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Parkinson's disease animal models

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222591/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-current-concepts-and-controversies
#1
REVIEW
Kurt A Jellinger
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease-dementia (PDD), although sharing many clinical, neurochemical and morphological features, according to DSM-5, are two entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies of unknown etiology. Despite considerable clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms: dementia often preceding parkinsonism in DLB and onset of cognitive impairment after onset of motor symptoms in PDD...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208474/caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-system-for-target-identification-and-drug-screening-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Liang Ma, Yudan Zhao, Yuchen Chen, Biao Cheng, Anlin Peng, Kun Huang
Over the past decades, C. elegans has been widely used as a model system because of its small size, transparent body, short generation time and lifespan (~3 days and 3 weeks, respectively), completely sequenced genome and tractability to genetic manipulation. Protein misfolding and aggregation are key pathological features in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Animal models, including Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199243/daphnane-and-phorbol-diterpenes-anti-neuroinflammatory-compounds-with-nurr1-activation-from-the-roots-and-stems-of-daphne-genkwa
#3
Baek-Soo Han, Nguyen Van Minh, Ha-Young Choi, Jung-Su Byun, Won-Gon Kim
The methanol extract of the roots and stems of Daphne genkwa and its constituents yuanhuacin (1) and genkwanine N were previously reported to have Nurr1 activating effects and neuroprotective effects in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, four more daphnane-type diterpenes (acutilonine F (2), wikstroemia factor M1 (3), yuanhuadine (5), and yuanhuatine (6)) and two phorbol-type diterpenes (prostratin Q (4) and 12-O-n-deca-2,4,6-trienoyl-phorbol-(13)-acetate (7)) were isolated as Nurr1 activating compounds from the D...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198021/alpha-synuclein-aggregation-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-impairment-and-l-dopa-response-in-zinc-induced-parkinsonism-resemblance-to-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Vinod Kumar, Deepali Singh, Brajesh Kumar Singh, Shweta Singh, Namrata Mittra, Rakesh Roshan Jha, Devendra Kumar Patel, Chetna Singh
Alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein) aggregation and impairment of the Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) are implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. While zinc (Zn) induces dopaminergic neurodegeneration resulting in PD phenotype, its effect on protein aggregation and UPS has not yet been deciphered. The current study investigated the role of α-synuclein aggregation and UPS in Zn-induced Parkinsonism. Additionally, levodopa (L-Dopa) response was assessed in Zn-induced Parkinsonian model to establish its closeness with idiopathic PD...
December 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196223/mild-hyperbaric-oxygen-inhibits-the-decrease-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-substantia-nigra-of-mice-with-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Yuina Kusuda, Ai Takemura, Masaki Nakano, Akihiko Ishihara
We examined whether exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen inhibits the decrease of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of a neurotoxic animal model with Parkinson's disease. Mice injected with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride and probenecid twice a week were divided into two groups: mice with mild hyperbaric oxygen and those without. The mice with mild hyperbaric oxygen were exposed to 1,317hPa with 45% oxygen for 3h, three times a week. The decrease in dopaminergic neurons in mice with Parkinson's disease was inhibited by 11 weeks of exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen...
November 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196142/new-transgenic-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-genome-editing-technology
#6
J A Cota-Coronado, S Sandoval-Ávila, Y P Gaytan-Dávila, N F Diaz, B Vega-Ruiz, E Padilla-Camberos, N E Díaz-Martínez
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterised by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which results in dopamine depletion, leading to a number of motor and non-motor symptoms. DEVELOPMENT: In recent years, the development of new animal models using nuclease-based genome-editing technology (ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases) has enabled the introduction of custom-made modifications into the genome to replicate key features of PD, leading to significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease...
November 28, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191463/raphe-pallidus-is-not-important-to-central-chemoreception-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Luiz M Oliveira, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura
Central chemoreceptors are primarily sensitive to changes in CO2/H+, and such changes lead to intense breathing activity. Medullary raphe and retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) neurons are candidates for central chemoreceptors because they are unusually pH sensitive. The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to the reduction of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) that express dopamine, although other neurons can also be degenerated in this pathology. In rodent models of PD, we showed an impairment of the hypercapnia ventilatory response due to a reduction in the number of RTN chemosensitive neurons...
November 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190329/cortical-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-a-progressive-model-of-parkinsonism-in-nonhuman-primates
#8
Annaelle Devergnas, M Caiola, D Pittard, T Wichmann
Parkinson's disease is associated with abnormal oscillatory electrical activities of neurons and neuronal ensembles throughout the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network. It has recently been documented in patients with advanced parkinsonism that the amplitude of gamma-band oscillations (50-200 Hz) in electrocorticogram recordings from the primary motor cortex is abnormally coupled to the phase of beta band oscillations within the same signals. It is not known when in the course of the disease the abnormal phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) arises, and whether it is influenced by arousal or prior exposure to dopaminergic medications...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189163/alpha-synuclein-proteotoxicity-and-parkinson-s-disease-search-for-neuroprotective-therapy
#9
Upasana Ganguly, Sankha Shubhra Chakrabarti, Upinder Kaur, Anwesha Mukherjee, Sasanka Chakrabarti
There is a growing body of evidence in animal and cell based models of Parkinson's disease (PD) to suggest that overexpression and / or abnormal accumulation and aggregation of α-synuclein can trigger neuronal death. This important role of α-synuclein in PD pathogenesis is supported by the fact that duplication, triplication and mutations of α-synuclein gene cause familial forms of PD. The overexpression and accumulation of α-synuclein within neurons may involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms including a decreased degradation of the protein through proteasomal or autophagic processes...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185072/in-vivo-models-of-alpha-synuclein-transmission-and-propagation
#10
REVIEW
Ariadna Recasens, Ayse Ulusoy, Philipp J Kahle, Donato A Di Monte, Benjamin Dehay
The abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates in neurons, nerve fibers, or glial cells is the hallmark of a group of neurodegenerative diseases known collectively as α-synucleinopathies. Clinical, neuropathological, and experimental evidence strongly suggests that α-synuclein plays a role not only as a trigger of pathological processes at disease inception, but also as a mediator of pathological spreading during disease progression. Specific properties of α-synuclein, such as its ability to pass from one neuron to another, its tendency to aggregate, and its potential to generate self-propagating species, have been described and elucidated in animal models and may contribute to the relentless exacerbation of Parkinson's disease pathology in patients...
