Willie Neiswanger, David Depoil, David A Blair, Chris H Wiggins, Lance C Kam, Michael L Dustin
T cells engage in two modes of interaction with antigen-presenting surfaces: stable synapses and motile kinapses. Although it is surmised that durable interactions of T cells with antigen-presenting cells involve synapses, in situ 3D imaging cannot resolve the mode of interaction. We have established in vitro 2D platforms and quantitative metrics to determine cell-intrinsic modes of interaction when T cells are faced with spatially continuous or restricted stimulation. All major resting human T cell subsets, except memory CD8 T cells, spend more time in the kinapse mode on continuous stimulatory surfaces...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319511/study-of-patterns-and-markers-of-human-immune-deficiency-virus-1-hiv-1-progression-and-unemployment-rate-among-patients-from-alexandria-egypt
#18
Faika M Ghoneim, May M Raouf, Noha S Elshaer, Sarah M Abdelhamid, Reem A Noor Eldeen
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) new HIV cases show the highest increase among all regions in the world. Even though Egypt has a low prevalence among the general population (< 0.02%), a national HIV epidemic occurs in certain population risk groups. The current study was conducted to asses clinical and immunological disease progression; following up viral load (VL) and detecting delta-32 CCR5 genotype polymorphism in selected cases, determining unemployment rate and identify predictors of employment for HIV-cases...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317357/novel-identified-aluminum-hydroxide-induced-pathways-proof-monocyte-activation-and-pro-inflammatory-preparedness
#19
Sietske Kooijman, Jolanda Brummelman, Cécile A C M van Els, Fabio Marino, Albert J R Heck, Geert P M Mommen, Bernard Metz, Gideon F A Kersten, Jeroen L A Pennings, Hugo D Meiring
Aluminum-based adjuvants are the most widely used adjuvants in human vaccines. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of action of aluminum adjuvants at the molecular level, however, is still elusive. Here, we unravel the effects of aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 by a systems-wide analysis of the Al(OH)3-induced monocyte response. Cell response analysis by cytokine release was combined with (targeted) transcriptome and full proteome analysis. Results from this comprehensive study revealed two novel pathways to become activated upon monocyte stimulation with Al(OH)3: the first pathway was IFNβ signaling possibly induced by DAMP sensing pathways like TLR or NOD1 activation, and second the HLA class I antigen processing and presentation pathway...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315421/development-of-a-new-comprehensive-and-reliable-endometrial-receptivity-map-er-map-er-grade-based-on-rt-qpcr-gene-expression-analysis
#20
M Enciso, J P Carrascosa, J Sarasa, P A Martínez-Ortiz, S Munné, J A Horcajadas, J Aizpurua
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to determine the receptivity status of an endometrium by combined quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) expression analysis of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and immunity? SUMMARY ANSWER: The new ER Map®/ER Grade® test can predict endometrial receptivity status by RT-qPCR using a new panel of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and the maternal immune response associated to embryonic implantation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The human endometrium reaches a receptive status adequate for embryonic implantation around Days 19-21 of the menstrual cycle...
January 5, 2018: Human Reproduction
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