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Brain review

Giacomo Rizzolatti, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro, Fausto Caruana, Pietro Avanzini
In this review, we discuss first the anatomical and lesion studies that allowed the localization of fundamental functions in the cerebral cortex of primates including humans. Subsequently, we argue that the years from the end of the Second World War until the end of the last century represented the "golden age" of system neuroscience. In this period, the mechanisms-not only the localization-underlying sensory, and in particular visual functions were described, followed by those underlying cognitive functions and housed in temporal, parietal, and premotor areas...
June 20, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Anita Rotter, Luciana Paula Samorano, Maria Cecília Rivitti-Machado, Zilda Najjar Prado Oliveira, Bernardo Gontijo
Infantile hemangioma can be linked to other organ malformations. In 1996, PHACE syndrome was first defined as the association of large and segmental infantile hemangioma, usually on the face, head, or cervical region, with malformations of the posterior fossa of the brain, arterial anomalies of the central nervous system, coarctation of the aorta, cardiac defects, and ocular abnormalities. Over 300 cases of PHACE syndrome have been reported, and it is cconsidered one of the most common neurocutaneous vascular disorders in childhood...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Cassio Henrique Taques Martins, Catarina De Marchi Assunção
It is a fundamental element in both research and clinical applications of electroencephalography to know the frequency composition of brain electrical activity. The quantitative analysis of brain electrical activity uses computer resources to evaluate the electroencephalography and allows quantification of the data. The contribution of the quantitative perspective is unique, since conventional electroencephalography based on the visual examination of the tracing is not as objective. A systematic review was performed on the MEDLINE database in October 2017...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Niamh Moriarty, Clare L Parish, Eilís Dowd
The dopamine precursor, levodopa, remains the 'gold-standard' treatment for Parkinson's disease, and, although it provides superlative efficacy in the early stages of the disease, its long-term use is limited by the development of severe motor side effects and a significant abating of therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there remains a major unmet clinical need for the development of effective neuroprotective, neurorestorative or neuroreparatory therapies for this condition. The relatively selective loss of dopaminergic neurons from the nigrostriatal pathway makes Parkinson's disease an ideal candidate for reparative cell therapies wherein the dopaminergic neurons that are lost in the condition are replaced through direct cell transplantation into the brain...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Philip T Putnam, Larry J Young, Katalin M Gothard
Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide that acts in the brain as a neuromodulator, has been long known to shape maternal physiology and behavior in mammals, however its role in regulating social cognition and behavior in primates has come to the forefront only in the recent decade. Many of the current perspectives on the role of OT in modulating social behavior emerged first from studies in rodents, where invasive techniques with a high degree of precision have permitted the mechanistic dissection of OT-related behaviors, as well as their underlying neural circuits in exquisite detail...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Jacqueline S Birks, Richard J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One approach to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by blocking the action of the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be done by a group of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. Donepezil is a cholinesterase inhibitor.This review is an updated version of a review first published in 1998...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ariane Lewis
BACKGROUND: The case of Jahi McMath has captured the attention of the public, healthcare professionals, and ethicists. Jahi was declared brain dead in late 2013, but her family transferred her to New Jersey to continue organ support. A lengthy legal battle has been ongoing since then. Jahi's family and two neurologists, Drs. Calixto Machado and Alan Shewmon, believe that she is not brain dead. Her family and Dr. Shewmon think that she is capable of following commands, thus making her minimally conscious...
June 19, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Elizabeth Silbermann, Lindsey Wooliscroft, Dennis Bourdette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical trials using agents directed at neuroprotection and remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) are needed. As optic neuritis (ON) is common in people with MS and the pathology of ON is similar to other MS lesions in the brain, measurements of the anterior visual system are frequently utilized in neuroprotection and remyelination trials. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the measurements is vital when interpreting the results of this research. RECENT FINDINGS: Techniques such as visual evoked potentials (VEP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are well established in MS and are thought to measure axonal integrity and myelination...
June 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Li-Ling Tan, Alexander R Lyon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As cancer survivor rates improve with early screening and modern treatment options, cardiotoxicity is becoming an increasing problem. It is imperative for physicians to recognize adverse events early so that appropriate measures can be taken before advanced and permanent cardiac dysfunction ensues. In this review, we will evaluate the literature surrounding current cardiac biomarkers in the detection of cardiotoxicity during cancer treatment as well as discuss the role of emerging novel biomarkers...
June 19, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Andrea Varga, Giovanni Di Leo, Péter Vince Banga, Csaba Csobay-Novák, Márton Kolossváry, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Kálmán Hüttl
PURPOSE: (1) to estimate the prevalence of Circle of Willis (CoW) variants in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, (2) to correlate these variants to controls and (3) cerebral ischemia depicted by computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, data of 544 carotid endarterectomy patients (331 males, mean age 69±8 years) and 196 controls (117 males, mean age 66±11 years) who underwent brain CT and carotid CT angiography (CTA) were retrospectively analysed...
