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Metabolic Bone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344645/targeted-disruption-of-adenosine-kinase-in-myeloid-monocyte-cells-increases-osteoclastogenesis-and-bone-resorption-in-mice
#1
Qiuying Ye, Ge Li, Shuhua Liu, Yalun Guan, Yunfeng Li, Jinling Li, Huanhuan Jia, Xuejiao Li, Qingnan Li, Ren Huang, Hui Wang, Yu Zhang
Adenosine kinase (ADK) serves an important role in intracellular adenosine clearance via phosphorylating adenosine to AMP. The role of adenosine and its receptors in the maintenance of bone homeostasis is well studied, particularly in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption; however, the function of ADK in bone metabolism is still unclear. In the present study, utilizing the cre/floxp recombination system, mice with conditional loss of ADK function in myeloid monocyte cells were used to assess the effect of ADK deficiency on bone metabolism...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343445/development-regulation-metabolism-and-function-of-bone-marrow-adipose-tissues
#2
Ziru Li, Julie Hardij, Devika P Bagchi, Erica L Scheller, Ormond A MacDougald
Most adipocytes exist in discrete depots throughout the body, notably in well-defined white and brown adipose tissues. However, adipocytes also reside within specialized niches, of which the most abundant is within bone marrow. Whereas bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) shares many properties in common with white adipose tissue, the distinct functions of BMAT are reflected by its development, regulation, protein secretion, and lipid composition. In addition to its potential role as a local energy reservoir, BMAT also secretes proteins, including adiponectin, RANK ligand, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and stem cell factor, which contribute to local marrow niche functions and which may also influence global metabolism...
January 14, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343193/perinatal-sclerostin-concentrations-in-abnormal-fetal-growth-the-impact-of-gestational-diabetes
#3
Despina D Briana, Maria Boutsikou, Antonios Marmarinos, Dimitrios Gourgiotis, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate maternal and cord blood concentrations of sclerostin -an osteocyte-secreted factor, inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and bone formation and associated with adverse metabolism- in pregnancies with normal and abnormal fetal growth. METHODS: Plasma sclerostin concentrations were determined by ELISA in 80 maternal and 80 cord blood samples from asymmetric intrauterine-growth-restricted (IUGR, n = 30), large-for-gestational-age (LGA, n = 30) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA, n = 20) singleton full-term pregnancies...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342981/current-evidence-on-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-children-what-does-the-evidence-from-saudi-arabia-tell-us
#4
Asma M Alaklabi, Naser A Alsharairi
Obesity and vitamin D deficiency represent major health problems among Saudi children, and have been linked to chronic diseases. Obese children are at risk of developing vitamin D deficiency, which appears to have negative influences on energy homeostasis, impeded bone mineralisation, insulin resistance and inflammation. Evidence supporting the association between vitamin D deficiency of obese children and metabolic syndrome has not specifically been studied in early childhood. The mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency is associated with metabolic syndrome in obese children needs further elucidation...
January 15, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342317/osteoblast-like-mc3t3-e1-cells-prefer-glycolysis-for-atp-production-but-adipocyte-like-3t3-l1-cells-prefer-oxidative-phosphorylation
#5
Anyonya R Guntur, Akos A Gerencser, Phuong T Le, Victoria E DeMambro, Sheila A Bornstein, Shona A Mookerjee, David E Maridas, David E Clemmons, Martin D Brand, Clifford J Rosen
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are early progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. We hypothesized that osteoblasts and adipocytes utilize distinct bioenergetic pathways during MSC differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the bioenergetic profiles of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and calvarial osteoblasts with pre-adipocyte 3T3L1 cells, before and after differentiation. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts met ATP demand mainly by glycolysis with minimal reserve glycolytic capacity, whereas non-differentiated cells generated ATP through oxidative phosphorylation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341890/periodontal-diseases-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-is-there-a-role-for-vitamin-d
#6
REVIEW
Anne Marie Uwitonze, Peace Uwambaye, Moses Isyagi, Chrispinus H Mumena, Alice Hudder, Afrozul Haq, Kamrun Nessa, Mohammed S Razzaque