November 29, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176874/neurturin-overexpression-in-dopaminergic-neurons-induces-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-structural-changes-in-rats-with-chronic-6-hydroxydopamine-lesion
#11
David Reyes-Corona, Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Lourdes Escobedo, Carlos E Orozco-Barrios, Jose Ayala-Davila, Mario Gil Moreno, Miriam E Amaro-Lara, Yazmin M Flores-Martinez, Armando J Espadas-Alvarez, Manuel A Fernandez-Parrilla, Juan A Gonzalez-Barrios, M E Gutierrez-Castillo, Ignacio González-Burgos, Daniel Martinez-Fong
The structural effect of neurturin (NRTN) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals remains unknown, although NRTN has been shown to be effective in Parkinson's disease animal models. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that NRTN overexpression in dopaminergic neurons stimulates both neurite outgrowths in the nigrostriatal pathway and striatal dendritic spines in aging rats with chronic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. At week 12 after lesion, pTracer-mNRTN-His or pGreenLantern-1 plasmids were intranigrally transfected using the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175000/cyclic-nucleotide-signaling-changes-associated-with-normal-aging-and-age-related-diseases-of-the-brain
#12
REVIEW
Michy P Kelly
Deficits in brain function that are associated with aging and age-related diseases benefit very little from currently available therapies, suggesting a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is needed to develop improved drugs. Here, we review the literature to test the hypothesis that a break down in cyclic nucleotide signaling at the level of synthesis, execution, and/or degradation may contribute to these deficits. A number of findings have been reported in both the human and animal model literature that point to brain region-specific changes in Galphas (a...
November 23, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164519/atorvastatin-prevents-early-oxidative-events-and-modulates-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-striatum-following-intranasal-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-administration-in-rats
#13
Naiani F Marques, Adalberto A Castro, Gianni Mancini, Fernanda L Rocha, Adair R S Santos, Rui D Prediger, Andreza Fabro De Bem, Carla I Tasca
Atorvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor with cholesterol-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Increasing evidence show atorvastatin acts as a protective agent against insults in the central nervous system (CNS). The regular use of statins has been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) development. Here, we evaluated early events involved in the neurotoxicity induced by intranasal (i.n.) infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in rats and the potential of atorvastatin to prevent these early toxic events...
November 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163139/exercise-induced-neuroprotection-of-the-nigrostriatal-dopamine-system-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Lijuan Hou, Wei Chen, Xiaoli Liu, Decai Qiao, Fu-Ming Zhou
Epidemiological studies indicate that physical activity and exercise may reduce the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD), and clinical observations suggest that physical exercise can reduce the motor symptoms in PD patients. In experimental animals, a profound observation is that exercise of appropriate timing, duration, and intensity can reduce toxin-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system in animal PD models, although negative results have also been reported, potentially due to inappropriate timing and intensity of the exercise regimen...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158176/decreased-mcl-1-protein-level-in-the-striatum-of-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-treated-mice
#15
Edward Lu, Sumit Sarkar, James Raymick, Merle G Paule, Qiang Gu
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a well-known neurotoxicant that can selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons and MPTP-treated animals are often used as models for studying aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). While apoptosis has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying MPTP-induced cell death and several apoptosis-associated proteins have been implicated in MPTP-animal models, relevant information regarding the possible involvement of Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukemia 1) protein is missing...
November 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151169/parkinson-s-disease-experimental-models-and-reality
#16
REVIEW
Peizhou Jiang, Dennis W Dickson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive movement disorder of adults and the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathologic diagnosis of PD requires moderate-to-marked neuronal loss in the ventrolateral substantia nigra pars compacta and α-synuclein (αS) Lewy body pathology. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration correlates with the Parkinsonian motor features, but involvement of other peripheral and central nervous system regions leads to a wide range of non-motor features...
November 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#17
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148118/role-of-the-combination-of-fa-and-t2-parameters-as-a-new-diagnostic-method-in-therapeutic-evaluation-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Yuan Fang, Tao Zheng, Lanxiang Liu, Dawei Gao, Qinglei Shi, Yanchao Dong, Dan Du
BACKGROUND: Simple diffusion delivery (SDD) has attained good effects with only tiny amounts of drugs. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and relaxation time T2* that indicate the integrity of fiber tracts and iron concentration within brain tissue were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of SDD. PURPOSE: To evaluate therapeutic effect of SDD in the Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model with FA and T2* parameters. STUDY TYPE: Prospective case-control animal study...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147910/therapeutic-activities-of-dj-1-and-its-binding-compounds-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
Masatoshi Inden, Daijiro Yanagisawa, Masanori Hijioka, Hiroyoshi Ariga, Yoshihisa Kitamura
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is primarily characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding PARK7/DJ-1 were identified in familial PD. Wild-type DJ-1 acts as an oxidative stress sensor in neural cells. Previously, we identified binding compounds of DJ-1, including UCP0045037/compound A, UCP0054278/compound B, and compound-23 (comp-23), by in silico virtual screening. These compounds prevented oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic neuronal death and restored locomotion defects in animal models of PD...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#20
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
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