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Bone Demineralization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310783/isolation-production-and-analysis-of-small-leucine-rich-proteoglycans-in-bone
#1
David J Kirby, Marian F Young
Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are a unique class of proteins that exist in the extracellular matrix, playing key roles in cell proliferation and function. In bone, SLRPs such as biglycan and decorin affect osteogenesis and bone remodeling. Their essential role in this organ system has created the need to isolate these proteins for study. Bone presents unique obstacles to the study of proteins; however, through the use of demineralizing agents, efficient methods of the purification of proteoglycans have been developed...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303859/three-dimensional-radiological-assessment-of-alveolar-bone-volume-preservation-using-bovine-bone-xenograft
#2
Ali Al Qabbani, Sausan Al Kawas, Noor Hayati A Razak, Saad Wahby Al Bayatti, Hamid Hammad Enezei, A Rani Samsudin, Suzina Sheikh Ab Hamid
INTRODUCTION: Alveolar bone is critical in supporting natural teeth, dental implants as well as a removable and fixed prosthesis. Alveolar bone volume diminishes when its associated natural tooth is lost. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of bovine bone granules on alveolar bone socket augmentation for ridge preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty medically fit patients (12 males and 8 females aged between 18 and 40 years) who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of 1 mandibular premolar tooth were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291465/deformation-regimes-of-collagen-fibrils-in-cortical-bone-revealed-by-in-situ-morphology-and-elastic-modulus-observations-under-mechanical-loading
#3
Peng-Fei Yang, Xiao-Tong Nie, Dong-Dong Zhao, Zhe Wang, Li Ren, Hui-Yun Xu, Joern Rittweger, Peng Shang
The mechanical properties of the bone play a decisive role in the resistance of the bone to fracture. Clinically, the quantity of the bone in the mineral phase has been considered as the gold-standard indicator for the risk of bone fracture. However, the bone is a complex tissue with a hierarchical-structure consisting of organic matrix, mineral hydroxyapatite, and water. Collagen comprises up to 90% of the organic matrix in the bone, and is vital for its mechanical behavior. To date, the morphological and mechanical responses of collagen fibrils in the bone matrix have been largely overlooked...
December 16, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284556/ultrasound-characterization-of-bone-demineralization-using-a-support-vector-machine
#4
Max Denis, Leighton Wan, Mostafa Fatemi, Azra Alizad
We propose an ultrasound-guided remote measurement technique, utilizing an acoustic radiation force beam as our excitation source and a receiving hydrophone, to assess non-invasively a bone's mechanical properties. Features, such as velocity, were extracted from the acoustic pressure received from the bone surface. The typical velocity of an intact bone (3540 m/s) was higher in comparison to that of a demineralized bone (2231 m/s). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal velocity cutoff value of ≥3096 m/s yields 80% sensitivity and 82...
December 25, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274638/bone-regeneration-using-composite-non-demineralized-xenogenic-dentin-with-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-in-experimental-alveolar-cleft-repair-in-a-rabbit-model
#5
Mohammad Kamal, Lars Andersson, Rene Tolba, Adel Al-Asfour, Alexander K Bartella, Felix Gremse, Stefanie Rosenhain, Frank Hölzle, Peter Kessler, Bernd Lethaus
BACKGROUND: Alveolar cleft repair is performed via bone grafting procedure to restore the dental arch continuity. A suitable bone substitute materials should possess osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties, to promote new bone formation, along with a slowly resorbable scaffold that is subsequently replaced with functionally viable bone. Calcium phosphate biomaterials have long proved their efficacy as bone replacement materials. Dentin in several forms has also demonstrated its possibility to be used as bone graft replacement material in several studies...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273531/cns-aspergilloma-mimicking-tumors-review-of-cns-aspergillus-infection-imaging-characteristics-in-the-immunocompetent-population
#6
Devendra Kumar, Pankaj Nepal, Sumit Singh, Subraminayan Ramanathan, Maneesh Khanna, Rakesh Sheoran, S K Bansal, Santosh Patil
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CNS Aspergillosis is very rare and difficult to diagnose clinically and on imaging. Our objective was to elucidate distinct neuroimaging pattern of CNS aspergillosis in the immunocompetent population that helps to differentiate from other differential diagnosis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of brain imaging findings was performed in eight proven cases of central nervous system aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients. Immunocompetent status was screened with clinical and radiological information...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238578/bone-eating-kidney-disease
#7
Abhilash Koratala, Muhannad Leghrouz, Amir Kazory
