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Cerebral cortex review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258904/a-simplified-approach-to-encephalitis-and-its-mimics-key-clinical-decision-points-in-the-setting-of-specific-imaging-abnormalities
#1
Colin D McKnight, Aine M Kelly, Myria Petrou, Anna E Nidecker, Matthew T Lorincz, Duaa K Altaee, Stephen S Gebarski, Bradley Foerster
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Infectious encephalitis is a relatively common cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of infectious encephalitis with antiviral medication can be highly effective when administered promptly. Clinical mimics of encephalitis arise from a broad range of pathologic processes, including toxic, metabolic, neoplastic, autoimmune, and cardiovascular etiologies. These mimics need to be rapidly differentiated from infectious encephalitis to appropriately manage the correct etiology; however, the many overlapping signs of these various entities present a challenge to accurate diagnosis...
February 28, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219775/topographic-organization-of-the-cerebral-cortex-and-brain-cartography
#2
Simon B Eickhoff, R Todd Constable, B T Thomas Yeo
One of the most specific but also challenging properties of the brain is its topographic organization into distinct modules or cortical areas. In this paper, we first review the concept of topographic organization and its historical development. Next, we provide a critical discussion of the current definition of what constitutes a cortical area, why the concept has been so central to the field of neuroimaging and the challenges that arise from this view. A key aspect in this discussion is the issue of spatial scale and hierarchy in the brain...
February 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217156/extra-axial-giant-falcine-ependymoma-with-ultra-rapid-growth-in-child-uncommon-entity-with-literature-review
#3
Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar
Ependymoma tends to occur commonly along either on ventricular surfaces of the brain or central canal of the spinal cord. Rarely, ependymoma can develop in the cerebral cortex without attachment to the ventricular structures. However, such occurrence in the purely extra-axial compartment in the falcine region mimicking falcine meningioma is exceedingly rare. The detailed search of primary falcine ependymoma (PEFE) in Medline and PubMed yielded only five isolated case reports. All cases occurred in patient older than 17 years of age; however, our case was a 9-year-old girl...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203254/malformations-of-cortical-development-genetic-mechanisms-and-diagnostic-approach
#4
REVIEW
Jeehun Lee
Malformations of cortical development are rare congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex, wherein patients present with intractable epilepsy and various degrees of developmental delay. Cases show a spectrum of anomalous cortical formations with diverse anatomic and morphological abnormalities, a variety of genetic causes, and different clinical presentations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has been of great help in determining the exact morphologies of cortical malformations. The hypothetical mechanisms of malformation include interruptions during the formation of cerebral cortex in the form of viral infection, genetic causes, and vascular events...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187964/brain-perfusion-and-diffusion-abnormalities-in-children-treated-for-posterior-fossa-brain-tumors
#5
Matthew D Li, Nils D Forkert, Palak Kundu, Cheryl Ambler, Robert M Lober, Terry C Burns, Patrick D Barnes, Iris C Gibbs, Gerald A Grant, Paul G Fisher, Samuel H Cheshier, Cynthia J Campen, Michelle Monje, Kristen W Yeom
OBJECTIVE: To compare cerebral perfusion and diffusion in survivors of childhood posterior fossa brain tumor with neurologically normal controls and correlate differences with cognitive dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed retrospectively arterial spin-labeled cerebral blood flow (CBF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 21 patients with medulloblastoma (MB), 18 patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and 64 neurologically normal children. We generated ANCOVA models to evaluate treatment effects on the cerebral cortex, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and cerebral white matter at time points an average of 5...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182114/evolution-of-cerebral-atrophy-in-a-patient-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-treated-with-barbiturate-coma
#6
Christopher R Newey, Pravin George, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christine Ahrens, Stephen Hantus, Aarti Sarwal
Introduction. Status epilepticus is associated with neuronal breakdown. Radiological sequelae of status epilepticus include diffusion weighted abnormalities and T2/FLAIR cortical hyperintensities corresponding to the epileptogenic cortex. However, progressive generalized cerebral atrophy from status epilepticus is underrecognized and may be related to neuronal death. We present here a case of diffuse cerebral atrophy that developed during the course of super refractory status epilepticus management despite prolonged barbiturate coma...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174129/intrinsic-cerebral-activity-at-resting-state-in-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#7