Studies have shown a relationship between maternal periodontal diseases (PDs) and premature delivery. PDs are commonly encountered oral diseases which cause progressive damage to the periodontal ligament and alveolar bones, leading to loss of teeth and oral disabilities. PDs also adversely affect general health by worsening cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Moreover, maternal PDs are thought to be related to increasing the frequency of preterm-birth with low birth weight (PBLBW) new-borns. Prematurity and immaturity are the leading causes of prenatal and infant mortality and is a major public health problem around the world...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340971/denosumab-or-oral-bisphosphonates-in-primary-osteoporosis-a-real-life-study
#7
E Cairoli, S Palmieri, G Goggi, L Roggero, M Arosio, I Chiodini, C Eller-Vainicher
PURPOSE: To compare the response to denosumab (DMAb) therapy with that of oral bisphosphonate (BISPH) treatment in postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis (PO). METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared data of 75 PO female patients treated for 24 months with DMab (DMAb Group, age 72.6 ± 8.9 years) with those of 75 PO patients treated with oral bisphosphonates (BISPH Group), matched for age, body mass index, femoral bone mineral density (BMD), prevalent fragility fractures and familiar history of hip fracture...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340322/paricalcitol-versus-calcifediol-for-treating-hyperparathyroidism-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#8
Josep M Cruzado, Ricardo Lauzurica, Julio Pascual, Roberto Marcen, Francesc Moreso, Alex Gutierrez-Dalmau, Amado Andrés, Domingo Hernández, Armando Torres, Maria Isabel Beneyto, Edoardo Melilli, Anna Manonelles, Manuel Arias, Manuel Praga
Introduction: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and vitamin D deficiency are common at kidney transplantation and are associated with some early and late complications. This study was designed to evaluate whether paricalcitol was more effective than nutritional vitamin D for controlling SHPT in de novo kidney allograft recipients. Methods: This was a 6-month, investigator-initiated, multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial. Patients with pretransplantation iPTH between 250 and 600 pg/ml and calcium <10 mg/dl were randomized to paricalcitol (PAR) or calcifediol (CAL)...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339399/ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-in-tnf%C3%AE-and-il6-knockout-mice-is-regulated-by-different-mechanisms
#9
Siyi Zhu, Hongchen He, Chengfei Gao, Guojing Luo, Ying Xie, Haiming Wang, Li Tian, Chen Xiang, Yu Xijie, Chengqi He
Female wild-type (WT), TNFα knockout (TNFα-/-) or IL6 knockout (IL6-/-) mice aged 12 weeks were sham-operated (SHAM) or subjected to OVX and euthanized after 4 weeks. Bone mass and skeletal microarchitecture were determined using micro-CT. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from all three groups were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts or osteoclasts. Bone metabolism was assessed by histological analysis and qRT-PCR. OVX significantly increased the body weight only in WT mice and decreased the uterine weight in all three genotypes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338102/circulating-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-bone-mineral-density-mendelian-randomization-study
#10
Susanna C Larsson, Håkan Melhus, Karl Michaëlsson
There is considerable discussion of the importance for increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) concentration associated with adequacy for bone health. Accordingly, whether long-term high S-25OHD concentration in general positively affects bone mineral density (BMD) is uncertain. We used a Mendelian randomization design to determine the association between genetically increased S-25OHD concentrations and BMD. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near genes encoding enzymes and carrier proteins involved in vitamin D synthesis or metabolism were used as instrumental variables to genetically predict one standard deviation increase in S-25OHD concentration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338022/bone-metabolism-dynamics-in-the-early-post-transplant-period-following-kidney-and-liver-transplantation
#11
Peter W Schreiber, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, Katia Boggian, Marco Bonani, Christian van Delden, Natalia Enriquez, Thomas Fehr, Christian Garzoni, Hans H Hirsch, Cédric Hirzel, Oriol Manuel, Pascal Meylan, Lanja Saleh, Maja Weisser, Nicolas J Mueller
Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337225/bone-muscle-and-metabolic-parameters-predict-survival-in-patients-with-synchronous-bone-metastases-from-lung-cancers
#12
Lauriane Chambard, Nicolas Girard, Edouard Ollier, Jean-Charles Rousseau, François Duboeuf, Marie-Christine Carlier, Marie Brevet, Pawel Szulc, Jean-Baptiste Pialat, Julien Wegrzyn, Philippe Clezardin, Cyrille B Confavreux
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma regularly induces bone metastases that are responsible for impaired quality of life as well as significant morbidity, including bone pain and fractures. We aimed at identifying whether bone and metabolic biomarkers were associated with the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients with synchronous bone metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: POUMOS is a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma and synchronous bone metastases...