In the current era of early detection of chronic kidney disease and efficient therapeutic options for management of its complications, skeletal manifestations of renal hyperparathyroidism are increasingly rare. A 31-year-old female patient presented for evaluation of severe pain in the left forearm, right hand, right knee, right hip, and lower back following a fall sustained 3 days prior to presentation. She had a history of end-stage renal disease and received maintenance hemodialysis. Review of the medical records revealed that she had poor compliance with her diet, medications, and dialysis treatments...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235096/effects-of-skeletal-element-identity-delipidation-and-demineralization-on-the-analysis-of-stable-isotope-ratios-of-c-and-n-in-fish-bone
#8
M Bas, L Cardona
Stable isotope ratios of C and N in the bone tissue of three different skeletal elements (angular, cleithrum and vertebra) of three fish species from different evolutionary lineages (Clupeiformes, Atheriniformes and Notothenioidei) were determined before (δ13 Cbulk and δ15 Nbulk ) and after demineralization and delipidation (δ13 Cdml and δ15 Ndml ). One of the species had cellular bone and the other two had acellular bone. Results revealed that δ15 N and δ13 C values from different skeletal elements were interchangeable in species with acellular bone, but caution was needed in species with cellular bone, as δ15 N values varied among skeletal elements...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204672/bone-loss-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-basic-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#9
REVIEW
Jae-Hyuck Shim, Zheni Stavre, Ellen M Gravallese
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have historically developed progressive damage of articular bone and cartilage, which correlates with disability over time. In addition, these patients are prone to periarticular and systemic bone loss, carrying additional morbidity. In contrast to what is seen in many other rheumatic diseases, the impact of inflammation on bone in RA is uniquely destructive. Loss of articular bone (erosions) and periarticular bone (demineralization) is a result of excessive bone resorption and markedly limited bone formation...
December 4, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203430/optimization-of-perioperative-management-of-proximal-femoral-fracture-in-the-elderly
#10
REVIEW
P Merloz
Proximal femoral fracture in elderly subjects is a major event that is life-threatening in the medium-to-long term. Advanced age, male gender and number of comorbidities largely account for high mortality and require geriatric expertise. Protein-energy malnutrition and bone demineralization increase mortality. Mortality can, on the other hand, be reduced by acting on two variables accessible to medical intervention: daily activities and nutritional status. Functional and neurocognitive assessment allow the risk of dependency to be evaluated, and global geriatric work-up can prevent sudden breakdown of homeostasis...
December 1, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196819/an-effective-delivery-vehicle-of-demineralized-bone-matrix-incorporated-with-engineered-collagen-binding-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-to-accelerate-spinal-fusion-at-low-dose
#11
Weiguo Zhu, Yong Qiu, Fei Sheng, Xinxin Yuan, Leilei Xu, Hongda Bao, Jianwu Dai, Zezhang Zhu
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of a new delivery matrix using demineralized bone matrix (DBM) incorporated with collagen-binding bone morphogenetic protein-2 (CBD-BMP-2) in the rat inter-transverse spinal fusion model. Sixty rats undergoing posterolateral (inter-transverse) spinal fusion were divided into 3 groups according to the fusion materials containing different components (n = 20 per group). Group A were implanted with DBM, Group B with combination of DBM and BMP-2 and Group C with combination of DBM and CBD-BMP-2...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187034/growth-restriction-osteopenia-placental-massive-perivillous-fibrin-deposition-with-or-without-intervillous-histiocytes-and-renal-tubular-dysgenesis-an-emerging-complex
#12
Sahar Abdulghani, Felipe Moretti, Peter Gj Nikkels, Suonavy Khung-Savatovsky, Julie Hurteau-Miller, David Grynspan
We describe a case of a pregnancy complicated by early onset asymmetric growth restriction with anhydramnios with termination occurring at 21 weeks. Fetal autopsy showed demineralization of bones and renal tubular dysgenesis. Placental pathology showed features of massive perivillous fibrin deposition and chronic histiocytic intervillositis. We review prior documentation of this association and briefly discuss potential pathogenesis.
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177907/recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-rhbmp-2-with-additional-protein-domain-synthesized-in-e-coli-in-vivo-osteoinductivity-in-experimental-models-on-small-and-large-laboratory-animals
#13
M S Bartov, A V Gromov, V N Manskih, E B Makarova, A P Rubshtein, M S Poponova, D M Savina, K S Savin, K E Nikitin, T M Grunina, I S Boksha, P A Orlova, M S Krivozubov, M E Subbotina, V G Lunin, A S Karyagina, A L Gintsburg
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with an additional s-tag domain (s-tag-BMP-2) synthesized in E. coli is characterized by higher solubility and activity than the protein without additional s-tag domain, which increases the yield during purification and simplifies protein introduction into the osteoplastic materials. The high osteoinductivity of the demineralized bone matrix with s-tag-BMP-2 was shown on the model of regeneration of cranial defects of a critical size in mice and on the model of implantation of porous titanium matrix into defects of femoral and tibial bones in rabbits...
