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Heli Siikamäki, Pia Kivelä, Mikael Fotopoulos, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: Although infections represent the most common health problem of travellers abroad, data on morbidity and incidences of various infections are scarce. METHOD: Data on infections of Finnish travellers during 2010 to 2012 were retrieved from the database of SOS International, an assistance organization covering 95% of Finns requiring aid abroad. The study included 30,086 cases. For incidence calculation, the data were linked to the numbers of Finns visiting these regions during the same period as recorded by the Official Statistics of Finland...
October 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
V R Badhwar, S Ganapathy, P P Prabhudesai, N K Tulara, A Y Varaiya, D Vyas
In community and family practice, infections are a common OPD presentation. In the management of common bacterial infections seen in community especially RTI, UTI, SSTI; cefuroxime a second generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity can be used for empirical treatment. To know current place of cefuroxime in the management of infections, physicians, surgeons, microbiologist, chest physician, gynecologist and pediatrician came together to discuss and debate their experience with cefuroxime and its place in today's world...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
(no author information available yet)
Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are among the most common acute conditions leading to GP consultations and to antibiotic prescribing in primary care, even though 70% are viral, and many others are minor self-limiting bacterial infections.(1-4) Between 0.5% and 1.1% of adults have community-acquired pneumonia every year in the UK, most of whom are managed in primary care.(4,5) The decision to prescribe antibiotics for an acute RTI in primary care is often based on clinical symptoms, which have low sensitivity and specificity, and high inter-observer variability...
October 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
Drew W R Halliday, Robert S Stawski, Stuart W S MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: Response time inconsistency (RTI) in cognitive performance predicts deleterious health outcomes in late-life; however, RTI estimates are often confounded by additional influences (e.g., individual differences in learning). Finger tapping is a basic sensorimotor measure largely independent of higher-order cognition that may circumvent such confounds of RTI estimates. We examined the within-person coupling of finger-tapping mean and RTI on working memory, and the moderation of these associations by cognitive status...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
S Michael Owens, Gerald T Pollard, James L Howard, Timothy R Fennell, Rodney W Snyder, F Ivy Carroll
JDTic is a potent and selective κ-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist that reverses U50,488-induced diuresis in rats. It partitions into brain with a duration of action lasting for weeks. In a search for KOR antagonists that do not accumulate in the brain, we compared single doses of five methylated JDTic analogs (RTI-97, -194, -212, -240, and -241) for reversal of U50,488 diuresis and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. All six compounds showed potent and selective KOR antagonism in a [(35)S]GTPγS binding assay...
October 4, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Hana Čipčić Paljetak, Linda Tomašković, Mario Matijašić, Mirjana Bukvić, Andrea Fajdetić, Donatella Verbanac, Mihaela Perića
5-LOX - 5-lipoxygenase; ACT - artemisinin-based combination therapies; ADME - absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion; BAL - broncho alveolar lavage; CABP - community acquired bacterial pneumonia; cAMP - cyclic adenosine monophosphate; CAP - community-acquired pneumonia; CF - cystic fibrosis, BOS bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome; cGMP - cyclic guanosine monophosphate; COPD - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COX - cyclooxygenase; DPB - diffuse panbronchiolitis; HDACs - histone deacetylases; IBD - inflammatory bowel disease; IL-1p - interleukin 1p; IL-6 - interleukin 6; MIC - minimal inhibitory concentrations; MLSB - macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B; NSAIDs - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; OVA - ovalbumin; PDE4 - phosphodiesterase 4; PMA - phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; RA - rheumatoid arthritis; RTI - respiratory tract infections; SAHA - suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; SAR - structure-activity-relationship; Th1 - type 1 helper T-cell; TNBS - trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid; TNF-α - tumour necrosis factor α; UN - United Nations, WHO - World Health Organisation...
