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Cerebral cortex review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911741/neural-stem-cells-to-cerebral-cortex-emerging-mechanisms-regulating-progenitor-behavior-and-productivity
#1
Noelle D Dwyer, Bin Chen, Shen-Ju Chou, Simon Hippenmeyer, Laurent Nguyen, H Troy Ghashghaei
This review accompanies a 2016 SFN mini-symposium presenting examples of current studies that address a central question: How do neural stem cells (NSCs) divide in different ways to produce heterogeneous daughter types at the right time and in proper numbers to build a cerebral cortex with the appropriate size and structure? We will focus on four aspects of corticogenesis: cytokinesis events that follow apical mitoses of NSCs; coordinating abscission with delamination from the apical membrane; timing of neurogenesis and its indirect regulation through emergence of intermediate progenitors; and capacity of single NSCs to generate the correct number and laminar fate of cortical neurons...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906525/the-clinical-utility-of-qsm-disease-diagnosis-medical-management-and-surgical-planning
#2
REVIEW
Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Yan Zhang, Jingwei Zhang, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Ajay Gupta, Yi Wang
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR technique that depicts and quantifies magnetic susceptibility sources. Mapping iron, the dominant susceptibility source in the brain, has many important clinical applications. Herein, we review QSM applications in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disease. To assist in early disease diagnosis, QSM can identify elevated iron levels in the motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate of Huntington's disease patients, and in the basal ganglia of Wilson's disease patients...
December 1, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891079/contribution-of-tms-and-rtms-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-and-in-the-treatment-of-dystonia
#3
REVIEW
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Alexandra Richard, Sana Masmoudi, Elodie Meppiel, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890445/acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-mr-imaging-findings-with-clinical-correlation
#4
D M Kim, I H Lee, J Y Park, S-B Hwang, D S Yoo, C J Song
PURPOSE: To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and correlate MRI findings with carboxyhemoglobin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRI examinations and medical records of seven men with a mean age of 43±16.0years (SD) (range: 25-63 years) with acute CO poisoning were reviewed. MRI examinations were analyzed with respect to lesion location, imaging presentation on T1- and T2-weighted images, and diffusion characteristics on DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps...
November 24, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876467/a-review-on-tacrine-based-scaffolds-as-multi-target-drugs-mtdls-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Bilqees Sameem, Mina Saeedi, Mohammad Mahdavi, Abbas Shafiee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological disorder among elderly people and combinatorial factors such as genetic, lifestyle, and environmental are involved in onset and disease progression. It has been demonstrated that loss of cholinergic transmission is one of the most significant causes of AD. One strategy currently being investigated for the development of new therapeutics relates to the enhancement of cholinergic system through several ways. At this juncture, anticholinesterase inhibitors have absorbed lots of attention and different marketed drugs such as donepezil, rivastigmine, tacrine, and galantamine have been developed...
October 28, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870449/do-cortical-plasticity-mechanisms-differ-between-males-and-females
#6
James Dachtler, Kevin Fox
The difference between male and female behavior and male and female susceptibility to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions is not controversial. From a biological perspective, one might expect to see at least some of these differences underpinned by identifiable physical differences in the brain. This Mini-Review focuses on evidence that plasticity mechanisms differ between males and females and ask at what scale of organization the differences might exist, at the systems level, the circuits level, or the synaptic level...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867146/genomics-disclose-the-influence-of-human-specific-genetic-variation-on-the-evolution-and-development-of-cerebral-cortex
#7
Pu Maomao, Yao Jun, Cao Xin
Cerebral cortex, whose complexity of structure and function has derived from human specific genetic variation, is the most advanced nerve center of human, controlling the cognitive ability which distinguishes human from any other creatures. Using genomics technology, molecular mechanisms of cerebral cortex development and evolution have been disclosed. In this review, we summarize how genomics technologies are used in exploring the influence of human specific genetic variation on cerebral cortex development and evolution, including the genomics methods to study the gene expression differences among the cerebral cortex of human beings, chimpanzee and other mammals; as well as the role of the significant non-coding regulatory sequences-human accelerated regions (HARs) in the process of brain development...
