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William Spencer Cheyne, Alexandra Mackenzie Williams, Megan Harper, Neil Derek Eves
COPD is associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH), increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and large increases in negative intrathoracic pressure (nITP). The individual and interactive effect of these stressors on left ventricular (LV) filling, emptying and geometry, and the role of direct ventricular interaction (DVI) in mediating these interactions have not been fully elucidated. Twenty healthy subjects were exposed to the following stressors alone and in combination: 1) inspiratory resistive loading of -20 cmH2O (nITP), 2) expiratory resistive loading to cause dynamic hyperinflation (DH), and 3) normobaric-hypoxia to increase PVR (hPVR)...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Lay See Khoo, Ahmad Hafizam Hasmi, Mohd Shah Mahmood, Peter Vanezis
An underwater disaster can be declared when a maritime accident occurred or when an aircraft is plunged into water area, be it ocean, sea or river. Nevertheless, handling of human remains in an underwater recovery operation is often a difficult and demanding task as working conditions may be challenging with poor to no visibility, location of remains at considerable depths and associated hazards from surrounding water. A case of the recent helicopter crash, into a famous river in Sarawak, domiciled by huge crocodiles, is discussed in this paper...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Boregowda Kadaiah Charan Gowda, C V Mohan, Hemavathi
Identification of humans, especially in mass disaster is a challenging aspect for team members of the disaster victim identification (DVI) unit. Identification is necessary for humanitarian and emotional reasons and for many legal issues, particularly for family members. In the modern day, all possible methods have been applied for establishing the identification of deceased individuals. The DVI team comprises specialists from different disciplines. The forensic dentist plays a major role in the identification of victims in disaster...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
O Rugarn, D Tipping, B Powers, D A Wing
OBJECTIVE: To assess adverse event (AE) resolution, delivery mode and neonatal outcomes after misoprostol or dinoprostone vaginal insert (MVI or DVI) retrieval due to AE during induction of labour (IOL). DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind trial, EXPEDITE. SETTING: Thirty five obstetric departments, USA. POPULATION: Consisted of 1358 pregnant women with modified Bishop score ≤4 eligible for pharmacological IOL. METHODS: Post hoc analysis...
June 16, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Lin Gao, Chang-chun Li, Bao-shan Wang, Yang Gui-jun, Lei Wang, Kui Fu
With the innovation of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data sources are more and more abundant. The main aim of this study was to analyze retrieval accuracy of soybean leaf area index (LAI) based on multi-source remote sensing data including ground hyperspectral, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) multispectral and the Gaofen-1 (GF-1) WFV data. Ratio vegetation index (RVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), difference vegetation index (DVI), and triangle vegetation index (TVI) were used to establish LAI retrieval models, respectively...
January 2016: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
L S Khoo, A H Hasmi, S A Abdul Ghani Aziz, M A Ibrahim, M S Mahmood
A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of the people; and overwhelms the capacity of the community to cope with the event. The recent tragic aviation accidents in 2014 involving Malaysia Airlines flights MH370 and MH17 shocked the world in an unprecedented manner...
April 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Fernanda Carolina Alves Campos, Mariza Aparecida Mota, Maria Giselda Aravechia, Kelyan Bertani Torres, Carolina Bonet Bub, José Mauro Kutner, Lilian Castilho
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of D variants in patients and donors is important because anti-D alloimmunization can occur in some but not all individuals who express a variant RHD allele. Serologic distinction of RhD discrepancies is not always straightforward, which makes molecular analysis highly desirable. METHODS: A group of 223 subjects, 129 patients, and 94 blood donors was identified and analyzed on the basis of a D typing discrepancy. The D antigen expression was evaluated by tube and gel hemagglutination with four anti-D reagents...
April 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Felix Arlt, Claire Chalopin, Andrea Müns, Jürgen Meixensberger, Dirk Lindner
BACKGROUND: Reliable intraoperative resection control during surgery of malignant brain tumours is associated with the longer overall survival of patients. B-mode ultrasound (BUS) is a familiar intraoperative imaging application in neurosurgical procedures and supplies excellent image quality. However, due to resection-induced artefacts, its ability to distinguish between tumour borders, oedema, surrounding tissue and tumour remnants is sometimes limited. In experienced hands, this "bright rim effect" could be reduced...