September 27, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
D Khoshdel-Navi, A Shabestani-Monfared, M R Deevband, R Abdi, M Nabahati
BACKGROUND: The most efficient application of ionizing radiation is serving medical purposes and using this radiation has caused people to learn that artificial sources of radiation exposure among these resources can be of highest exposure rate. OBIECTIVE: The present study is aimed at initially establishing a baseline for local-reference dose level in Mazandaran, Iran in 12 projections of the most conventional x-ray examination. METHODS: In this study, 13 public hospitals in Mazandaran province were selected for review and required data collected for ten adult patients with mean weight of 70±10kg in each projection...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Enesia Banda Chaponda, R Matthew Chico, Jane Bruce, Charles Michelo, Bellington Vwalika, Sungano Mharakurwa, Mike Chaponda, James Chipeta, Daniel Chandramohan
Malarial infection and curable sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs) are important causes of adverse birth outcomes. Reducing the burden of these infections in pregnancy requires interventions that can be easily integrated into the antenatal care (ANC) package. However, efforts to integrate the control of malarial infection and curable STIs/RTIs in pregnancy have been hampered by a lack of evidence related to their coinfection. Thus, we investigated the prevalence of coinfection among pregnant women of rural Zambia...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Colin S Cunningham, Megan J Moerke, Martin A Javors, F Ivy Carroll, Lance R McMahon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic treatment can differentially impact the effects of pharmacologically related drugs that differ in receptor selectivity and efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The impact of daily nicotine treatment on the effects of nAChR agonists was examined in two groups of rhesus monkeys discriminating nicotine (1.78 mg•kg(-1) base weight) from saline. One group received additional nicotine treatment post-session (1.78 mg•kg(-1) administered 5 times daily, each dose 2 h apart; i...
September 25, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Danielle Vuichard Gysin, Dyda Dao, Christian Michael Gysin, Lyubov Lytvyn, Mark Loeb
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D supplementation may be a simple preventive measure against respiratory tract infections (RTIs) but evidence from randomized controlled trials is inconclusive. We aimed to systematically summarize results from interventions studying the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation on clinical and laboratory confirmed RTIs in healthy adults and children. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL were screened from inception until present (last updated in January 2016) completed by a search of the grey literature, clinical trial registers and conference abstracts...
2016: PloS One
Huilin Lai, Aiguo Xu, Guangcai Zhang, Yanbiao Gan, Yangjun Ying, Sauro Succi
The effects of compressibility on Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) are investigated by inspecting the interplay between thermodynamic and hydrodynamic nonequilibrium phenomena (TNE, HNE, respectively) via a discrete Boltzmann model. Two effective approaches are presented, one tracking the evolution of the local TNE effects and the other focusing on the evolution of the mean temperature of the fluid, to track the complex interfaces separating the bubble and the spike regions of the flow. It is found that both the compressibility effects and the global TNE intensity show opposite trends in the initial and the later stages of the RTI...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
Gloria Cordoba, Lidia Caballero, Håkon Sandholdt, Fátima Arteaga, Monica Olinisky, Luis Fabián Ruschel, Marjukka Makela, Lars Bjerrum
OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare antibiotic prescribing patterns for primary care patients with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in four South American countries. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. General practitioners (GPs) from Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay registered data about all consultations of patients with suspected RTIs in the winter of 2014 (June-August). Variation in antibiotic prescriptions was assessed using a two-level hierarchical logistic model...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Habip Almis, Ibrahim Hakan Bucak, Muhammed Nebi Caliskan, Mehmet Turgut
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D 3] values and incidences of primary epistaxis among children. METHODS: A total of 42 cases and 55 matched controls were included in our study. The study group and control group were well matched for age and gender. Age, gender, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) with reference to the international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), and 25(OH)D 3, parathormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) values were recorded for each participant...
October 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Hamid Soori, Kamyar Mansori, Manoochehr Karami, Erfan Ayubi, Salman Khazaei
Purpose: Speeding and passing are considered as the main human factors resulting in road traffic injuries (RTIs). This study aimed to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) of speeding and passing in rural Iran RTIs during 2012. Methods: The contribution of speeding and passing in RTI related morbidity and mortality was calculated using PAF. The prevalence of speeding and passing was obtained from national traffic police data registry. A logistic regression model was run to measure the association between the above risk factors and RTIs...
