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Bone Strength

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342321/contributions-of-material-properties-and-structure-to-increased-bone-fragility-for-a-given-bone-mass-in-the-ucd-t2dm-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Claire Acevedo, Meghan Sylvia, Eric Schaible, James L Graham, Kimber L Stanhope, Lionel N Metz, Bernd Gludovatz, Ann V Schwartz, Robert O Ritchie, Tamara N Alliston, Peter J Havel, Aaron J Fields
Adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a higher fracture risk for a given bone quantity, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Using a rat model of polygenic obese T2D, we demonstrate that diabetes significantly reduces whole-bone strength for a given bone mass (micro-CT-derived BMC), and we quantify the roles of T2D-induced deficits in material properties versus bone structure, i.e., geometry and microarchitecture. Lumbar vertebrae and ulnae were harvested from 6-month-old lean Sprague-Dawley rats, obese Sprague-Dawley rats, and diabetic obese UCD-T2DM rats (diabetic for 69 ± 7 days; blood glucose >200 mg/dl)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340350/estimating-the-importance-of-significant-risk-factors-for-early-dental-implant-failure-a-monte-carlo-simulation
#2
Oğuz Buhara, Salahi Pehlivan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a probabilistic estimation of the strength of risk factors associated with early dental implant failure and rank them by importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and grey literature up to April 2017. A total of 368 records were identified. Following the removal of duplicate and irrelevant records, 56 were screened...
January 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340024/chitosan-composite-scaffold-combined-with-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-bone-regeneration-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#3
Shengqi Zang, Lei Zhu, Kefu Luo, Rui Mu, Feng Chen, Xiaocui Wei, Xiaodong Yan, Biyao Han, Xiaolei Shi, Qintao Wang, Lei Jin
The study aimed to develop a chitosan (CS)-based scaffold for repairing calvarial bone defects. We fabricated composite scaffolds made of CS and bovine-derived xenograft (BDX), characterized their physicochemical properties including pore size and porosity, absorption, degradation, and compressive strength, compared their efficacy to support in vitro proliferation and differentiation of human jaw bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hJBMMSCs), and evaluated their bone regeneration capacity in critical-size rat calvarial defects...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338177/a-novel-alkali-activation-of-titanium-substrates-to-grow-thick-and-covalently-bound-pmma-layers
#4
Melania Reggente, Patrick Masson, Camille Dollinger, Heinz Palkowski, Spyridon Zafeiratos, Leandro Jacomine, Daniele Passeri, Marco Rossi, Nihal Engin Vrana, Genevieve Pourroy, Adele Carrado
Titanium (Ti) is the most widely used metal in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility; however, the significant difference of the mechanical properties between Ti and the surrounding tissues results in stress shielding which is detrimental for load bearing tissues. In the current study, to attenuate the stress shielding effect, a new processing route was developed. It aimed at growing thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layers grafted on Ti substrates to incorporate a polymer component on Ti implants...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337096/fabrication-and-characterization-of-nanoengineered-biocompatible-n-ha-chitosan-tamarind-seed-polysaccharide-bio-inspired-nanocomposites-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#5
Mohammad Shakir, Iram Zia, Abdur Rehman, Rizwan Ullah
In this communication we describe the fabrication of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-tamarind seed polysaccharide (n-HA/CS-TSP) nanocomposite with a weight ratio of 70/20/10, 70/15/15 and 70/10/20, respectively through a co-precipitation method. A comparative assessment of the properties of n-HA/CS-TSP and n-HA/CS nanocomposites was done by FT-IR, SEM-EDX, TEM, TGA/DTA, XRD and mechanical testing. The results suggested strong chemical interactions between the three components, decreased particle size and homogeneous dispersion of n-HA particles in n-HA/CS-TSP as compared to n-HA/CS...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336820/micro-ct-and-micro-fe-analysis-of-pedicle-screw-fixation-under-different-loading-conditions
#6
Y Chevalier, M Matsuura, S Krüger, C Fleege, M Rickert, M Rauschmann, C Schilling
Anchorage of pedicle screw instrumentation in the elderly spine with poor bone quality remains challenging. In this study, micro finite element (µFE) models were used to assess the specific influence of screw design and the relative contribution of local bone density to fixation mechanics. These were created from micro computer tomography (µCT) scans of vertebras implanted with two types of pedicle screws, including a full region-or-interest of 10 mm radius around each screw, as well as submodels for the pedicle and inner trabecular bone of the vertebral body...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334695/complex-interplay-among-adiposity-insulin-resistance-and-bone-health
#7
REVIEW
C Ma, K T Tonks, J R Center, D Samocha-Bonet, J R Greenfield
Obesity and osteoporosis are common public health problems. Paradoxically, while obesity is associated with higher bone density, type 2 diabetic obese individuals have an increased fracture risk. Although obesity and insulin resistance co-exist, some obese individuals remain insulin-sensitive. We suggest that the apparent paradox relating obesity, bone density and fracture risk in type 2 diabetes may be at least partly influenced by differences in bone strength and quality between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive obese individuals...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334613/reduced-mir-144-3p-expression-in-serum-and-bone-mediates-osteoporosis-pathogenesis-by-targeting-rank
#8
Chunqing Wang, Hanliang He, Yu Jiang, Liang Wang, Youjia Xu
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the formation and resorption of bone, respectively. An imbalance between these two processes results in a disease called osteoporosis, in which a decreased level of bone strength increases the risk of a bone fracture. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules of 18-25 nucleotides that have been previously shown to control bone metabolism by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we detected the expression pattern of 10 miRNAs in patient serum samples, and identified six miRNAs altered expression in patients with osteoporosis relative to non-osteoporosis...
