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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823105/understanding-peripartum-depression-through-neuroimaging-a-review-of-structural-and-functional-connectivity-and-molecular-imaging-research
#1
REVIEW
Christy Duan, Jessica Cosgrove, Kristina M Deligiannidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Imaging research has sought to uncover brain structure, function, and metabolism in women with postpartum depression (PPD) as little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. This review discusses the imaging modalities used to date to evaluate postpartum depression and highlights recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Altered functional connectivity and activity changes in brain areas implicated in executive functioning and emotion and reward processing have been identified in PPD...
August 19, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823091/trauma-ptsd-and-the-developing-brain
#2
REVIEW
Ryan J Herringa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: PTSD in youth is common and debilitating. In contrast to adult PTSD, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of pediatric PTSD, nor how neurodevelopment may be altered. This review summarizes recent neuroimaging studies in pediatric PTSD and discusses implications for future study. RECENT FINDINGS: Pediatric PTSD is characterized by abnormal structure and function in neural circuitry supporting threat processing and emotion regulation...
August 19, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822750/promise-and-pitfalls-of-g-ratio-estimation-with-mri
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer S W Campbell, Ilana R Leppert, Sridar Narayanan, Mathieu Boudreau, Tanguy Duval, Julien Cohen-Adad, G Bruce Pike, Nikola Stikov
The fiber g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of the myelin sheath of a myelinated axon. It has a limited dynamic range in healthy white matter, as it is optimized for speed of signal conduction, cellular energetics, and spatial constraints. In vivo imaging of the g-ratio in health and disease would greatly increase our knowledge of the nervous system and our ability to diagnose, monitor, and treat disease. MRI based g-ratio imaging was first conceived in 2011, and expanded to be feasible in full brain white matter with preliminary results in 2013...
August 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822576/pembrolizumab-versus-ipilimumab-for-advanced-melanoma-final-overall-survival-results-of-a-multicentre-randomised-open-label-phase-3-study-keynote-006
#4
Jacob Schachter, Antoni Ribas, Georgina V Long, Ana Arance, Jean-Jacques Grob, Laurent Mortier, Adil Daud, Matteo S Carlino, Catriona McNeil, Michal Lotem, James Larkin, Paul Lorigan, Bart Neyns, Christian Blank, Teresa M Petrella, Omid Hamid, Honghong Zhou, Scot Ebbinghaus, Nageatte Ibrahim, Caroline Robert
BACKGROUND: Interim analyses of the phase 3 KEYNOTE-006 study showed superior overall and progression-free survival of pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. We present the final protocol-specified survival analysis. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 87 academic institutions, hospitals, and cancer centres in 16 countries (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, UK, and USA)...
August 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822390/physiologic-features-of-brain-death
#5
Eno-Obong Essien, Kristina Fioretti, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein
Brain death is known to be associated with physiologic derangements but their incidence is poorly described. Knowledge of the changes that occur during brain death is important for management of the potential organ donor. Thus, we sought to characterize the pathophysiology that occurs during brain death in patients with traumatic injuries. All brain-dead patients over a 10-year period were identified from the trauma registry at a level 1 urban trauma center. Patient demographics, injury characteristics, and clinical data for defining organ dysfunction were reviewed for the 24 hours surrounding brain-death declaration...
August 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822387/indicators-of-survival-and-favorable-functional-outcomes-after-decompressive-craniectomy-a-multi-institutional-retrospective-study
#6
Abid D Khan, Anna J Elseth, Brian Head, Jack Rostas, Julie A Dunn, Thomas J Schroeppel, Richard P Gonzalez
The role of decompressive craniectomy (DC) for severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that are indicators of survival and improved functional outcome in patients who undergo DC for STBI. A retrospective review of STBI patients who underwent DC was performed at four trauma centers during a 45-month period. Data collected included age, gender, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), time from admission to DC, mortality, and extended Glasgow Outcome Score before discharge...
August 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822354/3d-brain-organoids-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-promising-experimental-models-for-brain-development-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Chun-Ting Lee, Raphael M Bendriem, Wells W Wu, Rong-Fong Shen
Three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), appear to recapitulate the brain's 3D cytoarchitectural arrangement and provide new opportunities to explore disease pathogenesis in the human brain. Human iPSC (hiPSC) reprogramming methods, combined with 3D brain organoid tools, may allow patient-derived organoids to serve as a preclinical platform to bridge the translational gap between animal models and human clinical trials...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822321/neurostimulation-techniques-in-the-treatment-of-cocaine-dependence-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Fady Rachid
OBJECTIVE: Cocaine use disorder is a very common condition that represents a substantial public health problem, and no effective pharmacological or psychological therapies have been identified to date. Urgent therapeutic alternatives are therefore needed such as neurostimulation techniques. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss studies that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of these techniques for the treatment of cocaine dependence. METHODS: The electronic literature on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, theta-burst stimulation, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, cranial electro-stimulation, and deep brain stimulation in the treatment of cocaine addiction were reviewed...
