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Cerebral cortex review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087392/predictors-and-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-occurrence-in-cerebral-gliomas-what-to-look-for-in-clinicopathology
#1
Cheng Huang, Xiao-Sa Chi, Xin Hu, Ni Chen, Qiao Zhou, Dong Zhou, Jin-Mei Li
Gliomas, especially low-grade gliomas, are highly epileptogenic brain tumors. Histopathological information is valuable in evaluating the diagnosis and/or biologic behavior of various gliomas. Here we explored the clinical data and histopathological predictors of the occurrence of epilepsy in patients with gliomas. A retrospective study examined 310 consecutive patients who had undergone surgical treatment for gliomas in our institution from January 2013 to January 2015. Clinical data and pathological examination results were analyzed...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062861/incidence-locations-and-longitudinal-course-of-cerebral-microbleeds-in-european-moyamoya
#2
Holger Wenz, Ralf Wenz, Máté Maros, Gregory Ehrlich, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Christoph Groden, Alex Förster
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (cMBs) have previously been linked with especially high incidence in Asian patients with moyamoya together with high tendency to bleed. This, presumably, is characteristic of patients with moyamoya. Herein, we, therefore, investigate retrospectively the frequency, location, and longitudinal course of cMBs in a large German cohort. METHODS: We included all patients with moyamoya who underwent standard magnetic resonance imaging, including T2*-weighted images, in our department between 1998 and 2015...
January 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035179/molecular-neuroimaging-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Jooyeon Jamie Im, Eun Namgung, Yejee Choi, Jung Yoon Kim, Sandy Jeong Rhie, Sujung Yoon
Over the past decade, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have provided insight into the neurobiological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PSTD). In particular, molecular neuroimaging techniques have been employed in examining metabolic and neurochemical processes in PTSD. This article reviews molecular neuroimaging studies in PTSD and focuses on findings using three imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034451/predictors-of-response-to-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-in-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#4
G Beuzon, Q Timour, M Saoud
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, consists of applying series of magnetic impulses to the cerebral cortex so as to modulate neurone activity in a target zone. This technique, still experimental, could prove promising in the field of psychiatry, in particular for the treatment of major depressive disorder. It is important for the clinician to be able to assess the response potential of a given patient to rTMS, and this among other things requires relevant predictive factors to be available...
December 26, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033157/measuring-glutamate-levels-in-the-brains-of-fibromyalgia-patients-and-a-potential-role-for-glutamate-in-the-pathophysiology-of-fibromyalgia-symptoms-a-systematic-review
#5
Tahni Pyke, Peter G Osmotherly, Surinder Baines
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature concerning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) measured glutamate levels in specific brain regions of fibromyalgia (FM) patients to determine if there is a correlation between raised glutamate levels and the presentation of FM. METHODS: The electronic databases - MEDLINE, EMBASE Classic+Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials - were searched to find original studies that used H-MRS to measure glutamate concentrations in the brains of FM patients...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028861/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#6
REVIEW
Yasushi Iwasaki 岩崎 靖
This review will explore the clinical and pathological findings of the various forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Clinical findings of CJD are characterized by rapidly progressive cognitive dysfunction, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) hyperintensity, myoclonus, periodic sharp-wave complexes on electroencephalogram and akinetic mutism state. Neuropathologic findings of CJD are characterized by spongiform changes in gray matter, gliosis-particularly hypertrophic astrocytosis-neuropil rarefaction, neuron loss and prion protein (PrP) deposition...
December 28, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028801/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-basic-principles-and-clinical-applications-in-migraine
#7
Anthony T Barker, Kevin Shields
PURPOSE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurophysiological technique with a long established pedigree of safety, tolerability, and efficacy. Initially TMS was used to study the function of the cerebral cortex, but it has now become a treatment for migraine, one of the most common and debilitating neurological conditions. In this review we discuss the scientific background and development of the technique. We explore its application for the treatment of migraine and ponder the possible mechanisms of action in this most common neurological condition...
December 28, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983564/dysregulation-of-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-huntington-s-disease-a%C3%A2-role-for-dopamine-modulation
#8
Claudia Rangel-Barajas, George V Rebec
Aberrant communication between striatum, the main information processing unit of the basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex plays a critical role in the emergence of Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal monogenetic condition that typically strikes in the prime of life. Although both striatum and cortex undergo substantial cell loss over the course of HD, corticostriatal circuits become dysfunctional long before neurons die. Understanding the dysfunction is key to developing effective strategies for treating a progressively worsening triad of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978481/division-modes-and-physical-asymmetry-in-cerebral-cortex-progenitors
#9
REVIEW
Delphine Delaunay, Ayano Kawaguchi, Colette Dehay, Fumio Matsuzaki
Neural stem cells go through a sequence of timely regulated gene expression and pattern of division mode to generate diverse neurons during brain development. During vertebrate cerebral cortex development, neural stem cells begin with proliferative symmetric divisions, subsequently undergo neurogenic asymmetric divisions, and finally gliogenic divisions. In this review, we explore the relationship between stem cell versus neural fate specification and the division mode. Specifically, we discuss recent findings on the mechanisms of asymmetric divisions, division mode, and developmental progression of neural progenitor identity...
