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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651365/cathepsin-k-inhibitors-for-osteoporosis-biology-potential-clinical-utility-and-lessons-learned
#1
Matthew T Drake, Bart L Clarke, Merry Jo Oursler, Sundeep Khosla
Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease member of the cathepsin lysosomal protease family. While cathepsin K is highly expressed in osteoclasts, lower levels of cathepsin K are also found in a variety of other tissues. Secretion of cathepsin K from the osteoclast into the sealed osteoclast-bone cell interface results in efficient degradation of type I collagen. The absence of cathepsin K activity in humans results in pycnodysostosis, characterized by increased bone mineral density and fractures. Pharmacological cathepsin K inhibition leads to continuous increases in BMD for up to five years of treatment and improves bone strength at the spine and hip...
June 23, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650892/the-2017-hormone-therapy-position-statement-of-the-north-american-menopause-society
#2
(no author information available yet)
The 2017 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) updates the 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society and identifies future research needs. An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women's health and menopause was recruited by NAMS to review the 2012 Position Statement, evaluate new literature, assess the evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations, using the level of evidence to identify the strength of recommendations and the quality of the evidence...
June 22, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650869/the-2017-hormone-therapy-position-statement-of-the-north-american-menopause-society
#3
(no author information available yet)
The 2017 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) updates the 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society and identifies future research needs. An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women's health and menopause was recruited by NAMS to review the 2012 Position Statement, evaluate new literature, assess the evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations, using the level of evidence to identify the strength of recommendations and the quality of the evidence...
July 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648836/cortical-and-trabecular-bone-analysis-of-patients-with-high-bone-mass-from-the-barcelona-osteoporosis-cohort-using-3-dimensional-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-a-case-control-study
#4
Guillermina Orduna, Ludovic Humbert, Roger Fonolla, Jordi Romera, M Lourdes Cos, Aboro Rial, Xavier Nogués, Adolfo Diez-Perez, Leonardo Mellibovsky
High bone mass (HBM), a rare phenotype, can be detected by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. Measurements with peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the tibia have found increased trabecular bone mineral density and changes in cortical bone density and structure, all of which lead to increased bone strength. However, no studies on cortical and trabecular bone have been performed at the femur. The recently developed 3-dimensional (3D)-DXA software algorithm quantifies the trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and the anatomical distribution of cortical thickness using routine hip DXA scans...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647803/chronic-joint-pain-and-handgrip-strength-correlates-with-osteoporosis-in-mid-life-women-a-singaporean-cohort
#5
S Logan, W P P Thu, W K Lay, L Y Wang, J A Cauley, E L Yong
This study aimed to identify novel correlates which may relate to low bone mass at lumbar spine in mid-life Asian women. The possibility of developing a prediction model for osteoporosis (OP) was explored which resulted in a risk assessment tool that performed better than currently available tools. INTRODUCTION: In order to identify novel correlates associated with low spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in mid-life women, we examined a large number of lifestyle and medical and performance measurements and developed a prediction model for triage to BMD scanning...
June 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647775/a-natural-calcium-rich-marine-multi-mineral-complex-preserves-bone-structure-composition-and-strength-in-an-ovariectomised-rat-model-of-osteoporosis
#6
Orlaith Brennan, Joseph Sweeney, Brian O'Meara, Amro Widaa, Franck Bonnier, Hugh J Byrne, Denise M O'Gorman, Fergal J O'Brien
Calcium supplements are used as an aid in the prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis and also for the treatment of patients when used along with medication. Many of these supplements are calcium carbonate based. This study compared a calcium-rich, marine multi-mineral complex (Aquamin) to calcium carbonate in an ovariectomised rat model of osteoporosis in order to assess Aquamin's efficacy in preventing the onset of bone loss. Animals were randomly assigned to either non-ovariectomy control (Control), ovariectomy (OVX) plus calcium carbonate, ovariectomy plus Aquamin or ovariectomy plus Aquamin delay where Aquamin treatment started 8 weeks post OVX...
June 24, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646430/mechanical-strength-assessment-of-a-drilled-hole-in-the-contralateral-cortex-at-the-end-of-the-open-wedge-for-high-tibial-osteotomy
#7
Arnaud Diffo Kaze, Stefan Maas, Alexander Hoffmann, Dietrich Pape
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate, by means of finite element analysis, the effect of a drill hole at the end of a horizontal osteotomy to reduce the risk of lateral cortex fracture while performing an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). The question was whether drilling a hole relieves stress and increases the maximum correction angle without fracture of the lateral cortex depending on the ductility of the cortical bone. METHODS: Two different types of osteotomy cuts were considered; one with a drill hole (diameter 5 mm) and the other without the hole...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645850/biomechanical-analysis-using-fea-and-experiments-of-a-standard-plate-method-versus-three-cable-methods-for-fixing-acetabular-fractures-with-simultaneous-tha
#8
Mina S R Aziz, Omar Dessouki, Saeid Samiezadeh, Habiba Bougherara, Emil H Schemitsch, Radovan Zdero
Acetabular fractures potentially account for up to half of all pelvic fractures, while pelvic fractures potentially account for over one-tenth of all human bone fractures. This is the first biomechanical study to assess acetabular fracture fixation using plates versus cables in the presence of a total hip arthroplasty, as done for the elderly. In Phase 1, finite element (FE) models compared a standard plate method versus 3 cable methods for repairing an acetabular fracture (type: anterior column plus posterior hemi-transverse) subjected to a physiological-type compressive load of 2207N representing 3 x body weight for a 75kg person during walking...
