Read by QxMD icon Read

Cerebral cortex review

Tanzila Mukhtar, Verdon Taylor
The cerebral cortex is composed of billions of morphologically and functionally distinct neurons. These neurons are produced and organized in a regimental fashion during development. The ability of neurons to encode and elicit complex cognitive and motor functions depends on their precise molecular processes, identity, and connectivity established during development. Elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate development of the neocortex has been a challenge for many years. The cerebral cortical neuronal subtypes are classified based on morphology, function, intrinsic synaptic properties, location, connectivity, and marker gene expression...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Chenhui Mao, Jing Gao, Liri Jin, Bin Peng, Yupu Guo
Neurosyphilis occurs in the late stage of systemic syphilis infection; early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the prognosis. We review 3 autopsy cases with different subtypes of neurosyphilis, that is cases with meningovascular, general paresis, and a combination of the 2, respectively. We investigated the gross morphology and leptomeninges, vessels, cerebral cortex, white matter, brainstem, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and spinal cord microscopically. We found that meningovascular inflammation exists in both early and late phases of neurosyphilis, not only in the meningovascular subtype...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
J D Santoro, N D Forkert, Q-Z Yang, S Pavitt, S J MacEachern, M E Moseley, K W Yeom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tension-type and migraine-type headaches are the most common chronic paroxysmal disorders of childhood. The goal of this study was to compare regional cerebral volumes and diffusion in tension-type and migraine-type headaches against published controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients evaluated for tension-type or migraine-type headache without aura from May 2014 to July 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-two patients with tension-type headache and 23 with migraine-type headache at an average of 4 months after diagnosis were enrolled...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
W Martin Usrey, S Murray Sherman
Pyramidal cells in cortical layers 5 and 6 are the only cells in the cerebral cortex with axons that leave the cortex to influence the thalamus. Layer 6 cells provide modulatory feedback input to all thalamic nuclei. Layer 5 cells provide driving input to higher order thalamic nuclei and do not innervate first order nuclei, which get their driving inputs from subcortical sources. Higher order nuclei innervated by layer 5 cells thus seem to be involved with cortico-thalamo-cortical communication. The layer 5 axons branch to also target additional subcortical structures that mediate interactions with the external environment...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Xinhua Zhan, Boryana Stamova, Frank R Sharp
This review proposes that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, found in the wall of all Gram-negative bacteria) could play a role in causing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is based in part upon recent studies showing that: Gram-negative E. coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid; bacterial-encoded 16S rRNA is present in all human brains with over 70% being Gram-negative bacteria; ultrastructural analyses have shown microbes in erythrocytes of AD patients; blood LPS levels in AD patients are 3-fold the levels in control; LPS combined with focal cerebral ischemia and hypoxia produced amyloid-like plaques and myelin injury in adult rat cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jason P Gallivan, Melvyn A Goodale
In 1992, Goodale and Milner proposed a division of labor in the visual pathways of the primate cerebral cortex. According to their account, the ventral pathway, which projects to occipitotemporal cortex, constructs our visual percepts, while the dorsal pathway, which projects to posterior parietal cortex, mediates the visual control of action. Although the framing of the two-visual-system hypothesis has not been without controversy, it is clear that vision for action and vision for perception have distinct computational requirements, and significant support for the proposed neuroanatomic division has continued to emerge over the last two decades from human neuropsychology, neuroimaging, behavioral psychophysics, and monkey neurophysiology...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Inés Velasco, Sarah C Bath, Margaret P Rayman
Iodine is an essential micronutrient incorporated into thyroid hormones. Although iodine deficiency can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders throughout life, it is most critical in the early stages of development, as the foetal brain is extremely dependent on iodine supply. During the last two decades, our understanding of thyroid physiology during gestation has substantially improved. Furthermore, thyroid hormone receptors have been identified and characterised in placental and embryonic tissues, allowing us to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of thyroid hormones...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Anwesha Mandal, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake...
February 18, 2018: Peptides
Jesse Russell-Williams, Wafa Jaroudi, Tania Perich, Siobhan Hoscheidt, Mohamad El Haj, Ahmed A Moustafa
This study investigates the relationship between mindfulness, meditation, cognition and stress in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline. Accordingly, we explore how the use of meditation as a behavioural intervention can reduce stress and enhance cognition, which in turn ameliorates some dementia symptoms. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with any studies using meditation as an intervention for dementia or dementia-related memory conditions meeting inclusion criteria...
February 21, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Shuo Li, Yogesh Kumar, Nishant Gupta, Ahmed Abdelbaki, Harpreet Sahwney, Anil Kumar, Manisha Mangla, Rajiv Mangla
The thalamus is a part of the diencephalon, containing numerous connections between the forebrain and subcortical structures. It serves an important function as a relay center between the cerebral cortex and the subcortical regions, particularly with sensory information. The thalamus also plays a major role in regulating arousal and the levels of awareness. Distinct vascular distribution of the thalamus give rises to different syndromic presentation of thalamic nuclei infarcts. The clinical records and available imaging studies of patients with confirmed thalamic territory infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the University Hospital of Rochester were reviewed and analyzed...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Stephan A Bolliger, Doris Tomasin, Jakob Heimer, Henning Richter, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho
Due to slowing or even inhibition of postmortem processes, freezing may make an estimation of the time-since-death very difficult. This is also true in previously frozen and subsequently thawed bodies. Knowledge of prior freezing is important, as it may lead to a different assessment of the time since death. Twelve pig heads were frozen at -20 °C, and 6 heads were either kept at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) or in a cooling cell (approximately 5 °C). The frozen brains and cadavers were thawed at either room temperature or in a cooling cell...
