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Metabolic Bone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214864/a-comparative-study-of-intravenous-injection-form-and-oral-jelly-form-of-alendronate-sodium-hydrate-for-bone-mineral-disorder-after-gastrectomy
#1
Chikara Kunisaki, Yusaku Tanaka, Takashi Kosaka, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Sho Sato, Hideaki Suematsu, Norio Yukawa, Kei Sato, Yusuke Izumisawa, Hirotoshi Akiyama, Masataka Taguri, Takeharu Yamanaka, Itaru Endo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteoporosis is found to have high prevalence after gastrectomy and therefore, it is important to prevent this condition by means of effective medication, such as alendronate sodium hydrate. METHODS: A total number of 48 gastric cancer patients diagnosed with osteoporosis after R0 gastrectomy was registered in this study between December 2013 and August 2014. Twenty-three patients received intravenous (i.v.) alendronate sodium hydrate and 25 patients received the drug in an oral jelly form...
February 18, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214401/association-between-loss-of-bone-mass-due-to-short-sleep-and-leptin-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity
#2
Nagato Kuriyama, Masaaki Inaba, Etsuko Ozaki, Yutaro Yoneda, Daisuke Matsui, Kanae Hashiguchi, Teruhide Koyama, Komei Iwai, Isao Watanabe, Rika Tanaka, Chie Omichi, Shigeto Mizuno, Masao Kurokawa, Motoyuki Horii, Fumitoshi Niwa, Koichi Iwasa, Shinsuke Yamada, Yoshiyuki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Sleep has been reported to be an important factor in bone metabolism, and sympathetic nervous system activity has been reported to regulate bone metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the association between sleep, sympathetic nervous system activity, and bone mass. METHODS: The study subjects were 221 individuals (108 males; 113 females; mean age: 55.1±7.0years) divided into two groups: those who slept for less than 6h a day (short sleep [SS] group), and those who slept 6h or longer (normal sleep [NS] group)...
February 10, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211980/constitutional-bone-impairment-in-noonan-syndrome
#3
Giuseppina Baldassarre, Alessandro Mussa, Diana Carli, Cristina Molinatto, Giovanni Battista Ferrero
Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by genotypic and phenotypic variability. It belongs to the Ras/MAPK pathway disorders collectively named Rasopathies or neurocardiofaciocutaneous syndromes. Phenotype is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphisms, skeletal and ectodermal anomalies, cryptorchidism, mild to moderate developmental delay/learning disability, and tumor predisposition. Short stature and skeletal dysmorphisms are almost constant and several studies hypothesized a role for the RAS pathway in regulating bone metabolism...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211896/profound-seasonal-shrinking-and-regrowth-of-the-ossified-braincase-in-phylogenetically-distant-mammals-with-similar-life-histories
#4
Dina K N Dechmann, Scott LaPoint, Christian Dullin, Moritz Hertel, Jan R E Taylor, Karol Zub, Martin Wikelski
Ontogenetic changes in skull shape and size are ubiquitous in altricial vertebrates, but typically unidirectional and minimal in full-grown animals. Red-toothed shrews exhibit a rare exception, where the shape, mass and size of the skull, brain, and several major organs, show significant bidirectional seasonal changes. We now show a similar but male-biased shrinking (16%) and regrowth (8%) in the standardized braincase depth of least weasels (Mustela nivalis). Juvenile weasels also exhibit a growth overshoot, followed by a shrinkage period lasting until the end of their first winter...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211634/prediction-of-forearm-bone-shape-based-on-partial-least-squares-regression-from-partial-shape
#5
Keiichiro Oura, Yoshito Otake, Atsuo Shigi, Futoshi Yokota, Tsuyoshi Murase, Yoshinobu Sato
BACKGROUND: Computer-assisted corrective osteotomy using a mirror image of the normal contralateral shape as reference is increasingly used. Instead, we propose to use the shape predicted by statistical learning to deal with cases demonstrating bilateral abnormality, such as bilateral trauma, congenital disease, and metabolic disease. METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) scans of 100 normal forearms were used in this study. The whole bone shape was predicted from its partial shape based on statistical learning of the other 99 bones...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211012/f4-80-inhibits-osteoclast-differentiation-via-downregulation-of-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-cytoplasmic-1
#6
Ju-Hee Kang, Jung-Sun Sim, Ting Zheng, Mijung Yim
Osteoclastogenesis is an essential process in bone metabolism, which can be induced by RANKL stimulation. The F4/80 glycoprotein is a member of the EGF-transmembrane 7 (TM7) family and has been established as a specific cell-surface marker for murine macrophages. This study aimed to identify the role of F4/80 in osteoclastogenesis. Using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), we observed that the mRNA level of F4/80 was dramatically reduced as these cells differentiated into osteoclasts. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis was decreased in F4/80(high) BMMs compared to F4/80(-/low) BMMs...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210913/dietary-and-commercialized-fructose-sweet-or-sour
#7
REVIEW
Aslihan Yerlikaya, Tuncay Dagel, Christopher King, Masanari Kubawara, Miguel A Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Adrian Covic, Jacek Manitius, Alan A Sag, Mehmet Kanbay
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are main health problems of modern life in the twenty-first century. Alarming ratios of global prevalence lead to conduct more and more researches about etiological factors and pathogenesis. Disease mechanism is elementary for advancing more efficient and practicable treatment methods. Concurrent increase in both fructose consumption with Western diet and metabolic syndrome has revealed fructose hypothesis that suggests fructose as one of etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, etc...
