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Cerebral cortex review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527575/coup-tf-genes-human-diseases-and-the-development-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-murine-models
#1
Xiong Yang, Su Feng, Ke Tang
COUP-TFI and -TFII are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent clinical studies reveal that COUP-TFI gene mutations are associated with Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome displaying symptoms of optic atrophy, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizure, autism spectrum disorders, oromotor dysfunction, thin corpus callosum, or hearing defects, and COUP-TFII gene mutations lead to congenital heart defects and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with developmental delay and mental defects...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516224/psychiatric-behaviors-associated-with-cytoskeletal-defects-in-radial-neuronal-migration
#2
REVIEW
Toshifumi Fukuda, Shigeru Yanagi
Normal development of the cerebral cortex is an important process for higher brain functions, such as language, and cognitive and social functions. Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, are thought to develop owing to various dysfunctions occurring during the development of the cerebral cortex. Radial neuronal migration in the embryonic cerebral cortex is a complex process, which is achieved by strict control of cytoskeletal dynamics, and impairments in this process are suggested to cause various psychiatric disorders...
May 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508370/a-proteomic-evaluation-of-sympathetic-activity-biomarkers-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-by-western-blotting-technique-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Hale Zerrin Toklu, Yasemin Sakarya, Nihal Tümer
Endocrine disorders and autonomic dysfunction are common paradigms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following TBI may result in impaired vasopressor response, energy imbalance, fatigue, depression, or neurological disorders. Autonomic dysfunction is a common disorder following TBI. The sympathetic activity markers on HPA axis can be measured by Western blot protein analysis. Tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta hydroxylase are the key enzymes for the synthesis of norepinephrine; and neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the peptide that is co-stored and co-released with norepinephrine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507985/control-of-neuronal-migration-and-aggregation-by-reelin-signaling-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#4
REVIEW
Yuki Hirota, Kazunori Nakajima
The mammalian cerebral neocortex has a well-organized laminar structure, achieved by the highly coordinated control of neuronal migration. During cortical development, excitatory neurons born near the lateral ventricle migrate radially to reach their final positions to form the cortical plate. During this process, dynamic changes are observed in the morphologies and migration modes, including multipolar migration, locomotion, and terminal translocation, of the newborn neurons. Disruption of these migration processes can result in neuronal disorders such as lissencephaly and periventricular heterotopia...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493553/regulation-of-cytokinesis-during-corticogenesis-focus-on-the-midbody
#5
REVIEW
Caroline A Johnson, Catherine E Wright, H Troy Ghashghaei
Development of the cerebral cortices depends on tight regulation of cell divisions. In this system, stem and progenitor cells undergo symmetric and asymmetric divisions to ultimately produce neurons that establish the layers of the cortex. Cell division culminates with formation of the midbody, a transient organelle that establishes the site of abscission between nascent daughter cells. During cytokinetic abscission, the final stage of cell division, one daughter cell will inherit the midbody remnant, which can then maintain or expel the remnant, but mechanisms and circumstances influencing this decision are unclear...
May 11, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492341/implications-of-neurovascular-uncoupling-in-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-of-brain-tumors
#6
Rebecca W Pak, Darian H Hadjiabadi, Janaka Senarathna, Shruti Agarwal, Nitish V Thakor, Jay J Pillai, Arvind P Pathak
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) serves as a critical tool for presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex and changes in neurological function in patients diagnosed with brain tumors. However, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism underlying fMRI assumes that neurovascular coupling remains intact during brain tumor progression, and that measured changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) are correlated with neuronal function. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that even low-grade brain tumors can exhibit neurovascular uncoupling (NVU), which can confound interpretation of fMRI data...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483395/seizure-outcomes-in-children-following-electrocorticography-guided-single-stage-surgical-resection
#7
Seema Bansal, Andrew J Kim, Anne T Berg, Sookyong Koh, Linda C Laux, Srishti Nangia, John J Millichap, Alexandra Shaw, Breanne Fisher, Catherine Dezort, Arthur J DiPatri, Tord D Alden, Douglas R Nordli
BACKGROUND: In children with abnormal imaging, single-stage epilepsy surgery is an attractive alternative to the two-stage approach that relies on invasive recording of seizures. Implanted electrodes carry risks of their own and extend hospitalization, but the efficacy of one-stage resections in a variety of pathologies and cerebral locations is not well established. We report our center's experience with single-stage epilepsy surgery guided by intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG)...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475113/genetic-and-molecular-approaches-to-study-neuronal-migration-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Jacobus J Dudok, Pim E G Leonards, Jan Wijnholds
The migration of neuronal cells in the developing cerebral cortex is essential for proper development of the brain and brain networks. Disturbances in this process, due to genetic abnormalities or exogenous factors, leads to aberrant brain formation, brain network formation, and brain function. In the last decade, there has been extensive research in the field of neuronal migration. In this review, we describe different methods and approaches to assess and study neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex...