August 29, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Taciana Furtado de Mendonça Belmont, Kleyton Palmeira do Ó, Andreia Soares da Silva, Kamila de Melo Vilar, Fernanda Silva Medeiros, Luydson Richardson Silva Vasconcelos, Ana Claudia Mendonça Dos Anjos, Betânia Lucena Domingues Hatzlhofer, Maíra Galdino da Rocha Pitta, Marcos André Cavalcanti Bezerra, Aderson da Silva Araújo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo Rego, Patrícia Moura, Maria do Socorro Mendonça Cavalcanti
INTRODUCTION: Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may present chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion and respiratory tract infection (RTI) episodes. Galectin-3 (GAL-3) is a multifunctional protein involved in inflammation, apoptosis, adhesion and resistance to reactive oxygen species. Studies point to a dual role for GAL-3 as both a circulation damage-associated molecular pattern and a cell membrane associated pattern recognition receptor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between the SNPs of GAL-3 gene (LGALS3) and serum levels with RTI and vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in children with SCA...
2016: PloS One
Christian Julián Villabona-Arenas, Nicole Vidal, Emilande Guichet, Laetitia Serrano, Eric Delaporte, Olivier Gascuel, Martine Peeters
OBJECTIVE: In resource-limited countries (RLC), antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been scaled up, but individual monitoring is still sub-optimal. Here we studied whether or not ART had an impact on the frequency and selection of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) under these settings. We also examined whether differences exist between HIV-1 genetic variants. DESIGN: A total of 3,736 sequences from individuals failing standard first-line ART (n = 1,599, AZT/d4T+3TC+NVP/EFV) were analyzed and compared to sequences from reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)-naïve individuals (n = 2,137) from 10 West and Central Africa countries...
September 6, 2016: AIDS
Shanaaz Mathews, Lorna J Martin, David Coetzee, Chris Scott, Threnesan Naidoo, Yasheen Brijmohun, Karisha Quarrie
BACKGROUND: Child mortality trends in South Africa (SA) show a decrease, but remain high and appear to have plateaued. To attain the new sustainable development goals, we need a better understanding of causes of death and the associated factors. OBJECTIVES: To describe the SA child death review (CDR) pilot, the pattern of child deaths reviewed and the factors associated with these deaths. METHODS: CDR teams were established at two pilot sites, Salt River mortuary (Western Cape Province) and Phoenix mortuary (KwaZulu-Natal Province)...
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Richard Pugh, Wendy Harrison, Susan Harris, Hywel Roberts, Gareth Scholey, Tamas Szakmany
INTRODUCTION: The reported incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in Wales is low compared with surveillance data from other European regions. It is unclear whether this reflects success of the Welsh healthcare-associated infection prevention measures or limitations in the application of European VAP surveillance methods. Our primary aim was to investigate episodes of ventilator-associated respiratory tract infection (VARTI), to identify episodes that met established criteria for VAP, and to explore reasons why others did not, according to the Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS) definitions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Emma C Anderson, Suzanne Marie Ingle, Peter Muir, Charles Beck, Adam Finn, John Peter Leeming, Christie Cabral, Joanna May Kesten, Alastair D Hay
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown...
2016: BMJ Open
S Treviño-Siller, L E Pacheco-Magaña, P Bonilla-Fernández, C Rueda-Neria, L Arenas-Monreal
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe a public school-based educational intervention (EI) designed to increase knowledge, improve attitudes, and change practices related to road safety. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods evaluation of a road traffic safety baseline diagnosis conducted in 4 public schools, 2 primary and 2 secondary. Research was organized into 4 phases: (1) diagnosis, (2) EI design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation. We used convenience sampling (n = 219 students) across schools and applied a pre-/posttest design based on quantitative and qualitative data...
August 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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