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Cerebral cortex review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927263/molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Sangyun Jeong
The most common form of senile dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) plaques and the intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the cerebral cortex. Tau abnormalities are commonly observed in many neurodegenerative diseases including AD, Parkinson's disease, and Pick's disease. Interestingly, tau-mediated formation of NFTs in AD brains shows better correlation with cognitive impairment than Abeta plaque accumulation; pathological tau alone is sufficient to elicit frontotemporal dementia, but it does not cause AD...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918121/conserved-rules-in-embryonic-development-of-cortical-interneurons
#2
REVIEW
Christine Laclef, Christine Métin
This review will focus on early aspects of cortical interneurons (cIN) development from specification to migration and final positioning in the human cerebral cortex. These mechanisms have been largely studied in the mouse model, which provides unique possibilities of genetic analysis, essential to dissect the molecular and cellular events involved in cortical development. An important goal here is to discuss the conservation and the potential divergence of these mechanisms, with a particular interest for the situation in the human embryo...
September 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913594/developmental-trajectory-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#3
Sónia S Sousa, Edson Amaro, Alberto Crego, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Fluctuations in gray and white matter volumes in addition to the fibers' reorganization and refinement of synaptic connectivity apparently happen in a particular temporo-spatial sequence during the dynamic and prolonged process of cerebral maturation. These developmental events are associated with regional modifications of brain tissues and neural circuits, contributing to networks' specialization and enhanced cognitive processing. According to several studies, improvements in cognitive processes are possibly myelin-dependent and associated to white matter maturation...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904534/three-dimensional-organoid-system-transplantation-technologies-in-future-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-diseases
#4
REVIEW
NaiLi Wei, ZiFang Quan, Hailiang Tang, JianHong Zhu
In recent years, scientists have made great achievements in understanding the development of human brain and elucidating critical elements of stepwise spatiotemporal control strategies in neural stem cell specification lineage, which facilitates successful induction of neural organoid in vitro including the cerebral cortex, cerebellar, neural tube, hippocampus cortex, pituitary, and optic cup. Besides, emerging researches on neural organogenesis promote the application of 3D organoid system transplantation in treating central nervous system (CNS) diseases...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904465/spectrum-of-visual-impairment-in-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-importance-of-tailoring-therapies-based-on-pathophysiology
#5
Sanjith Aaron, Anupriya Arthur, A T Prabakhar, Pavitra Mannam, N K Shyamkumar, Sunithi Mani, Vivek Mathew, Jeyanthi Peter, Ajith Sivadasan, Anika Alexander, M Karthik, Rohith Ninan Benjamin, Mathew Alexander
Visual impairment can complicate cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). Here, we describe the various pathophysiological mechanisms and treatments available. A retrospective chart review of all patients treated for CVT in a large quaternary teaching hospital was done, and cases with visual impairment due to CVT were identified. The various mechanisms causing visual impairment in CVT were (1) raised intracranial pressure (ICP) caused by venous thrombosis without venous infarcts resulting in a benign intracranial hypertension-like presentation of CVT, (2) venous infarcts involving the occipital cortex, (3) raised ICP following the development of a secondary dural arteriovenous (AV) fistula, and (4) arterial occipital infarcts due to posterior cerebral artery compression secondary to herniation in large venous infarcts...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887403/the-functions-of-reelin-in-membrane-trafficking-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-implications-for-neuronal-migration-polarization-and-differentiation
#6
REVIEW
Jessica Santana, María-Paz Marzolo
Reelin is a large extracellular matrix protein with relevant roles in mammalian central nervous system including neurogenesis, neuronal polarization and migration during development; and synaptic plasticity with its implications in learning and memory, in the adult. Dysfunctions in reelin signaling are associated with brain lamination defects such as lissencephaly, but also with neuropsychiatric diseases like autism, schizophrenia and depression as well with neurodegeneration. Reelin signaling involves a core pathway that activates upon reelin binding to its receptors, particularly ApoER2 (apolipoprotein E receptor 2)/LRP8 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor, followed by Src/Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Dab1 (Disabled-1)...