Ming Zhou, Xinyu Hu, Lu Lu, Lianqing Zhang, Lizhou Chen, Qiyong Gong, Xiaoqi Huang
Numerous neuroimaging studies have been undertaken to detect cerebral intrinsic activity in major depressive disorder (MDD) with resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI). However, the inconsistent results have hindered our understanding of the exact neuropathology related to MDD. The current meta-analysis used state-of-the-art conjunction analysis techniques to systematically review and summarize all available neuroimaging studies using rs-fMRI with amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and/or fractional ALFF (fALFF) on MDD patients and further explored the effect of antidepressants on the intrinsic activity of the brain...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144624/development-and-organization-of-the-evolutionarily-conserved-three-layered-olfactory-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Esther Klingler
The olfactory cortex is part of the mammalian cerebral cortex together with the neocortex and the hippocampus. It receives direct input from the olfactory bulbs and participates in odor discrimination, association, and learning (Bekkers and Suzuki, 2013). It is thought to be an evolutionarily conserved paleocortex, which shares common characteristics with the three-layered general cortex of reptiles (Aboitiz et al., 2002). The olfactory cortex has been studied as a "simple model" to address sensory processing, though little is known about its precise cell origin, diversity, and identity...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128443/potential-therapeutic-applications-of-adenosine-a2a-receptor-ligands-and-opportunities-for-a2a-receptor-imaging
#9
REVIEW
Aren van Waarde, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Xiaoyun Zhou, Shivashankar Khanapur, Hideo Tsukada, Kiichi Ishiwata, Gert Luurtsema, Erik F J de Vries, Philip H Elsinga
Adenosine A2A receptors (A2A Rs) are highly expressed in the human striatum, and at lower densities in the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and cells of the immune system. Antagonists of these receptors are potentially useful for the treatment of motor fluctuations, epilepsy, postischemic brain damage, or cognitive impairment, and for the control of an immune checkpoint during immunotherapy of cancer. A2A R agonists may suppress transplant rejection and graft-versus-host disease; be used to treat inflammatory disorders such as asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis; be locally applied to promote wound healing and be employed in a strategy for transient opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) so that therapeutic drugs and monoclonal antibodies can enter the brain...
January 27, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102470/neuronal-ryanodine-receptors-in-development-and-aging
#10
REVIEW
Nawaf Abu-Omar, Jogita Das, Vivian Szeto, Zhong-Ping Feng
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium-release channels found on the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells. All three RyR isoforms, RyR1-3, are expressed in the brain, with RyR2 predominating. RyRs are localized within the soma, axons, dendritic spines, and presynaptic terminals of neurons. RyRs are highly expressed in the cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory region, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. During the physiological processes of development and aging, the intracellular calcium homeostasis is largely regulated by RyRs...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087392/predictors-and-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-occurrence-in-cerebral-gliomas-what-to-look-for-in-clinicopathology
#11
Cheng Huang, Xiao-Sa Chi, Xin Hu, Ni Chen, Qiao Zhou, Dong Zhou, Jin-Mei Li
Gliomas, especially low-grade gliomas, are highly epileptogenic brain tumors. Histopathological information is valuable in evaluating the diagnosis and/or biologic behavior of various gliomas. Here we explored the clinical data and histopathological predictors of the occurrence of epilepsy in patients with gliomas. A retrospective study examined 310 consecutive patients who had undergone surgical treatment for gliomas in our institution from January 2013 to January 2015. Clinical data and pathological examination results were analyzed...
January 11, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062861/incidence-locations-and-longitudinal-course-of-cerebral-microbleeds-in-european-moyamoya
#12
Holger Wenz, Ralf Wenz, Máté Maros, Gregory Ehrlich, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Christoph Groden, Alex Förster
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (cMBs) have previously been linked with especially high incidence in Asian patients with moyamoya together with high tendency to bleed. This, presumably, is characteristic of patients with moyamoya. Herein, we, therefore, investigate retrospectively the frequency, location, and longitudinal course of cMBs in a large German cohort. METHODS: We included all patients with moyamoya who underwent standard magnetic resonance imaging, including T2*-weighted images, in our department between 1998 and 2015...