June 20, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645665/experimental-evaluation-of-stress-distribution-with-narrow-diameter-implants-a-finite-element-analysis
#9
Sezgi Cinel, Ersan Celik, Elcin Sagirkaya, Onur Sahin
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Narrow diameter implants were developed to allow placement in narrow alveolar ridges. Clinicians may have concerns about the durability and function of such implants. PURPOSE: The purpose of this finite element study was to compare the stress values occurring on the implant and at the implant bone interface after the application of the static and dynamic forces on narrow diameter, titanium and titanium-zirconia implants in the maxillary and mandibular second premolar region...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644943/failure-of-wrist-hemiarthroplasty
#10
Eric G Huish, Zachary Lum, H Brent Bamberger, Marc A Trzeciak
BACKGROUND: Wrist hemiarthroplasty has emerged as a motion-sparing option for severe wrist arthritis. It is technically easy with advantages of limited bone resection and no risk of nonunion. Given the relative infancy of the procedure in clinical practice, there are limited data on patient outcomes. METHODS: Eleven patients were treated with wrist reconstructive hemiarthroplasty. Indications included 1 patient with scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse, 9 patients with scapholunate advanced collapse, and 1 patient with capitolunate arthritis...
July 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643915/preface-to-coast-2016-innovators-workshop-on-personalized-and-precision-orthodontic-therapy
#11
J C Nickel, D A Covell, S A Frazier-Bowers, S Kapila, S S Huja, L R Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: A second focused workshop explored how to transfer novel findings into clinical orthodontic practice. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Participants met in West Palm Beach (Florida, USA), on 9-11 September 2016 for the Consortium for Orthodontic Advances in Science and Technology 2016 Innovators' Workshop (COAST). Approximately 65 registered attendees considered and discussed information from 27 to 34 speakers, 8 to 15 poster presenters and four lunch-hour focus group leaders...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642853/paget-s-disease-skeletal-manifestations-and-effect-of-bisphosphonates
#12
Ho Kang, Young-Chang Park, Kyu Hyun Yang
BACKGROUND: Paget's disease of bone leads to change in the shape and size of the bone and results in reduced bone strength, leading to the complications of deformity, arthritis, and fracture. Due to unknown reasons, Paget's disease is rare in Asian descendants. We report the cases of Paget's disease who visited our institute for 15 years and reviewed the literatures. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiograms of 8 patients (6 female and 2 male) who were diagnosed as Paget's disease of bone...
May 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642196/gdf5-significantly-augments-the-bone-formation-induced-by-an-injectable-plga-fiber-reinforced-brushite-forming-cement-in-a-sheep-defect-model-of-lumbar-osteopenia
#13
Matthias Bungartz, Elke Kunisch, Stefan Maenz, Victoria Horbert, Long Xin, Francesca Gunnella, Joerg Mika, Juliane Borowski, Sabine Bischoff, Harald Schubert, Andre Sachse, Bernhard Illerhaus, Jens Günster, Jörg Bossert, Klaus D Jandt, Frank Plöger, Raimund W Kinne, Olaf Brinkmann
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Biodegradable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) represents a promising option for the surgical treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Due to augmented local bone catabolism, however, additional targeted delivery of bone morphogenetic proteins with the CPC may be needed to promote rapid and complete bone regeneration. PURPOSE: In the present study, an injectable, poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA)-fiber reinforced, brushite-forming cement (CPC) containing the bone morphogenetic protein GDF5 was tested in a sheep lumbar osteopenia model...
June 19, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640230/total-flavonoids-of-drynariae-rhizoma-prevent-bone-loss-induced-by-hindlimb-unloading-in-rats
#14
Shuanghong Song, Ziyang Gao, Xujun Lei, Yinbo Niu, Yuan Zhang, Cuiqin Li, Yi Lu, Zhezhi Wang, Peng Shang
Drynariae Rhizoma is a kidney-tonifying herb that has a long history in clinical practice for the treatment of bone fractures and joint diseases in China. Flavonoids are considered to be its major active ingredients and are reported to ease bone loss in ovariectomized rats. However, the beneficial effects of the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma on osteoporosis caused by microgravity or mechanical inactivity remain unknown. This study assessed the effects of total Drynariae Rhizoma flavonoids (DRTF, Qihuang, Beijing, China, national medicine permit No...