September 7, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884806/neurophysiological-mechanisms-and-functional-impact-of-mirror-movements-in-children-with-unilateral-spastic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Hsing-Ching Kuo, Kathleen M Friel, Andrew M Gordon
Children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) often have mirror movements, i.e. involuntary imitations of unilateral voluntary movements of the contralateral upper extremity. The pathophysiology of mirror movements has been investigated in small and heterogeneous cohorts in the literature. Specific pathophysiology of mirror movements and their impact on upper extremity function require systematic investigation in larger and homogeneous cohorts of children with unilateral spastic CP. Here we review two possible neurophysiological mechanisms underlying mirror movements in children with CP and those with typical development: (1) an ipsilateral corticospinal tract projecting from the contralesional motor cortex (M1) to both upper extremities; (2) insufficient interhemispheric inhibition between the two M1s...
September 8, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873338/myths-and-truths-about-the-cellular-composition-of-the-human-brain-a-review-of-influential-concepts
#8
REVIEW
Christopher S Bvon Bartheld
Over the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we lose significant numbers of neurons with normal aging, whether chronic alcohol abuse contributes to cortical neuron loss, whether there are significant differences in the quantitative composition of cerebral cortex between male and female brains, whether superior intelligence in humans correlates with larger numbers of brain cells, and whether there are secular (generational) changes in neuron number...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867516/modelling-the-neuromotor-abnormalities-of-psychotic-illness-putative-mechanisms-and-systems-dysfunction
#9
John L Waddington, Colm M O'Tuathaigh
Limitations in access to antipsychotic-naïve patients and in the incisiveness of studies that can be conducted on them, together with the inevitability of subsequent antipsychotic treatment, indicate an enduring role for animal models that can inform on the pathobiology of neuromotor abnormalities in schizophrenia and related psychotic illness. This review focusses particularly on genetically modified mouse models that involve genes associated with risk for schizophrenia and with mechanisms implicated in the neuromotor abnormalities evident in psychotic patients, as well as developmental models that seek to mirror the trajectory, phenomenology and putative pathophysiology of psychotic illness...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864345/enhancing-our-brains-genomic-mechanisms-underlying-cortical-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Caitlyn Mitchell, Debra L Silver
Our most distinguishing higher cognitive functions are controlled by the cerebral cortex. Comparative studies detail abundant anatomical and cellular features unique to the human developing and adult neocortex. Emerging genomic studies have further defined vast genetic differences distinguishing developing human neocortices from related primates. These human-specific changes can affect gene function and/or expression, and result from structural variations such as chromosomal deletions and duplications, or from point mutations in coding and noncoding regulatory regions...
August 29, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864080/developing-the-brain-early-illustrations-of-cerebral-cortex-and-its-gyri
#11
Harry Sutherland-Foggio
BACKGROUND: Throughout the Middle Ages, most representations of the brain amounted to highly schematized ventricles housed within abstract squiggles of neural tissue. The works by the pre-eminent Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius in his De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543) added considerably more accuracy and detail-still, his drawings of cerebral hemispheres do not exhibit the gyral-sulcal pattern recognized today. Identifiable cortical landmarks would not be featured in print until Cerebri Anatome (1664) by the English physician Thomas Willis...
July 10, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851789/brain-stimulation-for-arm-recovery-after-stroke-b-stars-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-subacute-stroke-patients
#12
Eline C C van Lieshout, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Sebastiaan F W Neggers, H Bart van der Worp, Rick M Dijkhuizen
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with stroke have moderate to severe long-term sensorimotor impairments, often including inability to execute movements of the affected arm or hand. Limited recovery from stroke may be partly caused by imbalanced interaction between the cerebral hemispheres, with reduced excitability of the ipsilesional motor cortex while excitability of the contralesional motor cortex is increased. Non-invasive brain stimulation with inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the contralesional hemisphere may aid in relieving a post-stroke interhemispheric excitability imbalance, which could improve functional recovery...
August 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834762/charting-the-protomap-of-the-human-telencephalon
#13
REVIEW
Gavin J Clowry, Ayman Alzu'bi, Lauren F Harkin, Subrot Sarma, Janet Kerwin, Susan J Lindsay
The cerebral cortex is divided stereotypically into a number of functionally distinct areas. According to the protomap hypothesis formulated by Rakic neural progenitors in the ventricular zone form a mosaic of proliferative units that provide a primordial species-specific cortical map. Positional information of newborn neurons is maintained during their migration to the overlying cortical plate. Much evidence has been found to support this hypothesis from studies of primary cortical areas in mouse models in particular...
