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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236167/evaluation-of-the-yield-of-24-h-close-observation-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-anticoagulation-therapy-a-retrospective-multicenter-study-and-meta-analysis
#1
Merelijne A Verschoof, Charlotte C M Zuurbier, Frank de Beer, Jonathan M Coutinho, Evert A Eggink, Björn M van Geel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on anticoagulants have an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). However, consensus is lacking on whether to admit them after normal initial cranial CT. We evaluated the yield of 24-h neurological observation. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study including adult patients admitted over a 5-year period with mTBI on anticoagulation [therapeutic dose heparin, direct oral anticoagulant, or vitamin K antagonist (VKA) with international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236160/ethanol-and-cytokines-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Marisa Roberto, Reesha R Patel, Michal Bajo
The innate immune system plays a critical role in the ethanol-induced neuroimmune response in the brain. Ethanol initiates the innate immune response via activation of the innate immune receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs, e.g., TLR4, TLR3, TLR7) and NOD-like receptors (inflammasome NLRs) leading to a release of a plethora of chemokines and cytokines and development of the innate immune response. Cytokines and chemokines can have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties through which they regulate the immune response...
December 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235880/a-critical-review-of-physicochemical-properties-and-analytical-methods-applied-to-quantitative-determination-of-ebastine
#3
Rafael Giorgetti Frare, Anil Kumar Singh
Allergic diseases are the most common conditions in children and the second most frequent in adults. Currently, there are two well-defined generations of antihistamines, those belonging to first generation, with inherent side effects such as drowsiness and anticholinergic effects. These side effects are often attributed to their high lipophilicity and high affinity for brain H1 receptors. The ebastine is a modern antihistaminic drug belongs to the second generation and has lower lipophilicity, which diminish the undesirable side effects...
December 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235618/-direct-current-electrical-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-aphasia
#4
REVIEW
I R Montenegro, J A Alvarez-Montesinos, A J Estudillo, J Garcia-Orza
INTRODUCTION: Ictus is a medical condition with a high prevalence in Spanish population. One of its most common consequences is aphasia. Nowadays, aphasia is treated with both neuropsychological and pharmacological therapy. However, in recent years, transcranial direct current stimulation has been presented as a complement to classical therapies. AIMS: To familiarize the reader with transcranial direct current stimulation and to critically review the evidence on the benefits of this technique in aphasia rehabilitation...
December 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235374/computational-modeling-in-glioblastoma-from-the-prediction-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-to-the-simulation-of-tumor-behavior
#5
Ana Miranda, Tânia Cova, João Sousa, Carla Vitorino, Alberto Pais
The integrated in silico-in vitro-in vivo approaches have fostered the development of new treatment strategies for glioblastoma patients and improved diagnosis, establishing the bridge between biochemical research and clinical practice. These approaches have provided new insights on the identification of bioactive compounds and on the complex mechanisms underlying the interactions among glioblastoma cells, and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the key advances pertaining to computational modeling in glioblastoma, including predictive data on drug permeability across the blood-brain barrier, tumor growth and treatment responses...
December 13, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235358/case-report-of-a-suspected-pheochromocytoma-co-presenting-with-a-glioblastoma-multiforme-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Rachel Tresman, Cyril Dubois, Emma Lethbridge, Victoria Anne Robson, Thomas Lennard, Stephen Ball, Surash Surash
The combination of a pheochromocytoma with any brain neoplasm is a rare occurrence, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a glioblastoma multiforme co-presenting with undiagnosed pheochromocytoma.
December 13, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235194/dual-sensitivity-multiple-sclerosis-lesion-and-csf-segmentation-for-multichannel-3t-brain-mri
#7
Dominik S Meier, Charles R G Guttmann, Subhash Tummala, Nicola Moscufo, Michele Cavallari, Shahamat Tauhid, Rohit Bakshi, Howard L Weiner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A pipeline for fully automated segmentation of 3T brain MRI scans in multiple sclerosis (MS) is presented. This 3T morphometry (3TM) pipeline provides indicators of MS disease progression from multichannel datasets with high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) contrast. 3TM segments white (WM) and gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to assess atrophy and provides WM lesion (WML) volume. METHODS: To address nonuniform distribution of noise/contrast (eg, posterior fossa in 3D-FLAIR) of 3T magnetic resonance imaging, the method employs dual sensitivity (different sensitivities for lesion detection in predefined regions)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235085/recurrence-of-atretic-parietal-cephalocele-in-adult-report-a-case-and-review-of-literature
#8
Özgür Ertuğrul, Esra Çiçekçi, Mehmet Cudi Tuncer, Mehmet Ufuk Aluçlu
Common presentation of atretic parietal cephalocele (APC) is mostly seen in infants and young children. And, it is a palpable midline parietal soft tissue mass which is thought to represent involuted true cephalocele (meningocele or encephalocele)connected to dura mater via a fibrous stalk. The incidence of intracranial anomalies have increased with APC. Parietal cephaloceles comprise about 1% of all cerebrospinal congenital malformations and 10% of cephaloceles. We report here the case of an atretic parietal cephalocele with no associated brain malformations in adult...
