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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433836/recent-advances-in-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-guidelines-for-primary-and-secondary-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#1
REVIEW
Smita Ramachandran, Fauzia Zaidi, Archana Aggarwal, Rani Gera
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by excessive activation of macrophages and T cells resulting from defective cytotoxicity. It is potentially life threatening due to the large amounts of cytokines released by the activated macrophages and lymphocytes secondary to a hyperinflammatory response. It has a high fatality in children with an incidence of approximately 1.2cases/million per year. METHOD: The literature was extensively searched in PubMed, MEDLINE and Google scholar...
November 3, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429673/hydroxytyrosol-attenuates-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-by-regulating-autophagy-and-sirtuin-expression
#2
X Yang, T Jing, Y Li, Y He, B Wang, W Zhang, Y Xiao, W Wang, J Zhang, J Wei, R Lin
BACKGROUND: Recently, the effects of hydroxytyrosol on autophagy during acute lung injury (ALI) have drawn increasing attention. OBJECTIVE: We explored the underlying molecular mechanisms by which hydroxytyrosol exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of ALI by up-regulating autophagy. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice, challenged with intranasal instillations of LPS, were treated with or without hydroxytyrosol (HT, 100 mg/kg, intragastrically) 1 h prior to LPS exposure...
April 21, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416934/sepsis-and-septic-shock-current-treatment-strategies-and-new-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Gizem Polat, Rustem Anil Ugan, Elif Cadirci, Zekai Halici
Sepsis is a complex condition characterized by the simultaneous activation of inflammation and coagulation in response to microbial insult. These events manifest as systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis symptoms through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, procoagulants, and adhesion molecules from immune cells and/or damaged endothelium. Today, sepsis is a severe multisystem disease with difficult treatments for its manifestations and high mortality rates. In the last two decades in particular, many studies have been conducted on sepsis that cause shock, multiorgan dysfunction, and organ failure by especially leading to hemodynamic changes...
February 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414075/vitamin-b2-deficiency-enhances-the-pro-inflammatory-activity-of-adipocyte-consequences-for-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-development
#4
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Ewa Pocheć
AIMS: Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ important for regulation of such physiological processes as energy metabolism or lipids homeostasis. In an obesity state, it participates in the induction of chronic systemic inflammation accompanied by pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty acid elevation. For this reasons, adipose tissue is involved in, e.g., insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes or hyperlipidemia development. In our previous study, we have shown that riboflavin deficiency induces a pathological pro-inflammatory response of macrophages, the main component of adipose tissue...
April 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413717/advances-of-cd19-directed-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells-in-refractory-relapsed-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#5
REVIEW
Guoqing Wei, Lijuan Ding, Jiasheng Wang, Yongxian Hu, He Huang
Refractory/relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains to be a significant cause of cancer-associated morbidity and mortality for children and adults. Developing novel and effective molecular-targeted approaches is thus a major priority. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell (CAR-T) therapy, as one of the most promising targeted immunotherapies, has drawn extensive attention and resulted in multiple applications. According to published studies, CD19-directed CAR-T cells (CD19 CAR-T) can reach a complete remission rate of 94% in both children and adults with refractory/relapsed ALL, much higher than that of chemotherapy...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409320/vitamin-d-sub-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-a-window-on-a-potential-role-for-the-interaction-between-bone-and-glucose-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Stefania Giuliana Garbossa, Franco Folli
Vitamin D is a key hormone involved in the regulation of calcium/phosphorous balance and recently it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sub-inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity. The two main forms of vitamin D are cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2): the active form (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) is the result of two hydroxylations that take place in liver, kidney, pancreas and immune cells. Vitamin D increases the production of some anti-inflammatory cytokines and reduces the release of some pro-inflammatory cytokines...
April 13, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408462/intent-to-treat-leukemia-remission-by-cd19car-t-cells-of-defined-formulation-and-dose-in-children-and-young-adults
#7
Rebecca A Gardner, Olivia Finney, Colleen Annesley, Hannah Brakke, Corinne Summers, Kasey Leger, Marie Bleakley, Christopher Brown, Stephanie Mgebroff, Karen Spratt, Virginia Hoglund, Catherine Lindgren, Assaf P Oron, Daniel Li, Stanley R Riddell, Julie R Park, Michael C Jensen
Transitioning CD19-directed CAR-T cells from early phase trials in relapsed patients to a viable therapeutic approach with predictable efficacy and low toxicity for broad application in patients with high unmet need is currently complicated by product heterogeneity resulting from transduction of undefined T cell mixtures, variability of transgene expression, and terminal differentiation of cells at the end of culture. A phase 1 trial of 45 children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-lineage ALL was conducted using a CD19 CAR product of defined CD4/CD8 composition, uniform CAR expression, and limited effector differentiation...
