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Metabolic Bone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786640/vitamin-d-in-vascular-calcification-a-double-edged-sword
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey Wang, Jimmy J Zhou, Graham R Robertson, Vincent W Lee
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786179/-update-2017-of-the-kdigo-guidelines-on-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-ckd-mbd-what-are-the-real-changes
#2
Marzia Pasquali, Antonio Bellasi, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Carlo Massimetti, Maria Cristina Mereu, Luigi Morrone, Vincenzo Panuccio
Guidelines for the assessment, diagnosis and therapy of the alterations that characterize the CKD-MBD are an important support in the clinical practice of the nephrologist. Compared to the KDIGO guidelines published in 2009, the 2017 update made changes on some topics on which there was previously no strong evidence both in terms of diagnosis and therapy. The recommendations include the diagnosis of bone anomalies in CKD-MBD and the treatment of mineral metabolism abnormalities with particular regard to hyperphosphataemia, calcium levels, secondary hyperparathyroidism and anti-resorptive therapies...
May 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785933/a-comparison-of-peripheral-imaging-technologies-for-bone-and-muscle-quantification-a-review-of-segmentation-techniques
#3
REVIEW
Andy Kin On Wong, Sarah Lynn Manske
Musculoskeletal science has developed many overlapping branches, necessitating specialists from 1 area of focus to often require the expertise in others. In terms of imaging, this means obtaining a comprehensive illustration of bone, muscle, and fat tissues. There is currently a lack of a reliable resource for end users to learn about these tissues' imaging and quantification techniques together. An improved understanding of these tissues has been an important progression toward better prediction of disease outcomes and better elucidation of their interaction with frailty, aging, and metabolic disorders...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785637/frzb1-rs2242070-polymorphisms-is-associated-with-brick-tea-type-skeletal-fluorosis-in-kazakhs-but-not-in-tibetans-china
#4
Yanmei Yang, Qiaoshi Zhao, Yang Liu, Xiaona Liu, Yanru Chu, Huazhu Yan, Yumei Fan, Simeng Huo, Limei Wang, Qun Lou, Ning Guo, Dianjun Sun, Yanhui Gao
Skeletal fluorosis is a metabolic bone and joint disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones. Compared with Kazakhs, Tibetans are more likely to develop moderate and severe brick tea type skeletal fluorosis, although they have similar fluoride exposure. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in frizzled-related protein (FRZB) have been associated with osteoarthritis, but their association with the risk of skeletal fluorosis has not been reported. In this paper, we investigated the association of three SNPs (rs7775, rs2242070 and rs9288087) in FRZB1with brick tea type skeletal fluorosis risk in a cross-sectional case-control study conducted in Sinkiang and Qinghai, China...
May 21, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785076/role-of-osteoprotegerin-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-axis-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Lucia Pacifico, Gian Marco Andreoli, Miriam D'Avanzo, Delia De Mitri, Pasquale Pierimarchi
Concomitantly with the increase in the prevalences of overweight/obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has worldwide become the main cause of chronic liver disease in both adults and children. Patients with fatty liver display features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), like insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Recently, epidemiological studies have linked obesity, MetS, and NAFLD to decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis, highlighting an intricate interplay among bone, adipose tissue, and liver...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784886/-legionella-pneumophila-is-directly-sensitive-to-2-deoxyglucose-phosphate-via-its-uhpc-transporter-but-is-indifferent-to-shifts-in-host-cell-glycolytic-metabolism
#6
Jordan V Price, Kallie Jiang, Abigail Galantowicz, Alana Freifeld, Russell E Vance
Toll-like receptor stimulation induces a pronounced shift to increased glycolytic metabolism in mammalian macrophages. We observed that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) increase glycolysis in response to infection with Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ), but the role of host macrophage glycolysis on intracellular L. pneumophila replication is not currently understood. Treatment with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) blocks L. pneumophila replication in mammalian macrophages but has no effect on bacteria grown in broth...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783781/nutraceuticals-in-periodontal-health-a-systematic-review-on-the-role-of-vitamins-in-periodontal-health-maintenance
#7
REVIEW
Alfonso Varela-López, María D Navarro-Hortal, Francesca Giampieri, Pedro Bullón, Maurizio Battino, José L Quiles
Periodontal disease, a relevant public health problem worldwide, is generally considered a common pathology of elderly people. In this respect, there is agreement about that nutritional status may be a modifying factor in the progression and healing of the periodontal tissues. Vitamins have been recommended as nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of some pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity or cancer. Thus, a systematic approach to determining how the different vitamin type could ameliorate periodontal risks or improve periodontal health is necessary to further the understanding of the potential benefits and risks of vitamins supplementation use...