February 12, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Pierre Mégevand, Margitta Seeck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Source localization of cerebral activity using electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) can reveal noninvasively the generators of the abnormal signals recorded in epilepsy, such as interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) and seizures. Here, we review recent progress showcasing the usefulness of these techniques in treating patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: The source localization of IEDs by high-density EEG and MEG has now been proved in large patient cohorts to be accurate and clinically relevant, with positive and negative predictive values rivaling those of structural MRI...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Stjepana Kovac, Erwin-Josef Speckmann, Ali Gorji
Brain direct current (DC) potentials denote sustained shifts and slow deflections of cerebral potentials superimposed with conventional electroencephalography (EEG) waves and reflect alterations in the excitation level of the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. Using galvanometers, such sustained displacement of the EEG baseline was recorded in the early days of EEG recordings. To stabilize the EEG baseline and eliminate artefacts, EEG was performed later by voltage amplifiers with high-pass filters that dismiss slow DC potentials...
February 8, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Fahim Ahmad, Amna Siddiqui, Mohammad A Kamal, Sayed S Sohrab
The association between Zika virus infection and neurological disorder has raised urgent global alarm. The ongoing epidemic has triggered quick responses in the scientific community. The first case of Zika virus was reported in 2015 from Brazil and now has spread over 30 countries. Nearly four hundred cases of travel-associated Zika virus infection have also been reported in the United States. Zika virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito belongs to the genus Aedes that are widely distributed throughout the world including the Southern United States...
February 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Mengmeng Wang, Rende Zhang, Xueyou Liu, Dongming Li, Peichao Zhao, Yuchao Zuo, Peng Zhang, Junkuan Wang, Hongwei Sun
OBJECTIVE: Cortical ependymomas (CEs), supratentorial ependymoma that selectively involve the cerebral cortex, is relatively rare neoplasm which have not been extensively described. The purpose of our study was to identify the clinical features, radiologic characteristics, and treatment of a series of such tumors. METHODS: Thirteen patients with cortical ependymomas from our hospital were included in this study. Epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging findings, treatment methods and clinical outcomes were reviewed retrospectively...
January 30, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Federico Verde, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Albert Ludolph
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons. However, much evidence points towards additional involvement of brain systems other than the motor. As much as half of ALS patients display cognitive-behavioral disturbances. ALS shares with a considerable proportion of FTD cases the same neuropathological substrate, namely, inclusions of abnormally phosphorylated protein TDP-43 (pTDP-43). In analogy with pathological staging systems elaborated in the past decades for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), a model of staging of pTDP-43 pathology in sporadic ALS (sALS) has been recently proposed...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer
Encoding hand position by the cerebral cortex is essential not only for the neural representation of the body image but also for different actions based on eye-hand coordination. These include reaching for visual objects as well as complex movement sequences, such as tea-making, tool use, and object construction, among many others. All these functions depend on a continuous refreshing of the hand position representation, relying on both predictive signaling and afferent information. The hand position influence on neural activity in the parietofrontal system, together with eye position signals, are the basic elements of an eye-hand matrix from which all the above functions can emerge and could be regarded as key features of a network with several entry points, command nodes and outflow pathways, as confirmed by the discovery of a direct parietospinal projection for the control of hand action...
January 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Carlos G Martínez-Moreno, Denisse Calderón-Vallejo, Steve Harvey, Carlos Arámburo, José Luis Quintanar
This brief review of the neurological effects of growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain, particularly in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, spinal cord, neural retina, and brain tumors, summarizes recent information about their therapeutic potential as treatments for different neuropathologies and neurodegenerative processes. The effect of GH and GnRH (by independent administration) has been associated with beneficial impacts in patients with brain trauma and spinal cord injuries...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Danko D Georgiev, James F Glazebrook
Twenty five years ago, Sir John Carew Eccles together with Friedrich Beck proposed a quantum mechanical model of neurotransmitter release at synapses in the human cerebral cortex. The model endorsed causal influence of human consciousness upon the functioning of synapses in the brain through quantum tunneling of unidentified quasiparticles that trigger the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, thereby initiating the transmission of information from the presynaptic towards the postsynaptic neuron. Here, we provide a molecular upgrade of the Beck and Eccles model by identifying the quantum quasiparticles as Davydov solitons that twist the protein α-helices and trigger exocytosis of synaptic vesicles through helical zipping of the SNARE protein complex...
January 22, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Roy O Weller, Matthew M Sharp, Myron Christodoulides, Roxana O Carare, Kjeld Møllgård
Meninges that surround the CNS consist of an outer fibrous sheet of dura mater (pachymeninx) that is also the inner periosteum of the skull. Underlying the dura are the arachnoid and pia mater (leptomeninges) that form the boundaries of the subarachnoid space. In this review we (1) examine the development of leptomeninges and their role as barriers and facilitators in the foetal CNS. There are two separate CSF systems during early foetal life, inner CSF in the ventricles and outer CSF in the subarachnoid space...
January 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"