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Brain review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668026/nicu-graduates-the-role-of-the-allied-health-team-in-follow-up
#1
Jane L Orton, Joy E Olsen, Katherine Ong, Rochelle Lester, Alicia J Spittle
Infants who graduate from the neonatal intensive care unit, including those infants born preterm and/or with brain injury, are at increased risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. The developmental allied health team, consisting of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology, is crucial in early evaluation of gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and language development. Surveillance of neurodevelopment in the first year of life is essential to ensure early detection of specific developmental delays and impairments, and to ensure timely referral for early intervention...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667572/neurobiological-findings-associated-with-high-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#2
Wyllians Vendramini Borelli, Lucas Porcello Schilling, Graciane Radaelli, Luciana Borges Ferreira, Leonardo Pisani, Mirna Wetters Portuguez, Jaderson Costa da Costa
ABSTRACTObjectives:to perform a comprehensive literature review of studies on older adults with exceptional cognitive performance. DESIGN: We performed a systematic review using two major databases (MEDLINE and Web of Science) from January 2002 to November 2017. RESULTS: Quantitative analysis included nine of 4,457 studies and revealed that high-performing older adults have global preservation of the cortex, especially the anterior cingulate region, and hippocampal volumes larger than normal agers...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667489/book-review-rhoton-s-atlas-of-head-and-neck-and-brain-peris-celda-maria-martinez-soriano-francisco-rhoton-albert-l-jr-rhoton-s-atlas-of-head-and-neck-and-brain-new-york-ny-thieme-2017-hard-cover-illustrated-648-pages-299-99
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#4
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667443/implications-of-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Thanuja Dharmadasa, William Huynh, Jun Tsugawa, Yoshimitsu Shimatani, Yan Ma, Matthew C Kiernan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscle weakness and disability, eventually leading to death. Heterogeneity of disease has become a major barrier to understanding key clinical questions such as prognosis and disease spread, and has disadvantaged clinical trials in search of therapeutic intervention. Patterns of disease have been explored through recent advances in neuroimaging, elucidating structural, molecular and functional changes. Unique brain signatures have emerged that have lent a greater understanding of critical disease mechanisms, offering opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and establish candidate biomarkers to direct future therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667271/syndrome-and-outcome-of-antibody-negative-limbic-encephalitis
#6
Francesc Graus, Domingo Escudero, Laura Oleaga, Jordi Bruna, Alberto Villarejo-Galende, Jordi Ballabriga, María Inés Barceló, Francisco Gilo, Stoyan Popkirov, Pavel Stourac, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical characteristics of 12 patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) who were antibody-negative after a comprehensive immunological study. METHODS: Review of clinical records of 163 patients with LE. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain, cultured neurons, and cell-based assays were used to identify neuronal autoantibodies. Patients were included if 1) there was adequate clinical, CSF, and MRI information to classify the syndrome as LE, 2) MRI images were accesible for central review, and 3) serum and CSF were available and confirmed negative for neuronal antibodies...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667232/the-pleiotropic-cardiovascular-effects-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#7
REVIEW
Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
Patients with Type 2 Diabetes have an excess risk for cardiovascular disease. One of the several approaches, included in the Guidelines for the management of Type 2 Diabetes, is based on dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4; also termed CD26) inhibitors (DPP-4-I), also called gliptins. Gliptins inhibit the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1RA: this effect is associated with increased circulating insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and a consequent reduction of HbA1c. Beside incretin hormones, there are several proteins that may be affected by DPP-4 and its inhibition: among these some are relevant for the cardiovascular system homeostasis such as SDF-1α and its receptor CXCR4, brain natriuretic peptides, neuropeptide Y, and peptide YY...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666968/a-feast-of-reviews-about-brain-and-pituitary-tumor-pathology
#8
EDITORIAL
David N Louis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666949/precision-medicine-against-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-beyond-crizotinib
#9
REVIEW
Biagio Ricciuti, Andrea De Giglio, Carmen Mecca, Cataldo Arcuri, Sabrina Marini, Giulio Metro, Sara Baglivo, Angelo Sidoni, Guido Bellezza, Lucio Crinò, Rita Chiari
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements represent the molecular driver of a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Despite the initial response, virtually all ALK-positive patients develop an acquired resistance to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, usually within 12 months. Several next-generation ALK inhibitors have been developed in order to overcome crizotinib limitation, providing an unprecedented survival for this subset of patients. The aim of this review to summarize the current knowledge on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, focusing on the role of novel ALK inhibitors in this setting...