May 5, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450073/cerebral-magnetic-resonance-changes-associated-with-fibromyalgia-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Iñigo Murga, Virginia Guillen, José-Vicente Lafuente
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic disease, of unknown origin, whose diagnostic criteria were established in 1990 by the American College of Rheumatology. New criteria were proposed in 2010 that have not yet been validated. It is characterized by a generalized chronic musculoskeletal pain, accompanied by hyperalgesia and allodynia, as well as other motor, vegetative, cognitive and affective symptoms and signs. We have reviewed a set of studies with cerebral magnetic resonance (morphometry, connectivity and spectroscopy) that refer to changes in areas involved in pain processing...
April 24, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448448/in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-techniques-to-study-neuronal-migration-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#10
REVIEW
Roberta Azzarelli, Roberto Oleari, Antonella Lettieri, Valentina Andre', Anna Cariboni
Neuronal migration is a fundamental biological process that underlies proper brain development and neuronal circuit formation. In the developing cerebral cortex, distinct neuronal populations, producing excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurotransmitters, are generated in different germinative areas and migrate along various routes to reach their final positions within the cortex. Different technical approaches and experimental models have been adopted to study the mechanisms regulating neuronal migration in the cortex...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440186/the-double-roles-of-the-prostaglandin-e2-ep2-receptor-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#11
Xu Luo, Qiquan Zhu, Jie Zhang, Qin Huang, Zongyi Xie, Yuan Cheng
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a subtype of stroke, brings high morbidity and mortality to human beings. Multiple studies indicate that neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity resulted from the degradation products of blood clot play vital roles in ICH-induced secondary brain injury, which contributes to deterioration of neurological outcome. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a type of prostanoids commonly up-regulated in these progresses, is known to modulate numerous cellular and molecular processes and involve in various diseases, including ICH, cerebral ischemic, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etc...
April 24, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434992/promising-techniques-to-illuminate-neuromodulatory-control-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-sleeping-and-waking-states
#12
REVIEW
Takeshi Kanda, Kaoru Ohyama, Hiroki Muramoto, Nami Kitajima, Hiroshi Sekiya
Sleep, a common event in daily life, has clear benefits for brain function, but what goes on in the brain when we sleep remains unclear. Sleep was long regarded as a silent state of the brain because the brain seemingly lacks interaction with the surroundings during sleep. Since the discovery of electrical activities in the brain at rest, electrophysiological methods have revealed novel concepts in sleep research. During sleep, the brain generates oscillatory activities that represent characteristic states of sleep...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424385/-korbinian-brodmann-s-scientific-profile-and-academic-works
#13
Mitsuru Kawamura
Brodmann's map is one of the best known maps of the human cerebral cortex. However, Korbinian Brodmann's 1909 monograph, containing the first map, has not been widely read by neurologists. Following the publication of the first map, Brodmann reproduced the map in 1910, and again in 1914, with several important differences. The latter map is also characterized by the exclusion of Brodmann area numbers, "12-16, and 48-51;" contrastingry numbers "1-52" have been described in the animal brain. Here, we provide a detailed explanation of the versions of Brodmann's maps, and review his academic profile and works...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414105/functional-reorganization-after-hemispherectomy-in-humans-and-animal-models-what-can-we-learn-about-the-brain-s-resilience-to-extensive-unilateral-lesions
#14
REVIEW
Luca Sebastianelli, Viviana Versace, Alexandra Taylor, Francesco Brigo, Wolfgang Nothdurfter, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Raffaele Nardone
Hemispherectomy (HS) is an effective surgical procedure aimed at managing otherwise intractable epilepsy in cases of diffuse unihemispheric pathologies. Neurological recovery in subjects treated with HS is not limited to seizure reduction, rather, sensory-motor and behavioral improvement is often observed. This outcome highlights the considerable capability of the brain to react to such an extensive lesion, by functionally reorganizing and rewiring the cerebral cortex, especially early in life. In this narrative review, we summarize the animal studies as well as the human neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies dealing with the reorganizational processes that occur after HS...