January 11, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336868/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-peripheral-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptor-system
#13
REVIEW
Joseph Tam, Liad Hinden, Adi Drori, Shiran Udi, Shahar Azar, Saja Baraghithy
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are internal lipid mediators recognized by the cannabinoid-1 and -2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R, respectively), which also mediate the different physiological effects of marijuana. The endocannabinoid system, consisting of eCBs, their receptors, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, is present in a vast number of peripheral organs. In this review we describe the role of the eCB/CB1R system in modulating the metabolism in several peripheral organs. We assess how eCBs, via activating the CB1R, contribute to obesity and regulate food intake...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336053/specific-modulation-of-vertebral-marrow-adipose-tissue-by-physical-activity
#14
Daniel L Belavy, Matthew J Quittner, Nicola D Ridgers, Adnan Shiekh, Timo Rantalainen, Guy Trudel
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) accumulation with normal aging impacts the bone, hemopoiesis, and metabolic pathways. We investigated whether exercise was associated with lower MAT, as measured by vertebral marrow fat fraction (VFF) on magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 101 healthy individuals (54 females) aged 25 to 35 years without spine or bone disease but with distinct exercise histories were studied. Long-distance runners (67 km/wk, n = 25) exhibited lower mean lumbar VFF (27.9% [8.6%] versus 33...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335833/regulation-of-bone-metabolism-by-micrornas
#15
REVIEW
Hanna Taipaleenmäki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of various physiological and pathological processes. The purpose of this article is to review the important recent advances on the role of miRNAs in bone remodeling and metabolic bone disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: In a physiological context, miRNAs regulate bone formation and bone resorption, thereby contributing to the maintenance of bone homeostasis...
January 15, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334613/reduced-mir-144-3p-expression-in-serum-and-bone-mediates-osteoporosis-pathogenesis-by-targeting-rank
#16
Chunqing Wang, Hanliang He, Yu Jiang, Liang Wang, Youjia Xu
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the formation and resorption of bone, respectively. An imbalance between these two processes results in a disease called osteoporosis, in which a decreased level of bone strength increases the risk of a bone fracture. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules of 18-25 nucleotides that have been previously shown to control bone metabolism by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we detected the expression pattern of 10 miRNAs in patient serum samples, and identified six miRNAs altered expression in patients with osteoporosis relative to non-osteoporosis...
January 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333826/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#17
Gustavo Cediel, Johanna Pacheco-Acosta, Carlos CastiUo-Durdn
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D research suggests it has a role in disorders other than bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To update the information on vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in pediatric clinical disorders. METHODS: Search in virtual libraries, giving priority to clinical and longitudinal studies and meta-analyses on VDD in the pediatric age group published in the past 20 years. The terms "vitamin D deficiency", "children and adolescents" (both in Spanish and English) were used as search descriptors...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333578/insulin-resistance-and-bone-a-biological-partnership
#18
Caterina Conte, Solomon Epstein, Nicola Napoli
Despite a clear association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fracture risk, the pathogenesis of bone fragility in T2D has not been clearly elucidated. Insulin resistance is the primary defect in T2D. Insulin signalling regulates both bone formation and bone resorption, but whether insulin resistance can affect bone has not been established. On the other hand, evidence exists that bone might play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. This article reviews the available experimental and clinical evidence on the interplay between bone and insulin resistance...
January 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333574/unique-metabolic-activation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-in-obesity-promotes-inflammatory-responses
#19
Lily Boutens, Guido J Hooiveld, Sourabh Dhingra, Robert A Cramer, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent studies have identified intracellular metabolism as a fundamental determinant of macrophage function. In obesity, proinflammatory macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue and trigger chronic low-grade inflammation, that promotes the development of systemic insulin resistance, yet changes in their intracellular energy metabolism are currently unknown. We therefore set out to study metabolic signatures of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in lean and obese conditions...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333468/extraosseous-accumulation-of-technetium-99m-methyl-diphosphonate-99mtc-mdp-in-a-child-with-all-a-case-report
#20
Farnaz Banezhad, Narjess Ayati, Farrokh Seilanian Toosi, Samine Boloursaz, S Rasoul Zakavi
Extraosseous accumulation of technetium-99m-methyl diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) on bone scan is not common. This phenomenon is often attributed to abnormality of calcium metabolism and has been reported in a variety of conditions including metabolic diseases and malignancies. A five years old boy is presented here, who was admitted to the pediatric emergency suffering from fatigue, respiratory symptoms, weight loss, intermittent fevers, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, edema of legs and abdominal distension for one month...
2018: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
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