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Cerebral cortex review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765316/noradrenergic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-overview-of-imaging-studies
#1
REVIEW
Andrew C Peterson, Chiang-Shan R Li
Noradrenergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Conventional therapeutic strategies seek to enhance cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in AD and PD, respectively, and few studies have examined noradrenergic dysfunction as a target for medication development. We review the literature of noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD with a focus on human imaging studies that implicate the locus coeruleus (LC) circuit. The LC sends noradrenergic projections diffusely throughout the cerebral cortex and plays a critical role in attention, learning, working memory, and cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755338/a-review-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Isobel T French, Kalai A Muthusamy
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR) in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc) and pars dissipatus (PPNd), and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, and spinal cord...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751998/does-somatostatin-have-a-role-to-play-in-migraine-headache
#3
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Lambert, Alessandro S Zagami
Migraine is a condition without apparent pathology. Its cardinal symptom is the prolonged excruciating headache. Theories about this pain have posited pathologies which run the gamut from neural to vascular to neurovascular, but no observations have detected a plausible pathology. We believe that no pathology can be found for migraine headache because none exists. Migraine is not driven by pathology - it is driven by neural events produced by triggers - or simply by neural noise- noise that has crossed a critical threshold...
April 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742321/altered-exocytosis-in-chromaffin-cells-from-mouse-models-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Antonio M G de Diego, Antonio G García
Chromaffin cells from the adrenal gland (CCs) have extensively been used to explore the molecular structure and function of the exocytotic machinery, neurotransmitter release and synaptic transmission. The CC is integrated in the sympathoadrenal axis that helps the body maintain homeostasis during both routine life and in acute stress conditions. This function is exquisitely controlled by the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus. We propose the hypothesis that damage undergone by the brain during neurodegenerative diseases is also affecting the neurosecretory function of adrenal medullary CCs...
May 9, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738999/cortical-developmental-death-selected-to-survive-or-fated-to-die
#5
REVIEW
Frédéric Causeret, Eva Coppola, Alessandra Pierani
The mature cerebral cortex only contains a fraction of the cells that are generated during embryonic development. Indeed some neuronal populations are produced in excess and later subjected to partial elimination whereas others are almost completely removed during the first two postnatal weeks in mice. Although the identity of cells that disappear, the time course and mechanisms of their death are becoming reasonably well established, the meaning of producing supernumerary cells still remains elusive. In this review, we focus on recent data that shed a new light on the mechanisms involved in adjusting cell numbers and discuss the significance of refinement versus complete elimination of cell populations in the developing cortex...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730484/current-perspectives-on-the-cerebellum-and-reading-development
#6
REVIEW
Travis A Alvarez, Julie A Fiez
The dominant neural models of typical and atypical reading focus on the cerebral cortex. However, Nicolson et al. (2001) proposed a model, the cerebellar deficit hypothesis, in which the cerebellum plays an important role in reading. To evaluate the evidence in support of this model, we qualitatively review the current literature and employ meta-analytic tools examining patterns of functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral reading network. We find evidence for a phonological circuit with connectivity between the cerebellum and a dorsal fronto-parietal pathway, and a semantic circuit with cerebellar connectivity to a ventral fronto-temporal pathway...
May 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729293/principles-of-temporal-processing-across-the-cortical-hierarchy
#7
REVIEW
Kevin D Himberger, Hsiang-Yun Chien, Christopher J Honey
The world is richly structured on multiple spatiotemporal scales. In order to represent spatial structure, machine-learning models repeat a set of basic operations at each layer of a hierarchical architecture. These iterated spatial operations - including pooling, normalization and pattern completion - enable these systems to recognize and predict spatial structure, while robust to changes in the spatial scale, contrast and noisiness of the input signal. Because our brains also process temporal information that is rich and occurs across multiple time scales, might the brain employ an analogous set of operations for temporal information processing? Here we define a candidate set of temporal operations, and we review evidence that they are implemented in the mammalian cerebral cortex in a hierarchical manner...