April 17, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666786/modeling-neuropsychiatric-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth A LaMarca, Samuel K Powell, Schahram Akbarian, Kristen J Brennand
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have revolutionized our ability to model neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, and recent progress in the field is paving the way for improved therapeutics. In this review, we discuss major advances in generating hiPSC-derived neural cells and cutting-edge techniques that are transforming hiPSC technology, such as three-dimensional "mini-brains" and clustered, regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems. We examine specific examples of how hiPSC-derived neural cells are being used to uncover the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, and consider the future of this groundbreaking research...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666589/applications-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-in-studying-cognitive-development-the-case-of-mathematics-and-language
#11
REVIEW
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Maria A Sitnikova, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Thomas Dresler
In this review, we aim to highlight the application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a useful neuroimaging technique for the investigation of cognitive development. We focus on brain activation changes during the development of mathematics and language skills in schoolchildren. We discuss how technical limitations of common neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have resulted in our limited understanding of neural changes during development, while fNIRS would be a suitable and child-friendly method to examine cognitive development...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666570/role-of-caspase-8-and-fas-in-cell-death-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes the death of neurons and glial cells due to the initial mechanical forces (i.e., primary injury) and through a cascade of secondary molecular events (e.g., inflammation or excitotoxicity) that exacerbate cell death. The loss of neurons and glial cells that are not replaced after the injury is one of the main causes of disability after SCI. Evidence accumulated in last decades has shown that the activation of apoptotic mechanisms is one of the factors causing the death of intrinsic spinal cord (SC) cells following SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666208/insights-into-parkinson-s-disease-from-computational-models-of-the-basal-ganglia
#13
REVIEW
Mark D Humphries, Jose Angel Obeso, Jakob Kisbye Dreyer
Movement disorders arise from the complex interplay of multiple changes to neural circuits. Successful treatments for these disorders could interact with these complex changes in myriad ways, and as a consequence their mechanisms of action and their amelioration of symptoms are incompletely understood. Using Parkinson's disease as a case study, we review here how computational models are a crucial tool for taming this complexity, across causative mechanisms, consequent neural dynamics and treatments. For mechanisms, we review models that capture the effects of losing dopamine on basal ganglia function; for dynamics, we discuss models that have transformed our understanding of how beta-band (15-30 Hz) oscillations arise in the parkinsonian basal ganglia...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666199/does-magnesium-sulfate-have-a-role-in-the-management-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-civilian-and-military-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Marc W H Lyons, W J Blackshaw
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of combat morbidity. Currently, the medical management of TBI is limited to supportive critical care. Magnesium sulfate has been studied as a potentially beneficial therapeutic agent. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken, examining the role of magnesium in the management of severe TBI in adults. The primary outcome of the study was all-cause mortality, with secondary outcomes of Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) and GCS...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666150/epigenetics-and-epitranscriptomics-in-temporal-patterning-of-cortical-neural-progenitor-competence
#15
REVIEW
Ki-Jun Yoon, Caroline Vissers, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
During embryonic brain development, neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) sequentially give rise to different subtypes of neurons and glia via a highly orchestrated process. To accomplish the ordered generation of distinct progenies, NPCs go through multistep transitions of their developmental competence. The molecular mechanisms driving precise temporal coordination of these transitions remains enigmatic. Epigenetic regulation, including changes in chromatin structures, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, has been extensively investigated in the context of cortical neurogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665998/lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-including-bladder-outlet-obstruction-what-s-new-in-diagnostics
#16
REVIEW
Stavros Gravas, Iason Kyriazis, Adam P Klausner
It is well known that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a multifactorial etiology. Therefore, there is an increased need for improved diagnostics for the optimal assessment of patients with LUTS in order to identify the various causes of symptoms and improve disease phenotyping. Research has focused on the development of improved urodynamic technologies and the development of noninvasive tests that could replace urodynamic studies. This mini-review will present the most recently published studies on the topic including new technologies in the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction, novel metrics for bladder sensation, analysis of filling phase rhythm, measurement of detrusor wall tension, and brain imaging during urodynamic studies...
April 14, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665993/the-road-less-traveled-should-we-omit-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Terence T Sio, Anussara Prayongrat, Yun Zhang, Qin Lin, Ting Xu, Zhongxing Liao, Jinbo Yue
New randomized data from Japan have raised questions regarding the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer but without detectable brain metastases on magnetic resonance imaging. In the present focused review, we examine the general role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in the management of small-cell lung cancer and present relevant controversies from both sides of the discussion. Future directions for clinical investigation and research are also highlighted...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665763/neuroimaging-radiological-interpretation-system-niris-for-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi
#18
Max Wintermark, Ying Li, Victoria Y Ding, Yingding Xu, Bin Jiang, Robyn L Ball, Michael Zeineh, Alisa Gean, Pina Sanelli
To develop an outcome-based NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients that would standardize the interpretation of non-contrast head CTs and consolidate imaging findings into ordinal severity categories that would inform specific patient management actions and that could be used as a clinical decision support tool. We retrospectively identified all patients transported to our emergency department by ambulance or helicopter, for whom a trauma alert was triggered per established criteria and who underwent a non-contrast head CT due to suspicion of TBI, between November 2015 and April 2016...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665429/autophagy-in-mammalian-neurodevelopment-and-implications-for-childhood-neurological-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Derek Marsh, Joanna M Dragich
Here we explore the neurodevelopmental aspects of macroautophagy (henceforth known as autophagy), the process by which cells remove and remodel their structure in a regulated and spatially restricted manner. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway in which cytosolic substances, such as protein complexes, lipids, and organelles, are engulfed by an autophagic vesicle. Degradation occurs once an autophagosome fuses with a lysosome, allowing the macromolecular cargo sequestered within the autophagic vesicle to be recycled...
April 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665383/impact-of-aging-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-on-the-blood-brain-barrier-transport-of-therapeutics
#20
Yijun Pan, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Older people are at greater risk of medicine-induced toxicities resulting from either increased drug sensitivity or age-related pharmacokinetic changes. The scenario is further complicated with the two most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). With aging, AD and PD, there is growing evidence of altered structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including modifications to tight junctions and efflux transporters, such as P-glycoprotein...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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