April 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413741/serial-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Ahmed H Qavi, Tasnim F Imran, Zachariah Hasan, Fariha Ilyas, Usman Ghani, Salman Assad, Shabih Hasan
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative, invariably fatal brain disorder. CJD usually appears in later life and runs a rapid course. Typically, the onset of symptoms occurs about age 60 and about 90% of individuals die within one year. We report a case of 67-year-old male presented with progressive aphasia, confusion, dysphagia and inability to carry out activities of daily life (ADLs) over a period of three to four weeks. The patient had past medical history of chronic atrial fibrillation and hypertension...
March 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396651/descending-influences-on-vestibulospinal-and-vestibulosympathetic-reflexes
#16
REVIEW
Andrew A McCall, Derek M Miller, Bill J Yates
This review considers the integration of vestibular and other signals by the central nervous system pathways that participate in balance control and blood pressure regulation, with an emphasis on how this integration may modify posture-related responses in accordance with behavioral context. Two pathways convey vestibular signals to limb motoneurons: the lateral vestibulospinal tract and reticulospinal projections. Both pathways receive direct inputs from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and also integrate vestibular, spinal, and other inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390699/deciphering-neural-codes-of-memory-during-sleep
#17
REVIEW
Zhe Chen, Matthew A Wilson
Memories of experiences are stored in the cerebral cortex. Sleep is critical for the consolidation of hippocampal memory of wake experiences into the neocortex. Understanding representations of neural codes of hippocampal-neocortical networks during sleep would reveal important circuit mechanisms in memory consolidation and provide novel insights into memory and dreams. Although sleep-associated ensemble spike activity has been investigated, identifying the content of memory in sleep remains challenging. Here we revisit important experimental findings on sleep-associated memory (i...
May 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377723/multiple-psychopharmacological-effects-of-the-traditional-japanese-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-and-the-brain-regions-it-affects
#18
REVIEW
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365755/through-thick-and-thin-a-need-to-reconcile-contradictory-results-on-trajectories-in-human-cortical-development
#19
Kristine B Walhovd, Anders M Fjell, Jay Giedd, Anders M Dale, Timothy T Brown
Understanding how brain development normally proceeds is a premise of understanding neurodevelopmental disorders. This has sparked a wealth of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Unfortunately, they are in marked disagreement on how the cerebral cortex matures. While cortical thickness increases for the first 8-9 years of life have repeatedly been reported, others find continuous cortical thinning from early childhood, at least from age 3 or 4 years. We review these inconsistencies, and discuss possible reasons, including the use of different scanners, recording parameters and analysis tools, and possible effects of variables such as head motion...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337130/the-brainstem-in-emotion-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Anand Venkatraman, Brian L Edlow, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Emotions depend upon the integrated activity of neural networks that modulate arousal, autonomic function, motor control, and somatosensation. Brainstem nodes play critical roles in each of these networks, but prior studies of the neuroanatomic basis of emotion, particularly in the human neuropsychological literature, have mostly focused on the contributions of cortical rather than subcortical structures. Given the size and complexity of brainstem circuits, elucidating their structural and functional properties involves technical challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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