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Cerebral cortex review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332073/functional-anatomy-of-basal-ganglia-circuits-with-the-cerebral-cortex-and-the-cerebellum
#1
Andreea C Bostan, Richard P Dum, Peter L Strick
The neural connections of the basal ganglia provide important insights into their function. Here, we discuss the current perspective on basal ganglia connections with the cerebral cortex and with the cerebellum. We review the evidence that the basal ganglia participate in functionally segregated circuits with motor and non-motor areas of the cerebral cortex. We then discuss the data that the basal ganglia are interconnected with the cerebellum. These results provide the anatomical substrate for basal ganglia contributions not only to the control of movement, but also to a variety of cognitive and affective functions...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287622/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-subjective-tinnitus-a-review-of-the-literature-2014-2016
#2
A Londero, P Bonfils, J P Lefaucheur
Subjective tinnitus is a symptom in many ENT pathologies, for which there is no curative treatment. It may be poorly tolerated by some patients, who develop attention or sleep disorder or even major anxiety and depression, severely impairing quality of life. Pathophysiological models of the genesis and maintenance of tinnitus symptomatology highlight maladaptive cerebral plasticity induced by peripheral hearing loss. Although not fully elucidated, these changes in neuronal activity are the target of various attempts at neuromodulation, particularly using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which has been the focus of various clinical studies and meta-analyses...
December 26, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276477/cholinergic-modulation-of-cortical-microcircuits-is-layer-specific-evidence-from-rodent-monkey-and-human-brain
#3
REVIEW
Joshua Obermayer, Matthijs B Verhoog, Antonio Luchicchi, Huibert D Mansvelder
Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling shapes neuronal circuit development and underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. During behavior, activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) by ACh alters the activation state of neurons, and neuronal circuits most likely process information differently with elevated levels of ACh. In several brain regions, ACh has been shown to alter synaptic strength as well. By changing the rules for synaptic plasticity, ACh can have prolonged effects on and rearrange connectivity between neurons that outlasts its presence...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251523/perivascular-neurotransmitters-regulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-role-in-primary-headaches
#4
Simona D Frederiksen, Kristian A Haanes, Karin Warfvinge, Lars Edvinsson
In order to understand the nature of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and primary headaches, we have conducted a literature review with particular emphasis on the role of perivascular neurotransmitters. Primary headaches are in general considered complex polygenic disorders (genetic and environmental influence) with pathophysiological neurovascular alterations. Identified candidate headache genes are associated with neuro- and gliogenesis, vascular development and diseases, and regulation of vascular tone...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245273/a-delayed-diagnosis-of-x-linked-hyper-igm-syndrome-complicated-with-toxoplasmic-encephalitis-in-a-child-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Xiaoliang Liu, Kaiyu Zhou, Dan Yu, Xiaotang Cai, Yimin Hua, Hui Zhou, Chuan Wang
INTRODUCTION: The X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome (XHIGM) is an uncommon primary combined immunodeficiency disease caused by CD40L gene mutations. A delayed or missed diagnosis of XHIGM is common and concerning, owing to atypical immunoglobulin profile and phenotype of some patients, low recognition, and limited knowledge of clinicians on XHIGM in some underdeveloped areas. Opportunistic infections are a prominent clinical feature of XHIGM. However, toxoplasma encephalitis occurs sporadically and is extremely rare in patients with XHIGM...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238291/modulation-of-neocortical-development-by-early-neuronal-activity-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#6
REVIEW
Sergei Kirischuk, Anne Sinning, Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Heiko J Luhmann, Werner Kilb
Animal and human studies revealed that patterned neuronal activity is an inherent feature of developing nervous systems. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the mechanisms generating early electrical activity patterns and their impact on structural and functional development of the cerebral cortex. All neocortical areas display distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, intermittent spontaneous activity is synchronized within small neuronal networks, becoming more complex with further development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#7
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209885/neuroimaging-findings-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome-case-series-at-the-time-of-first-epidemic-outbreak-in-pernambuco-state-brazil
#8
Pedro Pires, Patricia Jungmann, Jully Moura Galvão, Adriano Hazin, Luiza Menezes, Ricardo Ximenes, Gabriele Tonni, Edward Araujo Júnior
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging and clinical findings in a clinical series following congenital Zika virus syndrome during the first epidemic Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: We (the authors) conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected case series of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly born to mothers with presumed/confirmed congenital ZIKV syndrome. Prenatal ultrasound findings were reviewed to identify potential central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities...
December 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195758/light-up-adhd-i-cortical-hemodynamic-responses-measured-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs
#9
REVIEW
Maddalena Mauri, Maria Nobile, Monica Bellina, Alessandro Crippa, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in cognitive and emotional self-control. Optical technique acquisitions, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), seem to be very promising during developmental ages, as they are non- invasive techniques and less influenced by body movements than other neuroimaging methods. Recently, these new techniques are being widely used to measure neural correlates underlying neuropsychological deficits in children with ADHD...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194577/cerebral-cortex-development-an-outside-in-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Gulistan Agirman, Loic Broix, Laurent Nguyen
The cerebral cortex is a complex structure that contains different classes of neurons distributed within six layers and regionally organized into a highly specialized area. Cortical layering arises during embryonic development in an inside-out manner as forebrain progenitors proliferate and generate distinct waves of interneurons and projection neurons. Radial glial cells (RGCs) derive from neuroepithelial cells and are the founding cortical progenitors. At the onset of corticogenesis, RGCs expand their pool by proliferative divisions...
