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Cerebral cortex review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641161/postural-control-in-blind-individuals-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Rodolfo Borges Parreira, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Claudia Santos Oliveira
Postural control (PC) requires the interaction of the three sensory systems for a good maintenance of the balance, and in blind people, lack of visual input can harm your PC. Thus the objective is to perform a literature review concerning role of sight in the maintenance of PC and the adaptation of brain structures when vision is absent. Studies were searched from Pubmed, and EMBASE that included individuals with congenital blindness. Articles studying person with acquired blindness or low vision was excluded from this review...
June 12, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637973/neural-mechanisms-of-nociception-during-orthodontic-treatment
#2
Masayuki Kobayashi, Eri Horinuki
Orthodontic tooth movement is accompanied by inflammatory responses in the periodontal ligament. Chemical mediators such as interleukin-1β have key roles in nociception around teeth. Such nociceptive inputs to the periodontal ligament continue for several days and potentially induce plastic changes in higher brain regions, including the cerebral cortex. This review summarizes research on orthodontic treatment-induced modulation of neural activities in the central nervous system. Furthermore, we describe our recent findings on the spatiotemporal effects of orthodontic treatment in the somatosensory and insular cortices...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634745/prolactin-function-and-putative-expression-in-the-brain
#3
REVIEW
Erika Alejandra Cabrera-Reyes, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Nadia Alejandra Rivero-Segura, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Marco Cerbón
INTRODUCTION: Prolactin is a peptide hormone mainly synthetized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, but also by extrapituitary tissues, such as mammary gland, decidua, prostate, skin, and possibly the brain. Similarly, prolactin receptor is expressed in the pituitary gland, many peripheral tissues, and in contrast to prolactin, its receptor has been consistently detected in several brain regions, such as cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, among others...
June 20, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630881/review-of-functional-and-clinical-relevance-of-intrinsic-signal-optical-imaging-in-human-brain-mapping
#4
REVIEW
Katherine A Morone, Joseph S Neimat, Anna W Roe, Robert M Friedman
Intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISOI) within the first decade of its use in humans showed its capacity as a precise functional mapping tool. It is a powerful tool that can be used intraoperatively to help a surgeon to directly identify functional areas of the cerebral cortex. Its use is limited to the intraoperative setting as it requires a craniotomy and durotomy for direct visualization of the brain. It has been applied in humans to study language, somatosensory and visual cortices, cortical hemodynamics, epileptiform activity, and lesion delineation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588454/reelin-signaling-inactivates-cofilin-to-stabilize-the-cytoskeleton-of-migrating-cortical-neurons
#5
REVIEW
Michael Frotscher, Shanting Zhao, Shaobo Wang, Xuejun Chai
Neurons are highly polarized cells. They give rise to several dendrites but only one axon. In addition, many neurons show a preferred orientation. For example, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex extend their apical dendrites toward the cortical surface while their axons run in opposite direction toward the white matter. This characteristic orientation reflects the migratory trajectory of a pyramidal cell during cortical development: the leading process (the future apical dendrite) extends toward the marginal zone (MZ) and the trailing process (the future axon) toward the intermediate zone (IZ) while the cells migrate radially to reach their destination in the cortical plate (CP)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588366/neurocognitive-effect-of-nootropic-drug-brahmi-bacopa-monnieri-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Kaustubh S Chaudhari, Nishant R Tiwari, Rakesh R Tiwari, Rohan S Sharma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the elderly. The rapid increase in its incidence has necessitated development of newer drugs. Ayurvedic herbal medications are increasingly researched due to their biosafety profile and usefulness in cognitive impairment. In this article, we critically reviewed one such Medhya Rasayana (nootropic drug) Brahmi-derived from extract of Bacopa monnieri (EBm). Studies have shown that EBm promotes free radical scavenger mechanisms and protects cells in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum against cytotoxicity and DNA damage implicated in AD...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575905/association-of-white-matter-lesions-cerebral-atrophy-intracranial-extravascular-calcifications-and-ventricular-communicating-hydrocephalus-with-delirium-among-veterans
#7
Mark B Detweiler, Rathnakara M Sherigar, Geoffrey Bader, Kelly Sullivan, Arline Kenneth, Naciye Kalafat, Pavan Reddy, Brian Lutgens
OBJECTIVES: The literature regarding the underlying neuropathogenesis of delirium on head computed tomography (CT) is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate, using case-control retrospective chart review, the association of white matter lesions (WML), cerebral atrophy, intracranial extravascular calcifications, and ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus in older adult military veterans with and without delirium hospitalized in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. METHODS: Head CT scans were examined for WML, atrophy, and intracranial extravascular calcifications globally in the cortex, subcortex (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital lobes), basal ganglia (globus pallidus, caudate, putamen), and internal capsule, in addition to the presence of ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus...