August 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822228/computerized-neurocognitive-interventions-in-the-context-of-the-brain-training-controversy
#9
Rebeca Isabel García-Betances, María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María T Arredondo
This article presents, in the form of an analytic narrative review, a complete picture of the state-of-the-art, challenges, and perspectives in the field of information and communication technology (ICT)-based neurocognitive interventions for older adults. The narrative particularly focuses on applications aimed at mild cognitive impairment and similar age-related cognitive deficits, which are analyzed in the context of the brain training controversy. Clarifying considerations are provided about the nature and present extent of the brain training debate, regarding the possible influence it has on the support received by research and development initiatives dealing with innovative computerized neurocognitive interventions...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822176/-cerebral-microangiopathy-of-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Yuan Li, Ke-Wu Zeng, Xue-Mei Wang
Diabetes mellitus, a kind of chronic metabolic disease, has become one of major threats to human health with an increasing incidence. As a basic pathology of chronic complications related to diabetes mellitus, cerebral microangiopathy is mainly found in patients with Alzheimer's disease and lacunar infarction, and becomes one of the main reasons of death and disability in diabetic patients. The pathogenesis of cerebral microangiopathy is complicated, involving such signal pathways as metabolic abnormalities of polyol, saccharification hyperactivity, oxidative stress, abnormal transport of amyloid-β across blood-brain barrier and protein kinase C activation...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822116/interactions-between-variation-in-candidate-genes-and-environmental-factors-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Filip Stramecki, Łukasz Gawęda, Katarzyna Prochwicz, Maria M Sąsiadek, Ahmed A Moustafa, Dorota Frydecka
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) are complex and multidimensional disorders with high heritability rates. The contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of these disorders is increasingly being recognized as the action of multiple risk variants with small effect sizes, which might explain only a minor part of susceptibility. On the other site, numerous environmental factors have been found to play an important role in their causality. Therefore, in recent years, several studies focused on gene × environment interactions that are believed to bridge the gap between genetic underpinnings and environmental insults...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822066/do-evolutionary-changes-in-astrocytes-contribute-to-the-computational-power-of-the-hominid-brain
#12
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Maiken Nedergaard
It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of astrocytes from humans and experimental animals...
August 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#13
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821953/astrocyte-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Zhiyou Cai, Cheng-Qun Wan, Zhou Liu
The past several decades have given rise to more insights into the role of astrocytes in normal brain function and diseases. Astrocytes elicit an effect which may be neuroprotective or deleterious in the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impairments in astrocytes and their other functions, as well as physiological reactions of astrocytes to external injury, can trigger or exacerbate hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathologies, leading to the formation of both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), as well as neuronal dysfunction...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821904/developmentally-regulated-signaling-pathways-in-glioma-invasion
#15
REVIEW
Shwetal Mehta, Costanza Lo Cascio
Malignant gliomas are the most common, infiltrative, and lethal primary brain tumors affecting the adult population. The grim prognosis for this disease is due to a combination of the presence of highly invasive tumor cells that escape surgical resection and the presence of a population of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells found within these tumors. Several studies suggest that glioma cells have cleverly hijacked the normal developmental program of neural progenitor cells, including their transcriptional programs, to enhance gliomagenesis...
August 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821777/decompressive-craniectomy-in-the-management-of-intracranial-hypertension-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Danfeng Zhang, Qiang Xue, Jigang Chen, Yan Dong, Lijun Hou, Ying Jiang, Junyu Wang
We aim to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prognostic value of decompressive craniectomy (DC) in patients with traumatic intracranial hypertension. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Web of Science, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ were searched for eligible studies. Ten studies were included in the systematic review, with four randomized controlled trials involved in the meta-analysis, where compared with medical therapies, DC could significantly reduce mortality rate [risk ratio (RR), 0...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821516/a-retrospective-review-of-paediatric-head-injuries-in-asia-a-pan-asian-trauma-outcomes-study-patos-collaboration
#17
Shu-Ling Chong, Uzma Rahim Khan, Indumathy Santhanam, Jun Seok Seo, Quan Wang, Sabariah Faizah Jamaluddin, Quoc Ai Hoang Trong, Su Yah Chew, Marcus Eng Hock Ong
OBJECTIVE: We aim to examine the mechanisms of head-injured children presenting to participating centres in the Pan Asian Trauma Outcomes Study (PATOS) and to evaluate the association between mechanism of injury and severe outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a retrospective review of medical records among emergency departments (EDs) of eight PATOS centres, from September 2014 - August 2015. PARTICIPANTS: We included children <16 years old who presented within 24 hours of head injury and were admitted for observation or required a computed tomography (CT) of the brain from the ED...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821400/alzheimer-s-disease-as-oligomeropathy
#18
REVIEW
Kenjiro Ono
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by pathological aggregates of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and tau protein. On the basis of genetic evidence, biochemical data, and animal models, Aβ has been suggested to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AD (the amyloid hypothesis). Aβ molecules tend to aggregate to form oligomers, protofibrils, and mature fibrils. Although mature fibrils in the final stage have been thought to be the cause of AD pathogenesis, recent studies using synthetic Aβ peptides, a cell culture model, Aβ precursor protein transgenic mice models, and human samples, such as cerebrospinal fluids and postmortem brains of AD patients, suggest that pre-fibrillar forms (oligomers of Aβ) are more deleterious than are extracellular fibril forms...
August 16, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821323/post-mortem-magnetic-resonance-pmmr-imaging-of-the-brain-in-fetuses-and-children-with-histopathological-correlation
#19
REVIEW
S C Shelmerdine, J C Hutchinson, N J Sebire, T S Jacques, O J Arthurs
Post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) imaging is rapidly emerging as an alternative, "less invasive", and more widely accepted investigative approach for perinatal deaths in the UK. PMMR has a high diagnostic accuracy for congenital and acquired fetal neuropathological anomalies compared to conventional autopsy, and is particularly useful when autopsy is non-diagnostic. The main objectives of this review are to describe and illustrate the range of common normal and abnormal central nervous system (CNS) findings encountered during PMMR investigation...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820755/sleep-complications-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Natalie A Grima, Jennie L Ponsford, Matthew P Pase
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent research has provided extensive characterization as to the frequency and nature of sleep disturbances following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and proposes future directions for research. RECENT FINDINGS: Complaints of sleep disturbance are common following TBI, and objective assessments of sleep largely corroborate these complaints. Sleep is often disturbed in the acute phase postinjury and can persist for decades, with the prevalence of sleep disorders higher in patients with TBI as compared with the general population...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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