November 30, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185820/delusional-misidentification-in-parkinson-s-disease-report-of-two-cases-and-a-review
#11
Neal Hermanowicz
Syndromes of delusional misidentification consist of disordered familiarity and have been reported in diverse diagnoses, including Parkinson's disease. Although the most common delusional misidentification is Capgras syndrome, in which the sufferer believes a familiar person has been replaced by an identical imposter, other forms have been also described. The pathogenesis of delusions of misidentification appears to require dysfunction of or connection to a left cerebral cortical area involved in recognition of familiarity, and also right frontal cortex serving belief evaluation...
November 29, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175000/cyclic-nucleotide-signaling-changes-associated-with-normal-aging-and-age-related-diseases-of-the-brain
#12
REVIEW
Michy P Kelly
Deficits in brain function that are associated with aging and age-related diseases benefit very little from currently available therapies, suggesting a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is needed to develop improved drugs. Here, we review the literature to test the hypothesis that a break down in cyclic nucleotide signaling at the level of synthesis, execution, and/or degradation may contribute to these deficits. A number of findings have been reported in both the human and animal model literature that point to brain region-specific changes in Galphas (a...
January 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153326/altered-structural-connectivity-of-the-left-visual-thalamus-in-developmental-dyslexia
#13
Christa Müller-Axt, Alfred Anwander, Katharina von Kriegstein
Developmental dyslexia is a highly prevalent reading disorder affecting about 5%-10% of children [1]. It is characterized by slow and/or inaccurate word recognition skills as well as by poor spelling and decoding abilities [2]. Partly due to technical challenges with investigating subcortical sensory structures, current research on dyslexia in humans by and large focuses on the cerebral cortex [3-7]. These studies found that dyslexia is typically associated with functional and structural alterations of a distributed left-hemispheric cerebral cortex network (e...
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138289/the-evolution-of-cortical-development-the-synapsid-diapsid-divergence
#14
REVIEW
Andre M Goffinet
The cerebral cortex covers the rostral part of the brain and, in higher mammals and particularly humans, plays a key role in cognition and consciousness. It is populated with neuronal cell bodies distributed in radially organized layers. Understanding the common and lineage-specific molecular mechanisms that orchestrate cortical development and evolution are key issues in neurobiology. During evolution, the cortex appeared in stem amniotes and evolved divergently in two main branches of the phylogenetic tree: the synapsids (which led to present day mammals) and the diapsids (reptiles and birds)...
November 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#15
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118736/perception-of-upright-multisensory-convergence-and-the-role-of-temporo-parietal-cortex
#16
REVIEW
Amir Kheradmand, Ariel Winnick
We inherently maintain a stable perception of the world despite frequent changes in the head, eye, and body positions. Such "orientation constancy" is a prerequisite for coherent spatial perception and sensorimotor planning. As a multimodal sensory reference, perception of upright represents neural processes that subserve orientation constancy through integration of sensory information encoding the eye, head, and body positions. Although perception of upright is distinct from perception of body orientation, they share similar neural substrates within the cerebral cortical networks involved in perception of spatial orientation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115042/generation-of-diverse-cortical-inhibitory-interneurons
#17
REVIEW
Khadeejah T Sultan, Song-Hai Shi
First described by Ramon y Cajal as 'short-axon' cells over a century ago, inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex make up ~20-30% of the neuronal milieu. A key feature of these interneurons is the striking structural and functional diversity, which allows them to modulate neural activity in diverse ways and ultimately endow neural circuits with remarkable computational power. Here, we review our current understanding of the generation of cortical interneurons, with a focus on recent efforts to bridge the gap between progenitor behavior and interneuron production, and how these aspects influence interneuron diversity and organization...
November 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113926/the-role-of-microrna-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
REVIEW
Yuan-Bo Pan, Zhao-Liang Sun, Dong-Fu Feng
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem that causes high mortality and disability worldwide. Secondary brain damage from this type of injury may cause brain edema, blood-brain barrier destruction, and neurological dysfunction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play vital roles in maintaining and regulating physiological function. Notably, studies suggest that miRNA levels are altered in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats and mice after TBI...
December 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110301/studies-of-cortical-connectivity-using-optical-circuit-mapping-methods
#19
Paul G Anastasiades, Andre Marques-Smith, Simon J B Butt
An important consideration when probing the function of any neuron is to uncover the source of synaptic input onto the cell, its intrinsic physiology and efferent targets. Over the years, electrophysiological approaches have generated considerable insight into these properties in a variety of cortical neuronal subtypes and circuits. However, as researchers explore neuronal function in greater detail, they are increasingly turning to optical techniques to bridge the gap between local network interactions and behaviour...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109381/epileptogenic-brain-malformations-and-mutations-in-tubulin-genes-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Annalisa Mencarelli, Paolo Prontera, Gabriela Stangoni, Elisabetta Mencaroni, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Malformations of the cerebral cortex are an important cause of developmental disabilities and epilepsy. Neurological disorders caused by abnormal neuronal migration have been observed to occur with mutations in tubulin genes. The α- and β-tubulin genes encode cytoskeletal proteins, which play a role in the developing brain. TUBA1A mutations are associated with a wide spectrum of neurological problems, which are characterized by peculiar clinical details and neuroradiologic patterns. This manuscript describes the case of a nine-year-old girl with microcephaly, mild facial dysmorphisms, epileptic seizures, and severe developmental delay, with a de novo heterozygous c...
October 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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