November 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858715/glucose-transporters-in-brain-in-health-and-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Leszek Szablewski
Neurons need a continuous supply of glucose, the major source of energy for mammalian brain metabolism. The central nervous system is protected by three main physiological cell barriers. Cell membranes are impermeable for glucose, therefore glucose is transferred across the cell membranes by specific transport proteins: sodium-independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), encoded by SLC2 genes, and sodium-dependent glucose transporters (for example SGLTs), encoded by SLC5 genes. Human brain expresses 10 GLUT proteins and 10 proteins encoded by SLC5 genes...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852726/thyroid-hormone-regulated-genes-in-cerebral-cortex-development
#9
Juan Bernal
The physiological and developmental effects of thyroid hormones are mainly due to the control of gene expression after interaction of T3 with the nuclear receptors. To understand the role of thyroid hormones on cerebral cortex development, knowledge of the genes regulated by T3 during specific stages of development is required. In our laboratory we previously identified genes regulated by T3 in primary cerebrocortical cells in culture. By comparing these data with transcriptomics of purified cell types from the developing cortex, the cellular targets of T3 can be identified...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852025/-neuroanatomy-of-temporal-association-cortex
#10
Noritaka Ichinohe
The temporal lobe of the cerebrum consists of several spatially segregated functional regions. There are discrete regions of the temporal lobe where auditory (primary, secondary and tertiary), visual (motion detection and object recognition) and meta-cognitive (memory and social communication) functions are processed. The subcortical amygdala and hippocampal-complex can also be considered temporal structures. Several nomenclature systems have been promoted over the years resulting in multiple names for most individual gyri and sulci...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847469/distinction-of-neurons-glia-and-endothelial-cells-in-the-cerebral-cortex-an-algorithm-based-on-cytological-features
#11
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Yohan J John, Helen Barbas, Basilis Zikopoulos
The estimation of the number or density of neurons and types of glial cells and their relative proportions in different brain areas are at the core of rigorous quantitative neuroanatomical studies. Unfortunately, the lack of detailed, updated, systematic and well-illustrated descriptions of the cytology of neurons and glial cell types, especially in the primate brain, makes such studies especially demanding, often limiting their scope and broad use. Here, following an extensive analysis of histological materials and the review of current and classical literature, we compile a list of precise morphological criteria that can facilitate and standardize identification of cells in stained sections examined under the microscope...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843470/childhood-neurogenic-stuttering-due-to-bilateral-congenital-abnormality-in-globus-pallidus-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Mohammad Javad Saeedi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Mostafa Almasi Dooghaee
Objective The basal ganglia are a group of structures that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Some speech disorders such as stuttering can resulted from disturbances in the circuits between the basal ganglia and the language motor area of the cerebral cortex. Stuttering consists of blocks, repetitive, prolongation or cessation of speech. We present a 7.5 -year-old male child with bilateral basal ganglia lesion in globus pallidus with unclear reason...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826677/torcular-pseudomass-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall-in-infants-and-young-children
#13
Luísa Sampaio, Giovanni Morana, Mariasavina Severino, Domenico Tortora, Miguel Leão, Andrea Rossi
BACKGROUND: Incidental findings on brain MRI may constitute a diagnostic pitfall. We observed an incidental extra-axial midline rounded pseudomass between the torcular Herophili and the occipital squama, with spontaneous resolution, which we called "torcular pseudomass." OBJECTIVE: We investigated the frequency, imaging features, natural history and developmental background of this finding in a large group of infants and young children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study by reviewing all brain MRIs performed in children younger than 3 years between 2007 and 2013 in a specialized pediatric hospital...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787717/role-of-the-histamine-h3-receptor-in-the-central-nervous-system
#14
Eberhard Schlicker, Markus Kathmann
The Gi/o protein-coupled histamine H3 receptor is distributed throughout the central nervous system including areas like cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum with the density being highest in the posterior hypothalamus, i.e. the area in which the histaminergic cell bodies are located. In contrast to the other histamine receptor subtypes (H1, H2 and H4), the H3 receptor is located presynaptically and shows a constitutive activity. In detail, H3 receptors are involved in the inhibition of histamine release (presynaptic autoreceptor), impulse flow along the histaminergic neurones (somadendritic autoreceptor) and histamine synthesis...