January 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035179/molecular-neuroimaging-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Jooyeon Jamie Im, Eun Namgung, Yejee Choi, Jung Yoon Kim, Sandy Jeong Rhie, Sujung Yoon
Over the past decade, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have provided insight into the neurobiological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PSTD). In particular, molecular neuroimaging techniques have been employed in examining metabolic and neurochemical processes in PTSD. This article reviews molecular neuroimaging studies in PTSD and focuses on findings using three imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034451/predictors-of-response-to-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-in-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#14
G Beuzon, Q Timour, M Saoud
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, consists of applying series of magnetic impulses to the cerebral cortex so as to modulate neurone activity in a target zone. This technique, still experimental, could prove promising in the field of psychiatry, in particular for the treatment of major depressive disorder. It is important for the clinician to be able to assess the response potential of a given patient to rTMS, and this among other things requires relevant predictive factors to be available...
December 26, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033157/measuring-glutamate-levels-in-the-brains-of-fibromyalgia-patients-and-a-potential-role-for-glutamate-in-the-pathophysiology-of-fibromyalgia-symptoms-a-systematic-review
#15
Tahni Pyke, Peter G Osmotherly, Surinder Baines
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature concerning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) measured glutamate levels in specific brain regions of fibromyalgia (FM) patients to determine if there is a correlation between raised glutamate levels and the presentation of FM. METHODS: The electronic databases - MEDLINE, EMBASE Classic+Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials - were searched to find original studies that used H-MRS to measure glutamate concentrations in the brains of FM patients...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028861/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#16
REVIEW
Yasushi Iwasaki 岩崎 靖
This review will explore the clinical and pathological findings of the various forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Clinical findings of CJD are characterized by rapidly progressive cognitive dysfunction, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) hyperintensity, myoclonus, periodic sharp-wave complexes on electroencephalogram and akinetic mutism state. Neuropathologic findings of CJD are characterized by spongiform changes in gray matter, gliosis-particularly hypertrophic astrocytosis-neuropil rarefaction, neuron loss and prion protein (PrP) deposition...
December 28, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028801/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-basic-principles-and-clinical-applications-in-migraine
#17
Anthony T Barker, Kevin Shields
PURPOSE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurophysiological technique with a long established pedigree of safety, tolerability, and efficacy. Initially TMS was used to study the function of the cerebral cortex, but it has now become a treatment for migraine, one of the most common and debilitating neurological conditions. In this review we discuss the scientific background and development of the technique. We explore its application for the treatment of migraine and ponder the possible mechanisms of action in this most common neurological condition...
March 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983564/dysregulation-of-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-huntington-s-disease-a%C3%A2-role-for-dopamine-modulation
#18
Claudia Rangel-Barajas, George V Rebec
Aberrant communication between striatum, the main information processing unit of the basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex plays a critical role in the emergence of Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal monogenetic condition that typically strikes in the prime of life. Although both striatum and cortex undergo substantial cell loss over the course of HD, corticostriatal circuits become dysfunctional long before neurons die. Understanding the dysfunction is key to developing effective strategies for treating a progressively worsening triad of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978481/division-modes-and-physical-asymmetry-in-cerebral-cortex-progenitors
#19
REVIEW
Delphine Delaunay, Ayano Kawaguchi, Colette Dehay, Fumio Matsuzaki
Neural stem cells go through a sequence of timely regulated gene expression and pattern of division mode to generate diverse neurons during brain development. During vertebrate cerebral cortex development, neural stem cells begin with proliferative symmetric divisions, subsequently undergo neurogenic asymmetric divisions, and finally gliogenic divisions. In this review, we explore the relationship between stem cell versus neural fate specification and the division mode. Specifically, we discuss recent findings on the mechanisms of asymmetric divisions, division mode, and developmental progression of neural progenitor identity...
December 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975139/foramina-parietalia-permagna-familial-and-radiological-evaluation-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#20
Larissa Gabor, Huseyin Canaz, Gokhan Canaz, Nursu Kara, Elif Yilmaz Gulec, Ibrahim Alatas
PURPOSE: Foramina parietalia permagna is a variable intramembranous ossification defect of the parietal bones. Foramina parietalia permagna have an autosomal dominant inheritance, and it is showed that mutations in chromosome 5 and 11 are causing this anomaly. Enlarged parietal foramina occurs extremely rare. They are usually asymptomatic, but occasional headache, vomiting, pain over unprotected cerebral cortex, and seizures may be experienced by the patients. In the literature, some associated congenital bony defects, soft tissue pathologies, underlying neuronal deficits, and vascular variations have been described...
December 14, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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