April 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
T Draycott, H van der Nelson, C Montouchet, L Ruff, F Andersson
BACKGROUND: In view of the increasing pressure on the UK's maternity units, new methods of labour induction are required to alleviate the burden on the National Health Service, while maintaining the quality of care for women during delivery. A model was developed to evaluate the resource use associated with misoprostol vaginal inserts (MVIs) and dinoprostone vaginal inserts (DVIs) for the induction of labour at term. METHODS: The one-year Markov model estimated clinical outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of 1397 pregnant women (parous and nulliparous) induced with either MVI or DVI at Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK...
February 10, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Tetsuya Sumiyoshi, Tomohiro Kondo, Ryoji Fujii, Takeyoshi Minagawa, Shinya Fujie, Tomohiro Kimura, Hideyuki Ihara, Naohito Yoshizaki, Hitoshi Kondo, Hiromitsu Kitayama, Junko Sugiyama, Michiaki Hirayama, Yasushi Tsuji, Kazuyuki Yamamoto, You Kawarada, Shunichi Okushiba, Noriko Nishioka, Tadashi Shimizu
A 74-year-old woman with advanced gastric cancer was admitted to our hospital. A central venous (CV) port catheter was implanted into the right subclavian vein for preoperative chemotherapy and parenteral nutritional management. On the 35th day after implantation, she complained of diarrhea, fever and dyspnea. The chest radiograph showed a right-sided massive pleural effusion. As the patient progressively fell into severe respiratory distress, endotracheal intubation was performed for management of respiration by mechanical ventilation...
December 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Carlos M Vullo, Magdalena Romero, Laura Catelli, Mustafa Šakić, Victor G Saragoni, María Jose Jimenez Pleguezuelos, Carola Romanini, Maria João Anjos Porto, Jorge Puente Prieto, Alicia Bofarull Castro, Alexis Hernandez, María José Farfán, Victoria Prieto, David Alvarez, Gustavo Penacino, Santiago Zabalza, Alejandro Hernández Bolaños, Irati Miguel Manterola, Lourdes Prieto, Thomas Parsons
The GHEP-ISFG Working Group has recognized the importance of assisting DNA laboratories to gain expertise in handling DVI or missing persons identification (MPI) projects which involve the need for large-scale genetic profile comparisons. Eleven laboratories participated in a DNA matching exercise to identify victims from a hypothetical conflict with 193 missing persons. The post mortem database was comprised of 87 skeletal remain profiles from a secondary mass grave displaying a minimal number of 58 individuals with evidence of commingling...
March 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Prayong Vachvanichsanong, Usa Thisyakorn, Chule Thisyakorn
Dengue virus infection (DVI)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a common febrile illness with a variety of severities. The mortality rate is high in dengue shock syndrome (DSS), caused by circulatory failure due to plasma leakage resulting in multi-organ failure. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) is rarely reported. In areas of endemic DVI, the prevalence of AKI due to DVI has been reported to be as high as 6.0 % in children with AKI, and 0.9 % in children with DVI who were admitted to a hospital. The mechanism of AKI in DVI is not clear...
April 2016: Archives of Virology
Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, Yong-Seok Lee, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Georges Thiry, Richard Mahoney, In-Kyu Yoon
Dengue is a public health problem in the tropics and subtropics. There are several vaccine candidates in clinical development. However, there may be gaps in the new vaccine introduction after vaccine licensure before it becomes available in developing countries. In anticipation of the first dengue vaccine candidate to be licensed, Dengue Vaccine Initiative (DVI) and, its predecessor, Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI) have been working on points for consideration to accelerate evidence-based dengue vaccine introduction, once a vaccine becomes available...
