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Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, Neelakshi Dutta, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) may have unsuspected addiction potential through possessing stimulant properties. Stimulants normally act at the dopamine transporter (DAT) and thus increase dopamine (DA) availability in the brain, including nucleus accumbens, within the reward and addiction pathway. This paper aims to assess DAT responses to dissociative diarylethylamine NPS by means of in vitro and in silico approaches. We compared diphenidine (DPH) and 2-methoxydiphenidine (methoxphenidine, 2-MXP/MXP) for their binding to rat DAT, using autoradiography assessment of [125 I]RTI-121 displacement in rat striatal sections...
April 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
Joyce M Storm, Roger Wolman, Eric W P Bakker, Matthew A Wyon
Background: The frequent and intensive training and performance of pre-professional ballet dancers and sportspersons is offered at a time when young ballet dancers and young athletes may be vulnerable to injury due to the progress through adolescence and growth spurts. Hypothesis: There are changes in range of motion during the progress through adolescence and growth periods in dancers and sportspersons. These changes in ROM can be linked to the increase of injury. Objectives: The primary aim of this systematic review is to determine whether there are changes in ROM during the progress through adolescence and growth spurts in dancers and sportspersons...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Todd L Richards, Virginia W Berninger, Kevin Yagle, Robert D Abbott, Dan Peterson
In students in grades 4 to 9 (22 males, 20 females), two reading disability groups-dyslexia ( n = 20) or oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) ( n = 6)-were compared to each other and two kinds of control groups-typical readers ( n = 6) or dysgraphia ( n = 10) on word reading/spelling skills and fMRI imaging before and after completing 18 computerized reading lessons. Mixed ANOVAs showed significant time effects on repeated measures within participants and between groups effects on three behavioral markers of reading disabilities-word reading/spelling: All groups improved on the three behavioral measures, but those without disabilities remained higher than those with reading disabilities...
2018: Cogent Psychology
Wei-Te Lei, Chien-Yu Lin, Yu-Hsuan Kao, Cheng-Hung Lee, Chao-Hsu Lin, Shyh-Dar Shyur, Kuender-Der Yang, Jian-Han Chen
Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an immune-mediated systemic vasculitis, and infection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of KD. The susceptibility to infectious disease in patients with KD remains largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the risk of respiratory tract infection (RTI)-related hospitalizations in children with KD. Methods: Data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was analyzed. We excluded patients with history of congenital abnormality, allergic diseases, or hospitalization history...
2018: PeerJ
Elizabeth Munoz, Robert S Stawski, Martin J Sliwinski, Joshua M Smyth, Stuart W S MacDonald
Objectives: Response time inconsistency (RTI)-or trial-to-trial variability in speeded performance-is increasingly recognized as an indicator of transient lapses of attention, cognitive health status, and central nervous system integrity, as well as a potential early indicator of normal and pathological cognitive aging (Hultsch, Strauss, Hunter, & MacDonald, 2008; MacDonald, Li, & Bäckman, 2009). Comparatively, little research has examined personality predictors of RTI across adulthood...
March 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Christian-Julian Villabona-Arenas, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Avelin Fobang Aghokeng, Emilande Guichet, Coumba Toure-Kane, Guillaume Bado, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Eric Delaporte, Laura Ciaffi, Martine Peeters
Second-line therapy randomized trials with Lopinavir/Ritonavir question the value of resistance testing to guide Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors selection. Here, we investigated the association between baseline drug resistance and treatment outcome after 104 weeks of second-line therapy with NRTIs and either Darunavir/Ritonavir or Lopinavir/Ritonavir in West-central Africa. We did an observational analysis of data from 387 individuals in the randomized, open-label 2LADY trial in Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Senegal...
March 25, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Joel Monárrez-Espino, Lucie Laflamme, Hans-Yngve Berg
INTRODUCTION: Assessments of the impact of road traffic injuries (RTIs) on quality of life (QoL) can benefit from the use of combined characteristics of the injurious event. AIM: The burden of having sustained a RTI was computed using a composite score that comprised three elements (i.e. number of injuries sustained in the crash, body parts affected, and severity of the injuries) that relate to the probability of subsequent long-term QoL lost by individuals 1-4 years after the crash...
March 21, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Domenico Careddu, Andrea Pettenazzo
Background: In numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews such as those published by the Cochrane Collaboration, Pelargonium sidoides extract EPs® 7630 was shown to be effective in acute respiratory tract infections (aRTI) in all investigated age-groups. This narrative review focuses on recently published results from RCTs investigating the clinical efficacy and safety of EPs 7630 in children and adolescents with different manifestations of aRTI, in order to present a broader overview and to provide an update on the state of knowledge regarding the use of EPs 7630 in this age-group...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Susanna Esposito, Manuel E Soto-Martinez, Wojciech Feleszko, Marcus H Jones, Kun-Ling Shen, Urs B Schaad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the mechanistic and clinical evidence for the use of nonspecific immunomodulators in paediatric respiratory tract infection (RTI) and wheezing/asthma prophylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonspecific immunomodulators have a long history of empirical use for the prevention of RTIs in vulnerable populations, such as children. The past decade has seen an increase in both the number and quality of studies providing mechanistic and clinical evidence for the prophylactic potential of nonspecific immunomodulators against both respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma in the paediatric population...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sattha Riyapan, Phanthanee Thitichai, Wansiri Chaisirin, Tanyaporn Nakornchai, Tipa Chakorn
Introduction: Thailand has the highest mortality from road traffic injury (RTI) in the world. There are usually higher incident rates of RTI in Thailand over long holidays such as New Year and Songkran. To our knowledge, there have been no studies that describe the impact of emergency medical service (EMS) utilization by RTI patients in Thailand. We sought to determine the outcomes of EMS utilization in severe RTIs during the holidays. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review study by using a nationwide registry that collected RTI data from all hospitals in Thailand during the New Year holidays in 2008-2015 and Songkran holidays in 2008-2014...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marte Meyer Walle-Hansen, Sigurd Høye
Antibiotic consumption varies greatly between Norwegian municipalities. We examine whether this variation is associated with inhabitants' consultation rates or general practitioners' (GP) prescription rates. Our study comprises consultations and antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in general practice in all Norwegian municipalities with over 5000 inhabitants in 2014. Data was collected from The Norwegian Prescription Database, The Directorate of Health's system for control and payment of health reimbursements registry and Norway Statistics...