May 2, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694338/cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Geir Bjørklund, Janet K Kern, Mauricio A Urbina, Khaled Saad, Amira A El-Houfey, David A Geier, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mark R Geier, Jyutika A Mehta, Jan Aaseth
Cerebral hypoperfusion, or insufficient blood flow in the brain, occurs in many areas of the brain in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Hypoperfusion was demonstrated in the brains of individuals with ASD when compared to normal healthy control brains either using positron emission tomography (PET) or single‑photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The affected areas include, but are not limited to the: prefrontal, frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal cortices; thalami; basal ganglia; cingulate cortex; caudate nucleus; the limbic system including the hippocampal area; putamen; substantia nigra; cerebellum; and associative cortices...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693270/uremic-encephalopathy-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-a-case-report-and-a-brief-review-of-the-veterinary-literature
#9
REVIEW
Allison Mustonen, Olga Gonzalez, Elda Mendoza, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward J Dick
BACKGROUND: Uremic encephalopathy is uncommon yet is one of the most severe complications of renal failure. We present a case of acute renal failure and associated cerebral and vascular lesions consistent with uremic encephalopathy in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). METHODS: A 14-year-old, female, specific-pathogen-free rhesus macaque presented in lateral recumbency, obtunded, severely dehydrated, and hypothermic, with severe azotemia, mild hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, increased anion gap, and hypercholesterolemia...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677701/surgical-treatment-and-long-term-outcome-of-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-related-epilepsy-in-pediatric-patients
#10
Qiao Lin, Peng-Fan Yang, Yan-Zeng Jia, Jia-Sheng Pei, Hui Xiao, Ting-Ting Zhang, Zhong-Hui Zhong, Shou-Sen Wang
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular malformations affecting any part of the central nervous system. Clinical data and surgical outcomes for 27 pediatric patients with CM-related epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of onset was 12.71 ± 4.09 years, and the mean duration of epilepsy was 2.34 ± 1.95 years. All 27 patients were treated with microsurgery for resection of the CMs, and the hemosiderin rim, and the secondary epileptogenic zone if necessary. The mean follow-up period was 6...
April 20, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670514/effects-of-tdcs-on-bimanual-motor-skills-a-brief-review
#11
REVIEW
Nils H Pixa, Bettina Pollok
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that allows the modulation of cortical excitability as well as neuroplastic reorganization using a weak constant current applied through the skull on the cerebral cortex. TDCS has been found to improve motor performance in general and motor learning in particular. However, these effects have been reported almost exclusively for unimanual motor tasks such as serial reaction time tasks, adaptation tasks, or visuo-motor tracking...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652234/computer-assisted-planning-for-the-insertion-of-stereoelectroencephalography-electrodes-for-the-investigation-of-drug-resistant-focal-epilepsy-an-external-validation-study
#12
Vejay N Vakharia, Rachel Sparks, Roman Rodionov, Sjoerd B Vos, Christian Dorfer, Jonathan Miller, Daniel Nilsson, Martin Tisdall, Stefan Wolfsberger, Andrew W McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Gavin P Winston, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE One-third of cases of focal epilepsy are drug refractory, and surgery might provide a cure. Seizure-free outcome after surgery depends on the correct identification and resection of the epileptogenic zone. In patients with no visible abnormality on MRI, or in cases in which presurgical evaluation yields discordant data, invasive stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings might be necessary. SEEG is a procedure in which multiple electrodes are placed stereotactically in key targets within the brain to record interictal and ictal electrophysiological activity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643480/the-basal-ganglia-and-the-cerebellum-nodes-in-an-integrated-network
#13
REVIEW
Andreea C Bostan, Peter L Strick
The basal ganglia and the cerebellum are considered to be distinct subcortical systems that perform unique functional operations. The outputs of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum influence many of the same cortical areas but do so by projecting to distinct thalamic nuclei. As a consequence, the two subcortical systems were thought to be independent and to communicate only at the level of the cerebral cortex. Here, we review recent data showing that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are interconnected at the subcortical level...