August 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829730/clinical-characteristics-of-severe-japanese-encephalitis-a-case-series-from-south-korea
#14
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Jangsup Moon, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of devastating viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. Although a successful vaccination program led to its near-elimination over three decades in South Korea, the incidence of JE has increased since 2010. The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and factors affecting neurological outcomes of reemerging JE. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of laboratory-confirmed JE patients who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at three tertiary hospitals between 2010 and 2015...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801420/protocol-study-for-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial-involving-virtual-reality-and-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-improvement-of-upper-limb-motor-function-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#15
Jamile Benite Palma Lopes, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Renata Calhes Franco de Moura, Roberta Delasta Lazzari, Natalia de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Isabela Miziara, Gileno Edu Lameira de Melo, Arislander Jonathan Lopes Dumont, Manuela Galli, Claudia Santos Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome results in neuromotor impairment that affects selective motor control, compromising the acquisition of motor skills and functional independence. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate and compare the effects of multiple-monopolar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex during upper limb motor training involving virtual reality on motor control, muscle activity, cerebral activity and functional independence...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775344/neuronal-cell-type-classification-challenges-opportunities-and-the-path-forward
#16
REVIEW
Hongkui Zeng, Joshua R Sanes
Neurons have diverse molecular, morphological, connectional and functional properties. We believe that the only realistic way to manage this complexity - and thereby pave the way for understanding the structure, function and development of brain circuits - is to group neurons into types, which can then be analysed systematically and reproducibly. However, neuronal classification has been challenging both technically and conceptually. New high-throughput methods have created opportunities to address the technical challenges associated with neuronal classification by collecting comprehensive information about individual cells...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765677/efficacy-towards-negative-symptoms-and-safety-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-for-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#17
Junjie Wang, Yingqun Zhou, Hong Gan, Jiaoyan Pang, Hui Li, Jijun Wang, Chunbo Li
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms are one of the most difficult areas in the treatment of schizophrenia because antipsychotics are often less effective towards them. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new technique for cerebral cortex stimulation and is believed to be a safe and promising method for the treatment of mental disorders. As the clinical research and new treatment models have increased in recent years, the efficacy towards negative symptoms and safety evaluation of rTMS treatment should also be updated...
April 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757456/prenatal-developmental-origins-of-behavior-and-mental-health-the-influence-of-maternal-stress-in-pregnancy
#18
REVIEW
Bea R H Van den Bergh, Marion I van den Heuvel, Marius Lahti, Marijke Braeken, Susanne R de Rooij, Sonja Entringer, Dirk Hoyer, Tessa Roseboom, Katri Räikkönen, Suzanne King, Matthias Schwab
Accumulating research shows that prenatal exposure to maternal stress increases the risk for behavioral and mental health problems later in life. This review systematically analyzes the available human studies to identify harmful stressors, vulnerable periods during pregnancy, specificities in the outcome and biological correlates of the relation between maternal stress and offspring outcome. Effects of maternal stress on offspring neurodevelopment, cognitive development, negative affectivity, difficult temperament and psychiatric disorders are shown in numerous epidemiological and case-control studies...
July 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755870/use-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-investigation-of-brain-activation-during-cognitive-aging-a-systematic-review-of-an-emerging-area-of-research
#19
REVIEW
Nounagnon F Agbangla, Michel Audiffren, Cédric T Albinet
The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a growing and stimulating research area. The development of neuroimaging techniques in the past two decades has considerably increased our understanding of the brain mechanisms that might underlie cognitive performance and resulting changes due to normal aging. Beside traditional metabolic neuroimaging techniques, such as Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique allowing to monitor real-time cerebral blood oxygenation, has gained recent interest in this field...
September 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753382/electrical-stimulation-of-visual-cortex-relevance-for-the-development-of-visual-cortical-prosthetics
#20
William H Bosking, Michael S Beauchamp, Daniel Yoshor
Electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex is a powerful tool for exploring cortical function. Stimulation of early visual cortical areas is easily detected by subjects and produces simple visual percepts known as phosphenes. A device implanted in visual cortex that generates patterns of phosphenes could be used as a substitute for natural vision in blind patients.Wereview the possibilities and limitations of such a device, termed a visual cortical prosthetic. Currently, we can predict the location and size of phosphenes produced by stimulation of single electrodes...
July 28, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
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