January 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332500/microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-porous-titanium-structures-fabricated-by-electron-beam-melting-for-cranial-implants
#9
Khaja Moiduddin
The traditional methods of metallic bone implants are often dense and suffer from adverse reactions, biomechanical mismatch and lack of adequate space for new bone tissue to grow into the implant. The objective of this study is to evaluate the customized porous cranial implant with mechanical properties closer to that of bone and to improve the aesthetic outcome in cranial surgery with precision fitting for a better quality of life. Two custom cranial implants (bulk and porous) are digitally designed based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files and fabricated using additive manufacturing...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332078/magnetic-resonance-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-treating-movement-disorders
#10
Young Goo Kim, Eun Jung Kweon, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, Jin Woo Chang
Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery has recently gained favor as a novel, noninvasive alternative to conventional neurosurgery. In contrast to traditional ablative interventions, transcranial MRgFUS surgery is entirely imaging-guided and uses continuous temperature measurements at the target and surrounding tissue taken in real-time. Unlike Gamma Knife radiosurgery, MRgFUS surgery can make a lesion immediately and does not use ionizing radiation. Moreover, since no metallic device is implanted, MR imaging-based diagnosis is not restricted throughout life...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331590/setting-mechanism-of-a-new-injectable-dicalcium-phosphate-dihydrate-dcpd-forming-cement
#11
Weiping Ren, Wei Song, Sally Yurgelevic, David C Markel
We previously described the gelation mechanism of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) in the presence of water. In this study, we developed novel and injectable poly-dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (P-DCPD) forming cement by the reaction of acidic CPP gel with alkali tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP). The setting reaction mechanism of P-DCPD is due to the intermolecular interaction between CPP gel and TTCP that was supported by XRD, AFM, Raman spectra analysis and SEM. The setting mechanism of P-DCPD is completely different from the classical calcium phosphate cement (CPC) that achieves crystallization by monophosphates reaction...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331301/marrow-adipose-tissue-imaging-in-humans
#12
Vibha Singhal, Miriam A Bredella
Bone strength is affected not only by bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture but also its microenvironment. Recent studies have focused on the role of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in the pathogenesis of bone loss. Osteoblasts and adipocytes arise from a common mesenchymal stem cell within bone marrow and many osteoporotic states, including aging, medication use, immobility, over - and undernutrition are associated with increased marrow adiposity. Advancements in imaging technology allow the non-invasive quantification of MAT...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330572/effects-of-whole-body-vibration-on-muscle-strength-bone-mineral-content-and-density-and-balance-and-body-composition-of-children-and-adolescents-with-down-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
M B Saquetto, F F Pereira, R S Queiroz, C M da Silva, C S Conceição, M Gomes Neto
The aim of this study is to verify the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on the muscle strength of children and adolescents with Down syndrome. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane, SciELO, Lilacs and PUBMED databases and included manual searches to identify randomised controlled trials to investigate the effects of WBV on the structure and body function of children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and performed statistical analysis. In total, five studies with 171 patients that compared WBV with exercise and/or control were included...