April 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628935/neurodevelopmental-genetic-diseases-associated-with-microdeletions-and-microduplications-of-chromosome-17p13-3
#14
REVIEW
Sara M Blazejewski, Sarah A Bennison, Trevor H Smith, Kazuhito Toyo-Oka
Chromosome 17p13.3 is a region of genomic instability that is linked to different rare neurodevelopmental genetic diseases, depending on whether a deletion or duplication of the region has occurred. Chromosome microdeletions within 17p13.3 can result in either isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS) or Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS). Both conditions are associated with a smooth cerebral cortex, or lissencephaly, which leads to developmental delay, intellectual disability, and seizures. However, patients with MDS have larger deletions than patients with ILS, resulting in additional symptoms such as poor muscle tone, congenital anomalies, abnormal spasticity, and craniofacial dysmorphisms...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620402/personal-neglect-a-comprehensive-theoretical-and-anatomo-clinical-review
#15
Giorgia Committeri, Claudia Piervincenzi, Luigi Pizzamiglio
Personal neglect (PN) is the hemi-inattention toward the contralesional bodily space that follows a cerebral lesion, usually to the right hemisphere. OBJECTIVE: To provide a historical, comprehensive review of the different theoretical accounts, of the available diagnostic measures, of the relationship with different body representation disorders, and of recovery-related issues. Moreover, to review the anatomo-functional correlates of PN, focusing on group studies that used modern voxel-based lesion-symptoms mapping...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609145/seizure-characteristics-and-the-use-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-children-and-young-people-with-brain-tumours-and-epileptic-seizures-analysis-of-regional-paediatric-cancer-service-population
#16
Chiara Pilotto, Jo-Fen Liu, David A Walker, William P Whitehouse
PURPOSE: Epileptic seizures complicate the management of childhood brain tumours. There are no published standards for clinical practice concerning risk factors, treatment selection or strategies to withdraw treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED). METHOD: we undertook a case note review of 120 patients with newly diagnosed brain tumours, referred to a regional paediatric cancer service. RESULTS: data was available on 117/120 (98%) children <18 years: median age at tumour presentation was 8...
March 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592535/commentary-on-some-recent-theses-relevant-to-combating-aging-april-2018
#17
Benjamin Zealley, Aubrey D N J de Grey
Theses reviewed in this issue include "An Intranasal GDNF Gene Therapy Approach for Treating Parkinson's Disease", "Controlling Depth of Cellular Quiescence By an Rb-E2F Network Switch", "Immunoregulation of the Central Response to Peripheral Nerve Injury: Motoneuron Survival and Relevance to ALS", and "Single-Cell Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals Widespread Somatic Copy Number Variations in the Developing Cerebral Cortex".
March 28, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580887/neuroimaging-correlates-of-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Masataka Wada, Masaru Mimura, Yoshihiro Noda, Shotaro Takasu, Eric Plitman, Makoto Honda, Akiyo Natsubori, Kamiyu Ogyu, Ryosuke Tarumi, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Shinichiro Nakajima
Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques have advanced our understanding of biological mechanisms underpinning narcolepsy. We used MEDLINE to retrieve neuroimaging studies to compare patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Thirty-seven studies were identified and demonstrated several replicated abnormalities: (1) gray matter reductions in superior frontal, superior and inferior temporal, and middle occipital gyri, hypothalamus, amygdala, insula, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, thalamus, and nucleus accumbens, (2) decreased fractional anisotropy in white matter of fronto-orbital and cingulate area, (3) reduced brain metabolism or cerebral blood flow in middle and superior frontal, and cingulate cortex (4) increased activity in inferior frontal gyri, insula, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, and (5) N-acetylaspartate/creatine-phosphocreatine level reduction in hypothalamus...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570795/cortical-progenitor-biology-key-features-mediating-proliferation-versus-differentiation
#19
REVIEW
Ana Uzquiano, Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Laurent Nguyen, Orly Reiner, Magdalena Götz, Fumio Matsuzaki, Fiona Francis
The cerebral cortex is a highly organized structure whose development depends on diverse progenitor cell types, namely apical radial glia, intermediate progenitors and basal radial glia cells, which are responsible for the production of the correct neuronal output. In recent years, these progenitor cell types have been deeply studied, particularly basal radial glial and their role in cortical expansion and gyrification. We review here a broad series of factors to regulate progenitor behavior and daughter cell fate...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562533/a-long-journey-into-aging-brain-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-following-the-oxidative-stress-tracks
#20
Patrizia Mecocci, Virginia Boccardi, Roberta Cecchetti, Patrizia Bastiani, Michela Scamosci, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Marta Baroni
The Editors of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease invited Professor Patrizia Mecocci to contribute a review article focused on the importance and implications of her research on aging, brain aging, and senile dementias over the last years. This invitation was based on an assessment that she was one of the journal's top authors and a strong supporter of the concept that oxidative stress is a major contributor to several alterations observed in age-related conditions (sarcopenia, osteoporosis) and, more significantly, in brain aging suggesting a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of one of the most dramatic age-related diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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