December 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975139/foramina-parietalia-permagna-familial-and-radiological-evaluation-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#10
Larissa Gabor, Huseyin Canaz, Gokhan Canaz, Nursu Kara, Elif Yilmaz Gulec, Ibrahim Alatas
PURPOSE: Foramina parietalia permagna is a variable intramembranous ossification defect of the parietal bones. Foramina parietalia permagna have an autosomal dominant inheritance, and it is showed that mutations in chromosome 5 and 11 are causing this anomaly. Enlarged parietal foramina occurs extremely rare. They are usually asymptomatic, but occasional headache, vomiting, pain over unprotected cerebral cortex, and seizures may be experienced by the patients. In the literature, some associated congenital bony defects, soft tissue pathologies, underlying neuronal deficits, and vascular variations have been described...
December 14, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#11
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920977/neurochemical-changes-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-detected-by-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Xianjing Zhao, Maosheng Xu, Kristen Jorgenson, Jian Kong
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a highly prevalent health problem around the world, affecting 50% to 85% of people at some point in life. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies on brain chemical changes in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: We identified relevant studies from a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE from 1980 to March 2016. Data extraction was performed on the subjects' characteristics, MRS methods, spectral analyses, cerebral metabolites and perceptual measurements...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911741/neural-stem-cells-to-cerebral-cortex-emerging-mechanisms-regulating-progenitor-behavior-and-productivity
#13
Noelle D Dwyer, Bin Chen, Shen-Ju Chou, Simon Hippenmeyer, Laurent Nguyen, H Troy Ghashghaei
This review accompanies a 2016 SFN mini-symposium presenting examples of current studies that address a central question: How do neural stem cells (NSCs) divide in different ways to produce heterogeneous daughter types at the right time and in proper numbers to build a cerebral cortex with the appropriate size and structure? We will focus on four aspects of corticogenesis: cytokinesis events that follow apical mitoses of NSCs; coordinating abscission with delamination from the apical membrane; timing of neurogenesis and its indirect regulation through emergence of intermediate progenitors; and capacity of single NSCs to generate the correct number and laminar fate of cortical neurons...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906525/the-clinical-utility-of-qsm-disease-diagnosis-medical-management-and-surgical-planning
#14
REVIEW
Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Yan Zhang, Jingwei Zhang, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Ajay Gupta, Yi Wang
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR technique that depicts and quantifies magnetic susceptibility sources. Mapping iron, the dominant susceptibility source in the brain, has many important clinical applications. Herein, we review QSM applications in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disease. To assist in early disease diagnosis, QSM can identify elevated iron levels in the motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate of Huntington's disease patients, and in the basal ganglia of Wilson's disease patients...
December 1, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891079/contribution-of-tms-and-rtms-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-and-in-the-treatment-of-dystonia
#15
REVIEW
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Alexandra Richard, Sana Masmoudi, Elodie Meppiel, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890445/acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-mr-imaging-findings-with-clinical-correlation
#16
D M Kim, I H Lee, J Y Park, S-B Hwang, D S Yoo, C J Song
PURPOSE: To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and correlate MRI findings with carboxyhemoglobin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRI examinations and medical records of seven men with a mean age of 43±16.0years (SD) (range: 25-63 years) with acute CO poisoning were reviewed. MRI examinations were analyzed with respect to lesion location, imaging presentation on T1- and T2-weighted images, and diffusion characteristics on DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps...
November 24, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876467/a-review-on-tacrine-based-scaffolds-as-multi-target-drugs-mtdls-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Bilqees Sameem, Mina Saeedi, Mohammad Mahdavi, Abbas Shafiee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological disorder among elderly people and combinatorial factors such as genetic, lifestyle, and environmental are involved in onset and disease progression. It has been demonstrated that loss of cholinergic transmission is one of the most significant causes of AD. One strategy currently being investigated for the development of new therapeutics relates to the enhancement of cholinergic system through several ways. At this juncture, anticholinesterase inhibitors have absorbed lots of attention and different marketed drugs such as donepezil, rivastigmine, tacrine, and galantamine have been developed...
October 28, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870449/do-cortical-plasticity-mechanisms-differ-between-males-and-females
#18
James Dachtler, Kevin Fox
The difference between male and female behavior and male and female susceptibility to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions is not controversial. From a biological perspective, one might expect to see at least some of these differences underpinned by identifiable physical differences in the brain. This Mini-Review focuses on evidence that plasticity mechanisms differ between males and females and ask at what scale of organization the differences might exist, at the systems level, the circuits level, or the synaptic level...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867146/genomics-disclose-the-influence-of-human-specific-genetic-variation-on-the-evolution-and-development-of-cerebral-cortex
#19
Pu Maomao, Yao Jun, Cao Xin
Cerebral cortex, whose complexity of structure and function has derived from human specific genetic variation, is the most advanced nerve center of human, controlling the cognitive ability which distinguishes human from any other creatures. Using genomics technology, molecular mechanisms of cerebral cortex development and evolution have been disclosed. In this review, we summarize how genomics technologies are used in exploring the influence of human specific genetic variation on cerebral cortex development and evolution, including the genomics methods to study the gene expression differences among the cerebral cortex of human beings, chimpanzee and other mammals; as well as the role of the significant non-coding regulatory sequences-human accelerated regions (HARs) in the process of brain development...
November 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858715/glucose-transporters-in-brain-in-health-and-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Leszek Szablewski
Neurons need a continuous supply of glucose, the major source of energy for mammalian brain metabolism. The central nervous system is protected by three main physiological cell barriers. Cell membranes are impermeable for glucose, therefore glucose is transferred across the cell membranes by specific transport proteins: sodium-independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), encoded by SLC2 genes, and sodium-dependent glucose transporters (for example SGLTs), encoded by SLC5 genes. Human brain expresses 10 GLUT proteins and 10 proteins encoded by SLC5 genes...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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