October 28, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778029/-advances-in-the-association-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channels-and-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Xi-Xun DU, Kang Qin, Qian Jiao, Jun-Xia Xie, Hong Jiang
ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP), as an inward rectifying potassium channel, are widely distributed in many types of tissues. KATP are activated by the depletion of ATP level and the increase in oxidative stress in cells. The activity of KATP couples cell metabolism with electrical activity and results in membrane hyperpolarization. KATP are ubiquitously distributed in the brain, including substantia nigra, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, dorsal nucleus of vagus and glial cells, and participate in neuronal excitability, mitochondria homeostasis and neurotransmitter release...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754798/motor-cortex-plasticity-in-children-with-spastic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#16
Natália de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Nelci Zanon, Manuela Galli, Felipe Fregni, Claudia Santos Oliveira
A review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions: Does motor cortex excitability correlate with motor function? Do motor cortex excitability and cortex activation change after a rehabilitation program that results in improvements in motor outcomes? Can the 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG) system be used to locate the primary motor cortex when employing transcranial direct current stimulation? Is there a bihemispheric imbalance in individuals with cerebral palsy similar to what is observed in stroke survivors? the authors found there is an adaptation in the geometry of motor areas and the cortical representation of movement is variable following a brain lesion...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739248/thalamic-neuronal-specification-and-early-circuit-formation
#17
Henrik Gezelius, Guillermina Lopez-Bendito
The thalamus is a central structure of the brain, primarily recognized for the relay of incoming sensory and motor information to the cerebral cortex but also key in high order intracortical communication. It consists of glutamatergic projection neurons organized in several distinct nuclei, each having a stereotype connectivity pattern and functional roles. In the adult these nuclei can be appreciated by architectural boundaries, though their developmental origin and specification is only recently beginning to be revealed...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734188/cortical-damage-in-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-with-good-prognosis-a-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#18
Lei Wu, Di Jin, Xuan Sun, Liang Liang, Deihui Huang, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a thiamine deficiency-related condition, in which lesions are usually present in the periventricular and subcortical areas of the brain. However, lesions have also been found in atypical areas, such as the cerebral cortex. The present study summarizes the clinical outcomes and radiological features of WE with cortical impairment. We report two cases of cortical involvement in patients with WE, and review 22 similar cases from other reports. Among all 24 cases, 4 patients had a confirmed history of chronic daily alcohol abuse, and 19 of them had an identified causes of thiamine deficiency...
October 12, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719650/the-insular-cortex-and-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#19
Michiaki Nagai, Keigo Dote, Masaya Kato, Shota Sasaki, Noboru Oda, Eisuke Kagawa, Yoshinori Nakano, Aya Yamane, Tasuku Higashihara, Shunsuke Miyauchi, Akane Tsuchiya, Wakako Harada, Kazuomi Kario
Transient left ventricular dysfunction in patients under emotional stress, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, has been recognized as a distinct clinical entity. Recent studies have supported the concept notion that the cardiovascular system is regulated by cortical modulation. A network consisting of the insular cortex (Ic), anterior cingulate gyrus, and amygdala plays a crucial role in the regulation of the central autonomic nervous system in relation to emotional stress such as anxiety, fear and sadness...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714551/cerebral-perfusion-alterations-in-type-2-diabetes-and-its-relation-to-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#20
Ying Cui, Xia Liang, Hong Gu, Yuzheng Hu, Zhen Zhao, Xiang-Yu Yang, Cheng Qian, Yihong Yang, Gao-Jun Teng
To explore the effect of T2DM on cerebral perfusion, and the relationship between cerebral perfusion changes and cognitive impairment as well as diabetic variables, by using a whole-brain arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI technique. This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was performed between November 2012 and October 2013. All subjects provided informed consent. Forty T2DM patients and 41 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls were included. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was obtained by pulsed ASL perfusion imaging at 3 T MRI...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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