February 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210839/thrombotic-microangiopathy-caused-by-methionine-synthase-deficiency-diagnosis-and-treatment-pitfalls
#8
Maria Helena Vaisbich, Andressa Braga, Maria Gabrielle, Clarissa Bueno, Flávia Piazzon, Fernando Kok
BACKGROUND: Inborn errors of cobalamin (Cbl) metabolism form a large group of rare diseases. One of these, Cbl deficiency type C (CblC), is a well-known cause of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), especially in infants. However, there has only been a single published case of TMA associated to Cbl deficiency type G (CblG), also known as methionine synthase deficiency (MSD). CASE DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: A 21-month-old boy presented with pallor and oral ulcers during episodes of upper respiratory infection (URI)...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209487/lipoxin-a4-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-in-raw264-7-cells-and-prevents-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss
#9
Changyu Liu, Hanfeng Guan, Cong Cai, Feng Li, Jun Xiao
Lipoxin A4 (LXA4; 5S, 6R, 15Strihydroxy- 7,9,13-trans-11-eicosatetraenoic acid) is a metabolic product of arachidonic acid under the action of lipoxidase. This lipid molecule plays important roles in several biological functions, especially inflammatory processes. In vivo, LXA4 regulates the inflammatory response through several signaling pathways. Its mechanism suggests that it might have an effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Using both in vitro and in vivo studies, it was here observed that LXA4 could significantly inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts and these effects could be blocked by Boc-2, the specific inhibitor of FPR2/ALX (the receptor of LXA4)...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204901/the-effect-of-hydration-status-on-the-measurement-of-lean-tissue-mass-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#10
Clodagh M Toomey, William G McCormack, Phil Jakeman
PURPOSE: Athletes cycle between exercise and recovery. Exercise invokes changes in total body water from thermal sweating, muscle and hepatic glycogen depletion and metabolic water loss. Recovery from exercise results in rehydration, substrate repletion, and possible glycogen supercompensation. Such changes may corrupt the measurement of hydrated tissues, such as lean tissue mass (LTM), by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise and thermal dehydration and subsequent glycogen supercompensation on DXA-based measurement of body composition...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204822/melittin-inhibits-osteoclast-formation-through-the-downregulation-of-the-rankl-rank-signaling-pathway-and-the-inhibition-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-murine-macrophages
#11
Jung-Yoon Choe, Seong-Kyu Kim
Melittin is a major toxic component of bee venom (Apis mellifera). It is not known whether melittin is involved in bone metabolism and osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of melittin in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. In vitro osteoclastogenesis assays were performed using mouse RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Morphologic and functional analyses for osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were performed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, F-actin staining and pit formation methods...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203361/long-term-iron-polymaltose-infusions-associated-with-hypophosphataemic-osteomalacia-a-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Ramy H Bishay, Kirtan Ganda, Markus J Seibel
Iron-induced hypophosphataemic osteomalacia remains under-recognized as a potential complication of parenteral iron therapy. We here report two cases of symptomatic hypophosphataemic osteomalacia with multiple insufficiency fractures in the context of chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, necessitating monthly iron polymaltose infusions over prolonged periods of time. Respective blood tests revealed severe hypophosphataemia [0.29 and 0.43; normal range (NR) 0.8-1.5 mmol/l] in the presence of normal serum calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203307/epigenetic-strategies-to-reverse-drug-resistance-in-heterogeneous-multiple-myeloma
#13
REVIEW
Mark E Issa, Farnaz Sedigheh Takhsha, Chandra Sekhar Chirumamilla, Claudina Perez-Novo, Wim Vanden Berghe, Muriel Cuendet
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy, which remains incurable because most patients eventually relapse or become refractory to current treatments. Due to heterogeneity within the cancer cell microenvironment, cancer cell populations employ a dynamic survival strategy to chemotherapeutic treatments, which frequently results in a rapid acquisition of therapy resistance. Besides resistance-conferring genetic alterations within a tumor cell population selected during drug treatment, recent findings also reveal non-mutational mechanisms of drug resistance, involving a small population of "cancer stem cells" (CSCs) which are intrinsically more refractory to the effects of a variety of anticancer drugs...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203048/atypical-femoral-shaft-fractures-secondary-to-long-term-bisphosphonate-therapy
#14
Cemil Kayali, Taskin Altay, Firat Ozan, Serkan Sozkesen, Kamil Yamak
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are one of the most commonly used agents in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, data of 22 osteoporotic women with femoral fractures due to low-energy trauma who received BPs previously were analysed. RESULTS: The mean duration of BP therapy was 7.6 years. The mean duration of union was 7.4 months. Five patients had non-union. Stress reaction was observed in the contralateral femur in 11 patients...