June 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572051/late-onset-rasmussen-encephalitis-a-literature-appraisal
#8
REVIEW
Sophie Dupont, Ana Gales, Serge Sammey, Marie Vidailhet, Virginie Lambrecq
Rasmussen Encephalitis (RE) is classically described as a childhood encephalopathy due to a unilateral inflammation of the cerebral cortex with a presumed immune-mediated pathophysiological basis. Unusual variant forms, including adolescent and adult-onset RE have been described but there is still a doubt whether these atypical cases correspond to classical RE patients. To review evidence, a systematic PubMed search was conducted to retrieve papers addressing late onset RE to assess (i) the positivity rate of classical childhood-onset diagnostic criteria for RE in late-onset RE, (ii) the specific clinical and radiological features that could help earlier diagnosis and therapeutic interventions, (iii) the arguments for an autoimmune pathophysiology including (iiia) the association with autoimmune markers or diseases and (iiib) the effects of immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatments...
May 29, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570101/mr-elastography-demonstrates-unique-regional-brain-stiffness-patterns-in-dementias
#9
Mona ElSheikh, Arvin Arani, Avital Perry, Bradley F Boeve, Fredric B Meyer, Rodolfo Savica, Richard L Ehman, John Huston
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate age-corrected brain MR elastography (MRE) findings in four dementia cohorts (Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus) and determine the potential use as a differentiating biomarker in dementia subtypes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained to perform MRE on 84 subjects: 20 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus, eight with Alzheimer disease, five with dementia with Lewy bodies, five with frontotemporal dementia, and 46 cognitively normal control subjects...
June 1, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567005/the-long-journey-of-pontine-nuclei-neurons-from-rhombic-lip-to-cortico-ponto-cerebellar-circuitry
#10
REVIEW
Claudius F Kratochwil, Upasana Maheshwari, Filippo M Rijli
The pontine nuclei (PN) are the largest of the precerebellar nuclei, neuronal assemblies in the hindbrain providing principal input to the cerebellum. The PN are predominantly innervated by the cerebral cortex and project as mossy fibers to the cerebellar hemispheres. Here, we comprehensively review the development of the PN from specification to migration, nucleogenesis and circuit formation. PN neurons originate at the posterior rhombic lip and migrate tangentially crossing several rhombomere derived territories to reach their final position in ventral part of the pons...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560150/amyloid-positron-emission-tomography-in-sporadic-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-a-systematic-critical-update
#11
REVIEW
Karim Farid, Andreas Charidimou, Jean-Claude Baron
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a very common small vessel disease of the brain, showing preferential and progressive amyloid-βdeposition in the wall of small arterioles and capillaries of the leptomeninges and cerebral cortex. CAA now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological trait, but also different clinical syndromes - including spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), dementia and 'amyloid spells' - an expanding spectrum of brain parenchymal MRI lesions and a set of diagnostic criteria - the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detecting CAA during life...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559830/choreoathetosis-is-a-possible-adverse-event-of-a-commonly-used-antibiotic
#12
Pornchai Sathirapanya
BACKGROUND: Choreoathetosis (CAS) is attributed to a few neuropsychiatric drugs; however, it is scarcely reported with commonly used antibiotics. AIMS: To present a case of ceftriaxone (CTX)-induced CAS and to perform a literature review. SETTING: A medical teaching hospital. CASE HISTORY: An 83-year-old female with end stage renal disease was prescribed CTX 2 g/day intravenously and doxycycline (DXC) 200 mg/day orally for the treatment of acute community-acquired systemic infection...