April 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408397/the-il-31-il-31-receptor-axis-general-features-and-role-in-tumor-microenvironment
#8
REVIEW
Elisa Ferretti, Anna Corcione, Vito Pistoia
IL-31 is a recently identified cytokine with a well-defined role in the pathogenesis of pruritus. IL-31, whose production is induced by IL-4 and IL-33, binds a heterodimeric receptor (R) composed of the exclusive IL-31RA chain and the shared oncostatin M R. Signaling through the IL-31R involves the MAPK, PI3K/AKT and Jak/STAT pathways. Different variants and isoforms of IL-31RA with different signaling activities have been identified. IL-31 is produced predominantly by circulating Th2 lymphocytes and skin-homing CLA(+)CD45RO(+) T cells...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407743/new-drugs-new-toxicities-severe-side-effects-of-modern-targeted-and-immunotherapy-of-cancer-and-their-management
#9
REVIEW
Frank Kroschinsky, Friedrich Stölzel, Simone von Bonin, Gernot Beutel, Matthias Kochanek, Michael Kiehl, Peter Schellongowski
Pharmacological and cellular treatment of cancer is changing dramatically with benefits for patient outcome and comfort, but also with new toxicity profiles. The majority of adverse events can be classified as mild or moderate, but severe and life-threatening complications requiring ICU admission also occur. This review will focus on pathophysiology, symptoms, and management of these events based on the available literature.While standard antineoplastic therapy is associated with immunosuppression and infections, some of the recent approaches induce overwhelming inflammation and autoimmunity...
April 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404891/hmgb1-promotes-differentiation-syndrome-by-inducing-hyperinflammation-via-mek-erk-signaling-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-cells
#10
Lanlan Tang, Wenwen Chai, Fanghua Ye, Yan Yu, Lizhi Cao, Minghua Yang, Min Xie, Liangchun Yang
Differentiation therapy based on all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is complicated by the development of differentiation syndrome (DS), which can be fatal. We examined the role of HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1) in DS using both in vitro and in vivo models. HMGB1 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were gradually released from NB4 and HL-60 cells treated with ATRA and/or ATO. Similarly, higher serum HMGB1 levels positively correlated with the clinical status of DS patients...
February 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404637/surfactant-inhibits-atp-induced-release-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-via-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#11
Soeren Backhaus, Anna Zakrzewicz, Katrin Richter, Jelena Damm, Sigrid Wilker, Gabriele Fuchs-Moll, Mira Kuellmar, Andreas Hecker, Ivan Manzini, Clemens Ruppert, J Michael McIntosh, Winfried Padberg, Veronika Grau
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity involved in host defense. High systemic IL-1β; levels, however, cause life-threatening inflammatory diseases including systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In response to various danger signals, pro-IL-1β; is synthesized and stays in the cytoplasm unless a second signal such as extracellular ATP activates the inflammasome, which enables processing and release of mature IL-1β. As pulmonary surfactant is known for its anti-inflammatory properties, we hypothesize that surfactant inhibits ATP-induced release of IL-1β...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402587/methotraxate-loaded-hybrid-nanoconstructs-target-vascular-lesions-and-inhibit-atherosclerosis-progression-in-apoe-mice
#12
Cinzia Stigliano, Maricela R Ramirez, Jaykrishna V Singh, Santosh Aryal, Jaehong Key, Elvin Blanco, Paolo Decuzzi
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder characterized by the progressive thickening of blood vessel walls eventually resulting in acute vascular syndromes. Here, intravenously injectable hybrid nanoconstructs are synthesized for tempering immune cell inflammation locally and systemically. Lipid and polymer chains are nanoprecipitated to form 100 nm spherical polymeric nanoconstructs (SPNs), loaded with methotrexate (MTX) and subsequently labeled with Cu(64) and fluorescent probes for combined nuclear/optical imaging...
April 12, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393216/cancer-induced-cardiac-cachexia-pathogenesis-and-impact-of-physical-activity-review
#13
Yassine Belloum, Françoise Rannou-Bekono, François B Favier
Cachexia is a wasting syndrome observed in many patients suffering from several chronic diseases including cancer. In addition to the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, cancer cachexia results in cardiac function impairment. During the severe stage of the disease, patients as well as animals bearing cancer cells display cardiac atrophy. Cardiac energy metabolism is also impeded with disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and reduced oxidative capacity, although the available data remain equivocal. The release of inflammatory cytokines by tumor is a key mechanism in the initiation of heart failure...