March 20, 2018: Antibiotics
Esther T van der Werf, Lorna J Duncan, Paschen von Flotow, Erik W Baars
OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in antibiotic prescription rates between conventional General Practice (GP) surgeries and GP surgeries employing general practitioners (GPs) additionally trained in integrative medicine (IM) or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (referred to as IM GPs) working within National Health Service (NHS) England. DESIGN: Retrospective study on antibiotic prescription rates per STAR-PU (Specific Therapeutic group Age-sex weighting Related Prescribing Unit) using NHS Digital data over 2016...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Anna Köchling, Christin Löffler, Stefan Reinsch, Anne Hornung, Femke Böhmer, Attila Altiner, Jean-François Chenot
BACKGROUND: Although most respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are due to viral infections, they cause the majority of antibiotic (Abx) prescriptions in primary care. This systematic review summarises the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions in primary care aiming to reduce Abx prescriptions in patients ≥ 13 years for acute RTI. METHODS: We searched the databases "MEDLINE/PubMed" and "Cochrane Library" for the period from January 1, 2005, to August 31, 2016, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in primary care aiming at the reduction of Abx prescriptions for patients suffering from RTI...
March 20, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Maria Punchak, Jihad Abdelgadir, Oscar Obiga, Martha Itait, Josephine N Najjuma, Michael M Haglund, David Kitya
BACKGROUND: RTIs, falls and violence contribute to more than two thirds of pediatric TBIs in SSA. In this study, we sought to assess mechanisms of pediatric TBI in an effort to propose interventions for more effective pediatric head injury prevention. METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients who were <18 years treated at MRRH between November 2016 and June 2017 were enrolled in the study. Information on etiology of injury was obtained via a questionnaire administered to patient caretakers at the time of admission...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Patricia Crespo, Juan E Jiménez, Cristina Rodríguez, Doris Baker, Yonghan Park
The present study compares the patterns of growth of beginning reading skills (i.e., phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension) of Spanish speaking monolingual students who received a Tier 2 reading intervention with students who did not receive the intervention. All the students in grades K-2 were screened at the beginning of the year to confirm their risk status. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design was used: the treatment group received a supplemental program in small groups of 3 to 5 students, for 30 minutes daily from November to June...
March 9, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
F Christiaan K Dolk, Koen B Pouwels, David R M Smith, Julie V Robotham, Timo Smieszek
Objectives: To analyse antibiotic prescribing behaviour in English primary care with particular regard to which antibiotics are prescribed and for which conditions. Methods: Primary care data from 2013-15 recorded in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database were analysed. Records with a prescription for systemic antibiotics were extracted and linked to co-occurring diagnostic codes, which were used to attribute prescriptions to clinical conditions. We further assessed which antibiotic classes were prescribed and which conditions resulted in the greatest share of prescribing...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Marie Hasselberg, Marie Kirsebom, Josefin Bäckström, Hans-Yngve Berg, Ritva Rissanen
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, injuries represent one of the leading causes of mortality, and nearly one-quarter of all injuries are road traffic related. In many high-income countries, the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) has shifted from premature death to injury and disability with long-term consequences; therefore, it is important to assess the full burden of an RTI on individual lives. OBJECTIVE: To describe how men and women with minor and moderate injuries reported the consequences of an RTI on their health and lives...
February 24, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Ting Zhang, Steven N Chillrud, Masha Pitiranggon, James Ross, Junfeng Ji, Beizhan Yan
BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is associated with various adverse health outcomes. The MicroPEM (RTI, NC), a miniaturized real-time portable particulate sensor with an integrated filter for collecting particles, has been widely used for personal PM2.5 exposure assessment. Five-day deployments were targeted on a total of 142 deployments (personal or residential) to obtain real-time PM2.5 levels from children living in New York City and Baltimore. Among these 142 deployments, 79 applied high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the field at the beginning and end of each deployment to adjust the zero level of the nephelometer...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Research
Amie Hayley, Maja Green, Luke Downey, Michael Keane, Panagiota Kostakis, Yahya Shehabi
BACKGROUND: The acute and delayed effect of analgesic-range doses of ketamine on neurocognitive and behavioural outcomes is understudied. Using a non-controlled open-labelled design, three (1-h duration) increasing intravenous (IV) ketamine infusions comprising (i) 30 mg bolus of ketamine + 8 mg/h IV infusion, (ii) 12 mg/h IV infusion and (iii) 20 mg/h infusion were administered to 20 participants (15 male, 5 female, mean age = 30.8 years). Whole-blood ketamine and norketamine concentrations were determined at each treatment step and post-infusion...
February 23, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Syed Nabeel Zafar, Joseph K Canner, Neeraja Nagarajan, Adam L Kushner
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The burden is highest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and is increasing. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of RTIs in 4 low-income countries using nationally representative survey data. METHODS: The Surgeons Overseas Assessment of Surgical Needs (SOSAS) survey tool was administered in four countries: Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Nepal and Uganda. We performed nationally representative cross-sectional, cluster randomized surveys in each country...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
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