January 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538067/review-of-a-multi-modal-parcellation-of-human-cerebral-cortex-by-glasser-m-coalson-ts-robinson-ec-hacker-cd-harwell-j-yacoub-e-ugurbil-k-andersson-j-beckmann-cf-jenkinson-m-smith-sm-van-essen-dc-in-nature-536-171-181-2016
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527575/coup-tf-genes-human-diseases-and-the-development-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-murine-models
#14
Xiong Yang, Su Feng, Ke Tang
COUP-TFI and -TFII are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent clinical studies reveal that COUP-TFI gene mutations are associated with Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome displaying symptoms of optic atrophy, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizure, autism spectrum disorders, oromotor dysfunction, thin corpus callosum, or hearing defects, and COUP-TFII gene mutations lead to congenital heart defects and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with developmental delay and mental defects...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516224/psychiatric-behaviors-associated-with-cytoskeletal-defects-in-radial-neuronal-migration
#15
REVIEW
Toshifumi Fukuda, Shigeru Yanagi
Normal development of the cerebral cortex is an important process for higher brain functions, such as language, and cognitive and social functions. Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, are thought to develop owing to various dysfunctions occurring during the development of the cerebral cortex. Radial neuronal migration in the embryonic cerebral cortex is a complex process, which is achieved by strict control of cytoskeletal dynamics, and impairments in this process are suggested to cause various psychiatric disorders...
May 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508370/a-proteomic-evaluation-of-sympathetic-activity-biomarkers-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-by-western-blotting-technique-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Hale Zerrin Toklu, Yasemin Sakarya, Nihal Tümer
Endocrine disorders and autonomic dysfunction are common paradigms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following TBI may result in impaired vasopressor response, energy imbalance, fatigue, depression, or neurological disorders. Autonomic dysfunction is a common disorder following TBI. The sympathetic activity markers on HPA axis can be measured by Western blot protein analysis. Tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta hydroxylase are the key enzymes for the synthesis of norepinephrine; and neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the peptide that is co-stored and co-released with norepinephrine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507985/control-of-neuronal-migration-and-aggregation-by-reelin-signaling-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#17
REVIEW
Yuki Hirota, Kazunori Nakajima
The mammalian cerebral neocortex has a well-organized laminar structure, achieved by the highly coordinated control of neuronal migration. During cortical development, excitatory neurons born near the lateral ventricle migrate radially to reach their final positions to form the cortical plate. During this process, dynamic changes are observed in the morphologies and migration modes, including multipolar migration, locomotion, and terminal translocation, of the newborn neurons. Disruption of these migration processes can result in neuronal disorders such as lissencephaly and periventricular heterotopia...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493553/regulation-of-cytokinesis-during-corticogenesis-focus-on-the-midbody
#18
REVIEW
Caroline A Johnson, Catherine E Wright, H Troy Ghashghaei
Development of the cerebral cortices depends on tight regulation of cell divisions. In this system, stem and progenitor cells undergo symmetric and asymmetric divisions to ultimately produce neurons that establish the layers of the cortex. Cell division culminates with formation of the midbody, a transient organelle that establishes the site of abscission between nascent daughter cells. During cytokinetic abscission, the final stage of cell division, one daughter cell will inherit the midbody remnant, which can then maintain or expel the remnant, but mechanisms and circumstances influencing this decision are unclear...
May 11, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492341/implications-of-neurovascular-uncoupling-in-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-of-brain-tumors
#19
Rebecca W Pak, Darian H Hadjiabadi, Janaka Senarathna, Shruti Agarwal, Nitish V Thakor, Jay J Pillai, Arvind P Pathak
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) serves as a critical tool for presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex and changes in neurological function in patients diagnosed with brain tumors. However, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism underlying fMRI assumes that neurovascular coupling remains intact during brain tumor progression, and that measured changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) are correlated with neuronal function. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that even low-grade brain tumors can exhibit neurovascular uncoupling (NVU), which can confound interpretation of fMRI data...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483395/seizure-outcomes-in-children-following-electrocorticography-guided-single-stage-surgical-resection
#20
Seema Bansal, Andrew J Kim, Anne T Berg, Sookyong Koh, Linda C Laux, Srishti Nangia, John J Millichap, Alexandra Shaw, Breanne Fisher, Catherine Dezort, Arthur J DiPatri, Tord D Alden, Douglas R Nordli
BACKGROUND: In children with abnormal imaging, single-stage epilepsy surgery is an attractive alternative to the two-stage approach that relies on invasive recording of seizures. Implanted electrodes carry risks of their own and extend hospitalization, but the efficacy of one-stage resections in a variety of pathologies and cerebral locations is not well established. We report our center's experience with single-stage epilepsy surgery guided by intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG)...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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