May 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782984/design-and-development-of-novel-hyaluronate-modified-nanoparticles-for-combo-delivery-of-curcumin-and-alendronate-fabrication-characterization-and-cellular-and-molecular-evidence-of-enhanced-bone-regeneration
#8
Jinlei Dong, Hnin Ei Thu, Mohammed A S Abourehab, Zahid Hussain
Osteoporosis is a medical condition of fragile bones with an increased susceptibility to bone fracture. Despite having availability of a wide range of pharmacological agents, prevalence of this metabolic disorder is continuously escalating. Owing to excellent biomedical achievements of nanomedicines in the last few decades, we aimed combo delivery of bone anti-resorptive agent, alendronate (ALN), and bone density enhancing drug, curcumin (CUR), in the form of polymeric nanoparticles. To further optimize the therapeutic efficacy, the prepared ALN/CUR nanoparticles were decorated with hyaluronic acid which is a well-documented biomacromolecule having exceptional bone regenerating potential...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782844/evaluation-of-the-serum-ionic-fluoride-concentration-as-a-biomarker-of-bone-metabolism-post-spinal-fusion-surgery
#9
Ryosuke Oikawa, Yuji Fujita, Hideki Murakami, Hirooki Endo, Daisuke Yamabe, Yusuke Chiba, Yuichiro Abe, Minoru Doita
BACKGROUND: Bone union after spinal fusion surgery with instrumentation has been determined only with imaging studies. We evaluated the usefulness of the serum ionic fluoride (SIF) concentration as a biomarker of the bone union status. METHODS: We enrolled 25 patients who underwent spinal surgery in our institution, and we divided patients into three groups with and without instrumentation (G1, G2, and G3). We collected the fasting serum level preoperatively and on day 1 (D1), week 1 (D7), week 2 (D14), month 1 (D30), month 3 (D90), and month 6 (D180) postoperatively, and measured SIF concentrations using the flow injection method with an ion-selective electrode...
May 18, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782843/role-of-nutritional-vitamin-d-in-osteoporosis-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Yi-Chou Hou, Chia-Chao Wu, Min-Tser Liao, Jia-Fwu Shyu, Chi-Feng Hung, Tzung-Hai Yen, Chien-Lin Lu, Kuo-Cheng Lu
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by a decrease in bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The World Health Organization has defined osteoporosis as a decrease in bone mass (50%) and bony quality (50%). Vitamin D, a steroid hormone, is crucial for skeletal health and in mineral metabolism. Its direct action on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and interaction with nonskeletal tissues help in maintaining a balance between bone turnover and bone growth. Vitamin D affects the activity of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, suggesting that it affects bone formation, bone resorption, and bone quality...
May 18, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782529/molecular-effect-of-an-optn-common-variant-associated-to-paget-s-disease-of-bone
#11
Iris A L Silva, Natércia Conceição, Édith Gagnon, Jacques P Brown, M Leonor Cancela, Laëtitia Michou
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a chronic bone disorder and although genetic factors appear to play an important role in its pathogenesis, to date PDB causing mutations were identified only in the Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) gene at the PDB3 locus. PDB6 locus, also previously linked to PDB, contains several candidate genes for metabolic bone diseases. We focused our analysis in the most significantly associated variant with PDB, within the Optineurin (OPTN) gene, i.e. the common variant rs1561570. Although it was previously shown to be strongly associated with PDB in several populations, its contribution to PDB pathogenesis remains unclear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782253/-mineral-and-bone-disorders-in-chronic-heart-failure
#12
E V Reznik, I G Nikitin
In many patients, chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Virtually all patients with terminal CKD and many patients with early CKD display various disorders of mineral and bone metabolism (MBM) related with all-cause mortality and high risk of cardiovascular complications. This review addressed disorders of mineral and bone metabolism in patients with CHF, including hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, changed levels of FGF23 and Klotho, osteoporosis, osteopenia, their clinical and prognostic significance, and possibilities of their correction...