June 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202599/bone-cell-bioenergetics-and-skeletal-energy-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Ryan C Riddle, Thomas L Clemens
The rising incidence of metabolic diseases worldwide has prompted renewed interest in the study of intermediary metabolism and cellular bioenergetics. The application of modern biochemical methods for quantitating fuel substrate metabolism with advanced mouse genetic approaches has greatly increased understanding of the mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism in the whole organism. Examination of the intermediary metabolism of skeletal cells has been sparked by a series of unanticipated observations in genetically modified mice that suggest the existence of novel endocrine pathways through which bone cells communicate their energy status to other centers of metabolic control...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199917/desomorphine-krokodil-an-overview-of-its-chemistry-pharmacology-metabolism-toxicology-and-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Diego Hernando Ângulo Florez, Ana Maria Dos Santos Moreira, Pedro Rafael da Silva, Ricardo Brandão, Marcella Matos Cordeiro Borges, Fernando José Malagueño de Santana, Keyller Bastos Borges
BACKGROUND: "Krokodil" or "Crocodile" is an illegal homemade desomorphine drug obtained from chemical reactions of commercial codeine drugs with several other powerful and highly toxic chemical agents increasing its addiction and hallucinogenic effects when compared with other morphine analogues. METHODS: This paper summarizes a complete review about an old drug called desomorphine (Krokodil), presenting its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199894/height-and-blood-chemistry-in-adults-with-a-history-of-developmental-arsenic-poisoning-from-contaminated-milk-powder
#17
Takashi Yorifuji, Kenichi Matsuoka, Philippe Grandjean
BACKGROUND: Arsenic poisoning interferes with bone metabolism in laboratory animal studies, and human studies suggest lowered bone mass density at elevated exposures. As the long-term consequences of developmental arsenic toxicity are poorly known, we carried out a clinical pilot study of survivors of the mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants in Japan in 1955. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and physical stature and routine blood chemistry reflecting major organ functions more than 50 years later...
February 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199411/cortical-porosity-not-superior-to-conventional-densitometry-in-identifying-hemodialysis-patients-with-fragility-fracture
#18
Bernhard Bielesz, Janina M Patsch, Lukas Fischer, Marija Bojic, Wolfgang Winnicki, Michael Weber, Daniel Cejka
Hemodialysis (HD) patients face increased fracture risk, which is further associated with elevated risk of hospitalization and mortality. High-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has advanced our understanding of bone disease in chronic kidney disease by characterizing distinct changes in both the cortical and trabecular compartments. Increased cortical porosity (Ct.Po) has been shown to be associated with fracture in patients with osteopenia or in postmenopausal diabetic women. We tested whether the degree of Ct...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199089/technetium-i-complexes-of-bathophenanthrolinedisulfonic-acid
#19
Abdolreza Yazdani, Nancy Janzen, Shannon Czorny, John F Valliant
Bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate (BPS) complexes of technetium(I) of the type [Tc(CO)3(BPS)(L)](n) (L = imidazole derivatives) were synthesized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. [(99m)Tc(CO)3(BPS)(MeIm)](-) (MeIm = 1-methyl-1H-imidazole) was prepared in near-quantitative yield using a convenient two-step, one-pot labeling procedure. A targeted analogue capable of binding regions of calcium turnover associated with bone metabolism was also prepared. Here, a bisphosphonate was linked to the metal through an imidazole ligand to give [(99m)Tc(CO)3(BPS)(ImAln)](2-) (ImAln = an imidazole-alendronate ligand) in high yield...
February 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197778/evaluating-effects-of-l-carnitine-on-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Koichi Fujisawa, Taro Takami, Yumi Fukui, Luiz Fernando Quintanilha, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Naoki Yamamoto, Isao Sakaida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells showing potential for use in regenerative medicine. Culture techniques that are more stable and methods for the more efficient production of MSCs with therapeutic efficacy are needed. We evaluate the effects of growing bone marrow (Bm)-derived MSCs in the presence of L-carnitine, which is believed to promote lipid metabolism and to suppress apoptosis. The presence of L-carnitine decreased the degree of drug-induced apoptosis and suppressed adipogenic differentiation...
February 14, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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