May 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376538/-hepatic-manifestation-of-a-macrophage-activation-syndrome-mas
#14
Michael Nagel, Andreas Schwarting, Beate K Straub, Peter R Galle, Tim Zimmermann
Background Elevated liver values are the most common pathological laboratory result in Germany. Frequent findings, especially in younger patients, are nutritive- or medicamentous- toxic reasons, viral or autoimmune hepatitis. A macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) may manifest like a viral infectious disease with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia and is associated with a high mortality. It is based on an enhanced activation of macrophages with increased cytokine release, leading to organ damage and multi-organ failure...
April 4, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373149/immune-system-activation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Zheng Chen, Gui-Quan Shen, Alexander Lerner, Bo Gao
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome characterized by a variable combination of headaches, seizures, altered mental status, visual impairment, focal neurological signs and symmetric vasogenic edema in bilateral posterior cerebral circulation territory. The pathogenesis of PRES is still controversial. Most of the clinical conditions associated with PRES involve a systemic toxicity response in the entire organism with activation of the cells of the immune system and cytokines...
March 31, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368347/the-role-of-th-17-cells-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-modulating-the-systemic-inflammatory-response-to-severe-burn-injury
#16
REVIEW
Albert Kim, Thomas Lang, Meilang Xue, Aruna Wijewardana, Chris Jackson, John Vandervord
Burns are a global public health problem, accounting for an estimated 265,000 deaths annually. Inflammation is essential in supplying the growth factors, cytokines and chemokines needed to recruit T-cells and myeloid cells to the site of a burn injury for wound healing. However, major burns generate a marked pathophysiological inflammatory response through a widespread release of abundant pro-inflammatory mediators that predispose patients to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis and multi-organ failure...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355115/complete-hematologic-and-molecular-response-in-adult-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-b-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-following-treatment-with-blinatumomab-results-from-a-phase-ii-single-arm-multicenter-study
#17
Giovanni Martinelli, Nicolas Boissel, Patrice Chevallier, Oliver Ottmann, Nicola Gökbuget, Max S Topp, Adele K Fielding, Alessandro Rambaldi, Ellen K Ritchie, Cristina Papayannidis, Lulu Ren Sterling, Jonathan Benjamin, Anthony Stein
Purpose Few therapeutic options are available for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who progress after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) -based therapy. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of blinatumomab in patients with relapsed or refractory Ph(+) ALL. Patients and Methods This open-label phase II study enrolled adults with Ph(+) ALL who had relapsed after or were refractory to at least one second-generation or later TKI or were intolerant to second-generation or later TKIs and intolerant or refractory to imatinib...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348556/t-cell-polarization-toward-th2-tfh2-and-th17-tfh17-in-patients-with-igg4-related-disease
#18
Aurélie Grados, Mikael Ebbo, Christelle Piperoglou, Matthieu Groh, Alexis Regent, Maxime Samson, Benjamin Terrier, Anderson Loundou, Nathalie Morel, Sylvain Audia, François Maurier, Julie Graveleau, Mohamed Hamidou, Amandine Forestier, Sylvain Palat, Emmanuelle Bernit, Bernard Bonotte, Catherine Farnarier, Jean-Robert Harlé, Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau, Frédéric Vély, Nicolas Schleinitz
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibro-inflammatory disorder involving virtually every organ with a risk of organ dysfunction. Despite recent studies regarding B cell and T cell compartments, the disease's pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We examined and characterized subsets of circulating lymphocytes in untreated patients with active IgG4-RD. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with biopsy-proven IgG4-RD were included in a prospective, multicentric study. Lymphocytes' subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry, with analysis of TH1/TH2/TH17, TFH cells, and cytokine release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347884/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-up-regulates-il-8-expression-through-tak-1-jnk-ap-1-pathways
#19
Yihao Liu, Yinping Du, Honglei Wang, Li Du, Wen-Hai Feng
The acute phase of respiratory distress caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is likely a consequence of the release of inflammatory cytokines in the lung. IL-8, the main chemokine and activator of neutrophils, might be related to the lung injury upon PRRSV infection. In this study, we showed that PRRSV induced IL-8 expression in vivo and in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB pathways were activated upon PRRSV infection and required for the enhancement of IL-8 expression...
June 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347805/%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-and-its-antibodies-involve-in-the-pathogenesis-of-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Aiping Bai
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by venous or arterial thrombosis, and associated with dysfunctions of endothelial cells and monocytes. β2-glycoprotein I is a phospholipid-binding glycoprotein, and its antibodies have been reported to correlate strongly with thrombotic risk and play putative role in the pathogenesis of APS, whereas the biofunctions of anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies remain largely uncertain. It is noted that β2-glycoprotein I exhibits direct interaction with membrane Toll-like receptors, and through this interaction, the complex of β2-glycoprotein I and its antibodies induces intracellular signals via Toll-like receptors, resulting in activation of endothelial cells and monocytes, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines...
March 24, 2017: Immunology Letters
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