November 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174931/group%C3%A2-1-epidemiology-of-primary-and-secondary-adrenal-insufficiency-prevalence-and-incidence-acute-adrenal-insufficiency-long-term-morbidity-and-mortality
#14
Olivier Chabre, Bernard Goichot, Delphine Zenaty, Jérôme Bertherat
The prevalence of primary adrenal insufficiency is estimated at between 82-144/million, with auto-immunity being the most common cause in adults and genetic causes, especially enzyme defects, being the most common cause in children. The prevalence of secondary adrenal deficiency is estimated to be between 150-280/million. The most frequent occurrence is believed to be corticosteroid-induced insufficiency, despite the incidence of clinically relevant deficiency after cessation of glucocorticoid treatment being widely debated...
November 23, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171967/surface-characteristics-of-three-commercially-available-grafts-and-adhesion-of-stem-cells-to-these-grafts
#15
Fahimeh Sadat Tabatabaei, Ramin Samadi, Saeed Tatari
BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of bone defects is often performed using bone autografts. However, limitations associated with the use of autografts led to the use of bone substitute materials. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the surface characteristics of three commercially available grafts namely allografts, xenografts and alloplasts. METHODS: This in vitro study was conducted on beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) alloplast, a mixture of demineralized bone matrix and mineralized bone allograft (DBM&MBA) and natural bovine bone mineral (NBBM) xenograft...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166020/solid-digestion-of-demineralized-bone-as-a-method-to-access-potentially-insoluble-proteins-and-post-translational-modifications
#16
Timothy P Cleland
Bone proteomics is an expanding field for understanding protein changes associated with disease as well as characterizing and detecting proteins preserved in fossil bone. Most previous studies have utilized a protocol with demineralization and extraction approach to isolate and characterize proteins from bone. Through near-complete EDTA demineralization, followed by solid digestion of the remaining bone pseudomorph, a total of 92 protein accessions were detected from dog bone. In the EDTA, 14 unique proteins were found, including osteocalcin, an important bone protein...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146168/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-enhanced-by-platelet-rich-plasma-maintain-adhesion-to-scaffolds-in-arthroscopic-simulation
#17
Alexander R Hoberman, Carl Cirino, Mary Beth McCarthy, Mark P Cote, Leo Pauzenberger, Knut Beitzel, Augustus D Mazzocca, Felix Dyrna
PURPOSE: To assess the response of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (bMSCs) enhanced by platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the setting of a normal human tendon (NHT), a demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and a fibrin scaffold (FS) with simulated arthroscopic mechanical washout stress. METHODS: Bone marrow was aspirated from the humeral head and concentrated. BMSCs were counted, plated, and grown to confluence. Cells were seeded onto 3 different scaffolds: (1) NHT, (2) DBM, and (3) FS...
November 13, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140136/salt-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration-enhances-fluid-retention-more-than-salt-or-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration
#18
Eric D B Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A Savoie, Jonathan Gosselin
Hyperhydration has been demonstrated to improve work capacity and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions, enhance orthostatic tolerance, slow or neutralize bone demineralization and decrease post-dive bubble formation. Adding sodium or glycerol to a hyperhydration solution optimizes fluid retention. Sodium and glycerol produce their effect through different physiological mechanisms. If combined into a hyperhydration solution their impact on fluid retention could potentially be greater than their singular effect...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124078/demineralized-bone-matrix-to-augment-tendon-bone-healing-a-systematic-review
#19
Adam T Hexter, Catherine Pendegrass, Fares Haddad, Gordon Blunn
Background: Following injury to the rotator cuff and anterior cruciate ligament, a direct enthesis is not regenerated, and healing occurs with biomechanically inferior fibrous tissue. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a collagen scaffold that contains growth factors and is a promising biological material for tendon and ligament repair because it can regenerate a direct fibrocartilaginous insertion via endochondral ossification. Purpose: To provide a comprehensive review of the literature investigating the use of DBM to augment tendon-bone healing in tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR)...
October 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117238/tdf-and-quantitative-ultrasound-bone-quality-in-african-patients-on-second-line-art-anrs-12169-2lady-sub-study
#20
Firmin Nongodo Kabore, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Jacques Zoungrana, Stéphanie Badiou, Guillaume Bado, Arsène Héma, Assane Diouf, Eric Delaporte, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Laura Ciaffi, Amandine Cournil
BACKGROUND: Bone demineralization, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk, is a common metabolic disorder in HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we aimed to assess the change in bone quality using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) over 96 weeks of follow-up after initiation of second-line treatment, and to identify factors associated with change in bone quality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a randomized trial (ANRS 12169), TDF and PI-naïve participants failing standard first-line treatment, from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Senegal were randomized to receive either TDF/FTC/LPVr, ABC/ddI/LPVr or TDF/FTC/DRVr...
2017: PloS One
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