December 13, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235051/development-of-the-cns-tap-tool-for-the-selection-of-precision-medicine-therapies-in-neuro-oncology
#9
Joseph R Linzey, Bernard L Marini, Amy Pasternak, Cory Smith, Zac Miklja, Lili Zhao, Chandan Kumar-Sinha, Alyssa Paul, Nicholas Harris, Patricia L Robertson, Lindsey M Hoffman, Arul Chinnaiyan, Rajen Mody, Carl Koschmann
The number of targeted therapies utilized in precision medicine are rapidly increasing. Neuro-oncology offers a unique challenge due to the varying blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration of each agent. Neuro-oncologists face a difficult task weighing the growing number of potential targeted therapies and their likelihood of BBB penetration. We developed the CNS TAP Working Group and performed an extensive literature review for the evidence-based creation of the CNS TAP tool, which was retrospectively validated by analyzing brain tumor patients who underwent therapy targeted based on genomic results from an academic sequencing study (MiOncoseq, n = 17) or private molecular profiling (Foundation One, n = 7)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#10
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
December 12, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234674/microrna-in-glioblastoma-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Barbara Banelli, Alessandra Forlani, Giorgio Allemanni, Anna Morabito, Maria Pia Pistillo, Massimo Romani
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor and, even with the current multimodal therapy, is an invariably lethal cancer with a life expectancy that depends on the tumor subtype but, even in the most favorable cases, rarely exceeds 2 years. Epigenetic factors play an important role in gliomagenesis, are strong predictors of outcome, and are important determinants for the resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. The latest addition to the epigenetic machinery is the noncoding RNA (ncRNA), that is, RNA molecules that are not translated into a protein and that exert their function by base pairing with other nucleic acids in a reversible and nonmutational mode...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234450/the-modulatory-effect-of-acupuncture-on-the-activity-of-locus-coeruleus-neuronal-cells-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Gihyun Lee, Woojin Kim
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a small collection of noradrenergic neurons located in the pons. In the brain, noradrenaline (NE) is primarily produced by noradrenergic cell groups in the LC, which is the largest group of noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. Acupuncture, including the electroacupuncture which is a modified acupuncture method, is known to be effective in various kinds of diseases, and the involvement of noradrenergic system in the central nervous system has been reported by previous studies...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234418/effects-of-acupuncture-on-alzheimer-s-disease-in-animal-based-research
#13
REVIEW
Sunjung Park, Jun-Hwan Lee, Eun Jin Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and severe functional deficits in the brain. The pathogenesis and treatment of AD remain topics of investigation and significant global socioeconomic issues. The effect of complementary medicine has been investigated in managing AD. Acupuncture, a form of therapy practiced for more than 3000 years, has shown positive effects on several neurological disorders including AD...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234268/the-evidence-for-the-spread-and-seeding-capacities-of-the-mutant-huntingtin-protein-in-in-vitro-systems-and-their-therapeutic-implications
#14
REVIEW
Maria Masnata, Francesca Cicchetti
Neurodegenerative disorders are not only characterized by specific patterns of cell loss but the presence and accumulation of various pathological proteins-both of which correlate with disease evolution. There is now mounting evidence to suggest that these pathological proteins present with toxic, at times prion-like, properties and can therefore seed pathology in neighboring as well remotely connected healthy neurons as they spread across the brain. What is less clear, at this stage, is how much this actually contributes to, and drives, the core pathogenic events...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233786/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-igf-1-as-a-marker-of-cognitive-decline-in-normal-ageing-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Julanne Frater, David Lie, Perry Bartlett, John J McGrath
Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and its signaling pathway play a primary role in normal growth and ageing, however serum IGF-1 is known to reduce with advancing age. Recent findings suggest IGF-1 is essential for neurogenesis in the adult brain, and this reduction of IGF-1 with ageing may contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Experimental studies have shown manipulation of the GH/GF-1 axis can slow rates of cognitive decline in animals, making IGF-1 a potential biomarker of cognition, and/or its signaling pathway a possible therapeutic target to prevent or slow age-related cognitive decline...
December 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#16
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233636/amylin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-pathological-peptide-or-potential-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease for which we currently lack effective treatments or a cure. The pancreatic peptide hormone amylin has recently garnered interest as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of AD. A number of studies have demonstrated that amylin and amylin analogs like the FDA-approved diabetes drug pramlintide can reduce amyloid burden in the brain and improve cognitive symptoms of AD. However, other data suggest that amylin may have pathological effects in AD due to its propensity to misfold and aggregate under certain conditions...
December 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233478/consciousness-representation-action-the-importance-of-being-goal-directed
#18
REVIEW
Cyriel M A Pennartz
Recent years have witnessed fierce debates on the dependence of consciousness on interactions between a subject and the environment. Reviewing neuroscientific, computational, and clinical evidence, I will address three questions. First, does conscious experience necessarily depend on acute interactions between a subject and the environment? Second, does it depend on specific perception-action loops in the longer run? Third, which types of action does consciousness cohere with, if not with all of them? I argue that conscious contents do not necessarily depend on acute or long-term brain-environment interactions...
December 7, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233264/imaging-the-glutamate-receptor-subtypes-much-achieved-and-still-much-to-do
#19
REVIEW
Stefan Gruber, Simon M Ametamey
Functional imaging of glutamate receptors using PET imaging modality can be used to study numerous CNS disorders and also to select appropriate doses of clinically relevant glutamate-receptor-targeting candidate drugs. Great strides have been made in developing PET imaging probes for the non-invasive detection of glutamate receptors in the brain. This review highlights recent progress made towards the development of glutamatergic PET imaging agents. Focus is placed on PET imaging probes that have been labelled with either carbon-11 or fluorine-18...
November 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233204/is-there-a-role-for-vitamin-d-in-supporting-cognitive-function-as-we-age
#20
Niamh Aspell, Brian Lawlor, Maria O'Sullivan
Globally, an estimated 46 million people are currently living with dementia and this figure is projected to increase 3-fold by 2050, highlighting this major public health concern and its substantial associated healthcare costs. With pharmacological treatment yet to reach fruition, the emphasis on evidence-based preventative lifestyle strategies is becoming increasingly important and several modifiable lifestyle factors have been identified that may preserve cognitive health. These include good cardiovascular health, physical activity, low alcohol intake, smoking and a healthy diet, with growing interest in vitamin D...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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