June 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639560/mechanical-properties-of-decellularized-extracellular-matrix-coated-with-ticapcon-film
#15
I V Sukhorukova, A N Sheveyko, K L Firestein, Ph V Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, D Golberg, D V Shtansky
For the first time the surface of decellularized extracellular matrix (DECM) was modified via deposition of a multicomponent bioactive nanostructured film for improvement of the DECM's mechanical properties. TiCaPCON films were deposited onto the surface of intact and decellularized ulna, radius, and humerus bones by magnetron sputtering of TiC0.5 + 10%Ca3(PO4)2 and Ti targets in a gaseous mixture of Ar + N2. The film structure was studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy...
June 22, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639437/ultrasound-assisted-green-economic-synthesis-of-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticles-using-eggshell-bio-waste-and-study-of-mechanical-and-biological-properties-for-orthopaedic-applications
#16
Vijay H Ingole, Kamal Hany Hussein, Anil A Kashale, Kalyani Ghule, Tomaž Vuherer, Vanja Kokol, Jia-Yaw Chang, Yong-Chien Ling, Aruna Vinchurkar, Hom N Dhakal, Anil V Ghule
Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HAp) is most favorable candidate biomaterial for bone tissue engineering because of its bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Herein, we report for the first time ultrasound assisted facile and economic approach for the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4 )6 (OH)2 ) using recycled eggshell bio-waste referred as EHAp. The process involves the reaction of eggshell bio-waste as a source of calcium and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate as a phosphate source...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638344/the-beneficial-effects-of-bisphosphonate-enoxacin-on-cortical-bone-mass-and-strength-in-ovariectomized-rats
#17
Xuqiang Liu, Xinhua Qu, Tao Nie, Zanjing Zhai, Haowei Li, Zhengxiao Ouyang, An Qin, Shuhong Zhang, Shuangyan Zhang, Qiming Fan, Tingting Tang, Zhifeng Yu, Min Dai
Osteoporosis is a major age-related bone disease characterized by low bone mineral density and a high risk of fractures. Bisphosphonates are considered as effective agents treating osteoporosis. However, long-term use of bisphosphonates is associated with some serious side effects, which limits the widespread clinical use of bisphosphonates. Here, we demonstrate a novel type of bone-targeting anti-resorptive agent, bisphosphonate-enoxacin (BE). In this study, ovariectomized rat model was established and treated with PBS, zoledronate (50 μg/kg) and different dose of BE (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637283/an-essential-physiological-role-for-mct8-in-bone-in-male-mice
#18
Victoria D Leitch, Caterina Di Cosmo, Xiao-Hui Liao, Sam O'Boy, Thomas M Galliford, Holly Evans, Peter I Croucher, Alan Boyde, Alexandra Dumitrescu, Roy E Weiss, Samuel Refetoff, Graham R Williams, J H Duncan Bassett
T3 is an important regulator of skeletal development and adult bone maintenance. Thyroid hormone action requires efficient transport of T4 and T3 into target cells. We hypothesized that monocarboxylate transporter-8, encoded by Mct8 on the X-chromosome, is an essential thyroid hormone transporter in bone. To test this hypothesis, we determined the juvenile and adult skeletal phenotypes of male Mct8 knockout mice (Mct8KO) and Mct8D1D2KO compound mutants, which additionally lack the ability to convert the prohormone T4 to the active hormone T3...
June 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634008/aging-associated-modifications-of-collagen-affect-its-degradation-by-matrix-metalloproteinases
#19
Preety Panwar, Georgina S Butler, Andrew Jamroz, Pouya Azizi, Christopher M Overall, Dieter Brömme
The natural aging process and various pathologies correlate with alterations in the composition and the structural and mechanical integrity of the connective tissue. Collagens represent the most abundant matrix proteins and provide for the overall stiffness and resilience of tissues. The structural changes of collagens and their susceptibility to degradation are associated with skin wrinkling, bone and cartilage deterioration, as well as cardiovascular and respiratory malfunctions. Here, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are major contributors to tissue remodeling and collagen degradation...
June 17, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633929/biomechanical-evaluation-of-different-osteosynthesis-methods-after-mandibular-sagittal-split-osteotomy-in-major-advancements
#20
G B G Klein, G C B Mendes, P D Ribeiro Junior, A Viswanath, M Papageorge
The aim of this study was to assess the biomechanical stability of six different osteosynthesis methods after sagittal split osteotomy. Sixty polyurethane hemimandibles were divided into two groups, with six subgroups in each. After 10-mm advancement of the distal segment (group 1) and 10-mm advancement combined with 20° counterclockwise rotation (group 2), the bone segments were fixed using 2.0-mm plates/screws as follows: subgroup A, one conventional straight plate; subgroup B, two conventional straight plates; subgroup C, one conventional sagittal plate; subgroup D, one locking straight plate; subgroup E, two locking straight plates; subgroup F, one locking sagittal plate...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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