2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Charlotte Patte, Philippe Deruelle
BACKGROUND: Induction of labor is a major issue in pregnancy management. Finding strategies to increase rate and decrease time to vaginal delivery is an important goal, but maternal or neonatal safety must remain the primary objective. Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin used off label to ripen the cervix and induce labor. The misoprostol vaginal insert (MVI) was designed to allow a controlled-release delivery of misoprostol (from 50 to 200 μg) with a removal tape. The objective of this review was to make a critical appraisal of this device referring to the literature...
2015: International Journal of Women's Health
K M Prabusankarlal, P Thirumoorthy, R Manavalan
Earliest detection and diagnosis of breast cancer reduces mortality rate of patients by increasing the treatment options. A novel method for the segmentation of breast ultrasound images is proposed in this work. The proposed method utilizes undecimated discrete wavelet transform to perform multiresolution analysis of the input ultrasound image. As the resolution level increases, although the effect of noise reduces, the details of the image also dilute. The appropriate resolution level, which contains essential details of the tumor, is automatically selected through mean structural similarity...
November 2016: Ultrasonic Imaging
Amy Sorensen, Clare Berry, David Bruce, Michelle Elizabeth Gahan, Sheree Hughes-Stamm, Dennis McNevin
Disaster victim identification (DVI) often occurs in remote locations with extremes of temperatures and humidities. Access to mortuary facilities and refrigeration are not always available. An effective and robust DNA sampling and preservation procedure would increase the probability of successful DNA profiling and allow faster repatriation of bodies and body parts. If the act of tissue preservation also released DNA into solution, ready for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the DVI process could be further streamlined...
May 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Prayong Vachvanichsanong, Edward McNeil
Dengue virus infection (DVI) is endemic in tropical countries in both children and adults. The classical presentation includes fever, hepatomegaly, thrombocytopenia-related bleeding disorders, and plasma leakage. Multi-organ involvement, including kidneys is found in complex cases. Asymptomatic electrolyte disturbances, abnormal urinalysis, and more severe manifestation such as acute kidney injury (AKI) usually indicate kidney involvement. Such manifestations are not rare in DVI, but are often not recognized and can cause the physician to misread the real situation of the patient...
2015: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan, Arun K Garg
Forensic odontology is primarily concerned with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various forensic odontology techniques help in the identification of the human remains in incidents such as terrorists' attacks, airplane, train and road accidents, fires, mass murders, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, earth quakes and floods, etc. (Disaster Victim Identification-DVI). Dental structures are the hardest and well protected structures in the body. These structures resist decomposition and high temperatures and are among the last ones to disintegrate after death...
2015: Open Dentistry Journal
Gloria P Gómez-Pérez, Almudena Legarda, Jose Muñoz, B Kim Lee Sim, María Rosa Ballester, Carlota Dobaño, Gemma Moncunill, Joseph J Campo, Pau Cisteró, Alfons Jimenez, Diana Barrios, Benjamin Mordmüller, Josefina Pardos, Mireia Navarro, Cecilia Justino Zita, Carlos Arlindo Nhamuave, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Ariadna Sanz, Marta Aldea, Anita Manoj, Anusha Gunasekera, Peter F Billingsley, John J Aponte, Eric R James, Caterina Guinovart, Rosa M Antonijoan, Peter G Kremsner, Stephen L Hoffman, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by mosquito bite is a powerful tool for evaluation of vaccines and drugs against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, only a small number of research centres have the facilities required to perform such studies. CHMI by needle and syringe could help to accelerate the development of anti-malaria interventions by enabling centres worldwide to employ CHMI. METHODS: An open-label CHMI study was performed with aseptic, purified, cryopreserved P...
2015: Malaria Journal
Marie-Mathilde Perrineau, Dana C Price, Georg Mohr, Debashish Bhattacharya
Group II introns are closely linked to eukaryote evolution because nuclear spliceosomal introns and the small RNAs associated with the spliceosome are thought to trace their ancient origins to these mobile elements. Therefore, elucidating how group II introns move, and how they lose mobility can potentially shed light on fundamental aspects of eukaryote biology. To this end, we studied five strains of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium purpureum that surprisingly contain 42 group II introns in their plastid genomes...
2015: PeerJ
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