January 12, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327198/graphene-oxide-hybridized-nhac-plga-scaffolds-facilitate-the-proliferation-of-mc3t3-e1-cells
#14
Chunyong Liang, Yongchao Luo, Guodong Yang, Dan Xia, Lei Liu, Xiaomin Zhang, Hongshui Wang
Biodegradable porous biomaterial scaffolds play a critical role in bone regeneration. In this study, the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/graphene oxide (nHAC/PLGA/GO) composite scaffolds containing different amount of GO were fabricated by freeze-drying method. The results show that the synthesized scaffolds possess a three-dimensional porous structure. GO slightly improves the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds and reinforces their mechanical strength. Young's modulus of the 1...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325887/stiffness-and-strength-of-cranioplastic-implant-systems-in-comparison-to-cranial-bone
#15
Johan Persson, Benedikt Helgason, Håkan Engqvist, Stephen J Ferguson, Cecilia Persson
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate skull replacement options after decompressive craniectomy by systematically investigating which combination of geometrical properties and material selection would result in a mechanical response comparable in stiffness to that of native skull bone and a strength as high or higher than the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted using a Finite Element Model of the top part of a human skull. Native skull bone, autografts and commercial implants made of PEEK, solid titanium, two titanium meshes and a titanium-ceramic composite were modeled under a set load to evaluate deformation and maximum stress...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324908/peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography-detects-differences-at-the-radius-in-prepubertal-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-compared-to-healthy-controls
#16
Catherine E O'Brien, Gulnur Com, John Fowlkes, Xinyu Tang, Laura P James
INTRODUCTION: In 2015, 11.9% of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the United States had osteopenia, 5.1% osteoporosis, and 0.3% experienced a fracture. Screening for CF-related bone disease starts in childhood, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the recommended method. It is unknown whether peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) can detect deficits earlier than DXA. This study compared pQCT and DXA scans in a group of pre-pubertal children with CF and healthy controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322970/minimally-invasive-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-using-bone-cement-augmented-pedicle-screws-for-lumbar-spondylolisthesis-in-patients-with-osteoporosis-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#17
Venkata Ramesh Chandra Vemula, Bodapati Chandramowliswara Prasad, M A Jagadeesh, Jayachandar Vuttarkar, Sanjeev Kumar Akula
BACKGROUND: Instrumentation in patients with osteoporosis is challenging. Bone cement-augmented fenestrated pedicle screw fixation is a new procedure for fixation in the osteoporotic bone; and, applying minimally invasive techniques to the above is a challenging and novel concept. AIMS: To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of minimally invasive spine surgery transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in patients with spondylolisthesis and poor bone quality, performed with rigid instrumentation using bone cement [poly(methylmethacrylate)]-augmented fenestrated pedicle screws...
January 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322302/the-superiority-of-sucrose-cushion-centrifugation-to-ultrafiltration-and-pegylation-in-generating-high-titer-lentivirus-particles-and-transducing-stem-cells-with-enhanced-efficiency
#18
Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Mossa Gardaneh
Viral gene delivery is hailed as a great milestone in gene-based therapeutic approaches. The human immunodeficiency virus-derived lentiviral vectors (LVs) are advantageous in infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells leading to continuous expression of transgenes. A variety of protocols are available for concentration of LVs. We primarily generated our internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-based LVs. Virus titration and transduction efficiency were compared between various strategies that included sucrose cushion centrifugation (SCC), protein column ultrafiltration and polyethylene glycol precipitation...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319726/second-hand-tobacco-smoke-adversely-affects-the-bone-of-immature-rats
#19
Rodrigo César Rosa, Sângela Cunha Pereira, Fabrizio Antônio Gomide Cardoso, Abadio Gonçalves Caetano, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha de Santiago, José Batista Volpon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase...
December 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319133/the-assessment-of-testosterone-and-radioisotopic-index-of-bone-metabolism-and-bone-mineral-density-in-men-with-testosterone-deficiency-after-one-year-of-testosterone-therapy
#20
Wieslaw Tryniszewski, Grzegorz Kamiński, Zbigniew Maziarz, Michal Nowak, Mariusz Gadzicki, Maciej Radek
BACKGROUND: Testosterone deficiency in men is characterized by typical symptoms of hypogonadism and negative influence on the preservation of bone mass. In this study, we analysed the relationship between testosterone concentration and bone metabolism. Moreover, we assessed the impact of one-year compensation of testosterone deficiency in elderly men on bone metabolism and bone mineral density. Radioisotopic methods of bone metabolism assessment provide new research opportunities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men with total testosterone concentration (TT) ≤ 3 ng/ml were included into this study...
January 10, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
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