June 19, 2018: European Radiology
Nakul Katyal, Naureen Narula, Pravin George, Premkumar Nattanamai, Christopher R Newey, Jonathan M Beary
Delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) is a unique clinical entity that presents with cognitive impairment days to weeks after an episode of acute hypoxic brain injury. Frequently hypoxia is unrecognized as a mechanism for clinical decline and extensive workup ensues. We present two cases of DPHL highlighting the neuroimaging findings. In both patients, a cerebral hypoxic event was followed by a recovery phase with subsequent delayed clinical decline. Patient 1 suffered hypoxia from drug-induced respiratory depression and lack of post-operative positive airway pressure (PAP) support...
April 15, 2018: Curēus
Julie C Savage, Katherine Picard, Fernando González-Ibáñez, Marie-Ève Tremblay
The first electron microscope was constructed in 1931. Several decades later, techniques were developed to allow the first ultrastructural analysis of microglia by transmission electron microscopy (EM). In the 50 years that followed, important roles of microglia have been identified, specifically due to the ultrastructural resolution currently available only with EM. In particular, the addition of electron-dense staining using immunohistochemical EM methods has allowed the identification of microglial cell bodies, as well as processes, which are difficult to recognize in EM, and to uncover their complex interactions with neurons and synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jun Luo
Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors that benefit other people or society as a whole, such as charitable donations, cooperation, trust, altruistic punishment, and fairness. These behaviors have been widely described through non self-interest decision-making in behavioral experimental studies and are thought to be increased by social preference motives. Importantly, recent studies using a combination of neuroimaging and brain stimulation, designed to reveal the neural mechanisms of pro-social behaviors, have found that a wide range of brain areas, specifically the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, are correlated or causally related with pro-social behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Qiwei Zhu, Ping Ye, Leiming Luo
Heart failure (HF) is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the most widely studied and commonly applied natriuretic peptide (NP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has the effects of diuresis, natriuresis, vasodilation, anti-hypertrophy, and anti-fibrosis and it inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems to maintain cardiorenal homeostasis and counteract the effects of HF. Both BNP and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are applied as diagnostic, managing, and prognostic tools for HF...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
J J Chen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with well-established macrostructural and cellular markers, including localized brain atrophy and deposition of amyloid. However, there is growing recognition of the link between cerebrovascular dysfunction and AD, supported by continuous experimental evidence in the animal and human literature. As a result, neuroimaging studies of AD are increasingly aiming to incorporate vascular measures, exemplified by measures of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). CVR is a measure that is rooted in clinical practice, and as non-invasive CVR-mapping techniques become more widely available, routine CVR mapping may open up new avenues of investigation into the development of AD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Beatriz G Perez-Nievas, Alberto Serrano-Pozo
Reactive astrocytes were identified as a component of senile amyloid plaques in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients several decades ago. However, their role in AD pathophysiology has remained elusive ever since, in part owing to the extrapolation of the literature from primary astrocyte cultures and acute brain injury models to a chronic neurodegenerative scenario. Recent accumulating evidence supports the idea that reactive astrocytes in AD acquire neurotoxic properties, likely due to both a gain of toxic function and a loss of their neurotrophic effects...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Megan M Wickens, Debra A Bangasser, Lisa A Briand
Alterations in glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, are implicated in several psychiatric diseases. Many of these psychiatric diseases display epidemiological sex differences, with either males or females exhibiting different symptoms or disease prevalence. However, little work has considered the interaction of disrupted glutamatergic transmission and sex on disease states. This review describes the clinical and preclinical evidence for these sex differences with a focus on two conditions that are more prevalent in women: Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder, and three conditions that are more prevalent in men: schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Li Zhang, Handong Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most devastating forms of brain injury. Many pathological mechanisms such as oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation all contribute to the secondary brain damage and poor outcomes of TBI. Current therapies are often ineffective and poorly tolerated, which drive the explore of new therapeutic targets for TBI. Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular mechanism during evolution. It plays an important role in elimination abnormal intracellular proteins or organelles to maintain cell stability...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Fabrice Jollant, Gerd Wagner, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Stefanie Köhler, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Gustavo Turecki, Fabricio Pereira
The identification of brain markers of suicidal risk is highly expected. However, neuroimaging studies have yielded mixed results, possibly due to phenotypic heterogeneity. In the present study, we addressed this issue using structural brain imaging. First, two independent samples of suicide attempters (n = 17 in Montreal, 32 in Jena), patient controls (n = 26/34), and healthy controls (n = 66/34) were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging. Groups were compared with FSL. We then reviewed the literature and run a GingerALE meta-analysis of 12 structural imaging studies comparing suicide attempters and patient controls with whole-brain analyses (n = 693)...
June 19, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Ruiqing Ni, Linjing Mu, Simon Ametamey
Cannabinoid receptor CB2 (CB2 R) is upregulated on activated microglia and astrocytes in the brain under inflammatory conditions and plays important roles in many neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic stroke. The advent of positron emission tomography (PET) using CB2 R radiotracers has enabled the visualization of CB2 R distribution in vivo in animal models of central nervous system inflammation, however translation to humans has been less successful...
June 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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