2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780805/stabilization-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha-augments-the-therapeutic-capacity-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-experimental-pneumonia
#13
Naveen Gupta, Victor Nizet
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic effects in experimental models of lung injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a transcriptional regulator that influences cellular metabolism, energetics, and survival under hypoxic conditions. The current study investigated the effects of stabilizing HIF-1α on the therapeutic capacity of MSCs in an experimental mouse model of bacterial pneumonia. HIF-1α stabilization was achieved by the small molecule prolyl-hydroxlase inhibitor, AKB-4924 (Aerpio Therapeutics, Inc...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780418/biological-and-clinical-effects-of-calciprotein-particles-on-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Kenichi Akiyama, Takaaki Kimura, Kazuhiro Shiizaki
Calciprotein particles (CPPs) are a new biological marker of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). CPPs consist of phosphate, calcium, and some proteins, with phosphate being the major contributor to the level and biological activity of CPPs. Recent studies have shown the physiological and pathological significance of CPPs, including contributions to bone and mineral metabolism, and to tissue and organ impairments such as cardiovascular damage and inflammatory responses. These actions are well known as important aspects of CKD-MBD...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780417/osteoporosis-is-associated-with-deteriorating-clinical-status-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Inger Hee Mathiesen, Tacjana Pressler, Peter Oturai, Terese Lea Katzenstein, Marianne Skov, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Mette Friberg Hitz
Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are in increased risk of osteoporosis. We aimed to determine the osteoporosis prevalence in an adult CF cohort and investigate calcium metabolic parameters and clinical status' association with bone mineral density evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry scan. Methods: We performed a cross section database study of adults at a tertiary CF Center. Z scores were applied for patients < 50 years of age and T scores for patients > 50 years of age...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780360/the-association-between-long-term-acenocoumarol-treatment-and-vitamin-d-deficiency
#16
Jolanta Sawicka-Powierza, Jerzy Konstantynowicz, Ewa Jablonska, Beata Zelazowska-Rutkowska, Wojciech Jelski, Pawel Abramowicz, Caroline Sasinowski, Slawomir Chlabicz
Objective: Both vitamin D and K2 are involved in a number of metabolic processes, including bone metabolism; however, associations between the vitamins are not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in adult patients receiving long-term acenocoumarol (AC) treatment. Participants and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 58 Caucasian patients (31 women, 27 men) with a median age of 65 years receiving long-term AC therapy were evaluated and compared with 35 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780230/evaluation-of-bone-health-among-epileptic-patients-using-biochemical-markers-and-dexa-scan-an-egyptian-study
#17
Ebtesam Mohamed Fahmy, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Rania Shehata Ismail, Hanan Helmy, Doaa Atef Mekkawy
Background: An association between antiepileptic drugs, low bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, and abnormalities in bone metabolism has been suggested for a longer period, although conclusive evidence has not been reported. Methods: Thirty epileptic patients and 30 matched healthy subjects participated in the study. Measurements of serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, parathormone, and alkaline phosphatase were done for included subjects. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan was also performed...
2018: The Egyptian journal of neurology, psychiatry and neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780142/diabetes-mellitus-induced-bone-fragility
#18
Ippei Kanazawa, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Accumulating evidence has shown that the risk of osteoporotic fractures is increased in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, DM-induced bone fragility has been recently recognized as a diabetic complication. Because the fracture risk is independent of the reduction in bone mineral density, deterioration of the bone quality may be the main cause of bone fragility. Although its mechanism remains poorly understood, accumulated collagen cross-links of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and dysfunctions of osteoblast and osteocyte may be involved...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779902/molecular-genetics-and-metabolism-special-edition-diagnosis-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-iva
#19
REVIEW
Hira Peracha, Kazuki Sawamoto, Lauren Averill, Heidi Kecskemethy, Mary Theroux, Mihir Thacker, Kyoko Nagao, Christian Pizarro, William Mackenzie, Hironori Kobayashi, Seiji Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Kenji Orii, Tadao Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao, Shunji Tomatsu
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of specific glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS), which are mainly synthesized in the cartilage. Therefore, the substrates are stored primarily in the cartilage and its extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to a direct impact on bone development and successive systemic skeletal spondylepiphyseal dysplasia...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779585/translational-studies-provide-insights-for-the-etiology-and-treatment-of-cortical-bone-osteoporosis
#20
REVIEW
Robert Brommage, Claes Ohlsson
Increasing attention is being focused on the important contributions of cortical bone to bone strength, fractures and osteoporosis therapies. Recent progress in human genome wide association studies in combination with high-throughput mouse gene knockout phenotyping efforts of multiple genes and advanced conditional gene inactivation in mouse models have successfully identified genes with crucial roles in cortical bone homeostasis. Particular attention in this review is given to genes, such as WNT16, POSTN and SFRP4, that differentially affect cortical and trabecular bone architecture...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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