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Hikaru Fukutomi, Matthew F Glasser, Hui Zhang, Joonas A Autio, Timothy S Coalson, Tomohisa Okada, Kaori Togashi, David C Van Essen, Takuya Hayashi
We present distinct patterns of neurite distribution in the human cerebral cortex using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We analyzed both high-resolution structural (T1w and T2w images) and diffusion MRI data in 505 subjects from the Human Connectome Project. Neurite distributions were evaluated using the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model, optimized for gray matter, and mapped onto the cortical surface using a method weighted towards the cortical mid-thickness to reduce partial volume effects...
February 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Sophia Bakola, Lauretta Passarelli, Tony Huynh, Daniele Impieri, Katrina H Worthy, Patrizia Fattori, Claudio Galletti, Kathleen J Burman, Marcello G P Rosa
The parietal reach region (PRR) in the medial bank of the macaque intraparietal sulcus has been a subject of considerable interest in research aimed at the development of brain-controlled prosthetic arms, but its anatomical organization remains poorly characterized. We examined the anatomical organization of the putative PRR territory based on myeloarchitecture and retrograde tracer injections. We found that the medial bank includes three areas: an extension of the dorsal subdivision of V6A (V6Ad), the medial intraparietal area (MIP), and a subdivision of area PE (PEip)...
November 2017: ENeuro
Bart Ferguson, Natalia Petridou, Alessio Fracasso, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rachel M Brouwer, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, René S Kahn, René C W Mandl
Studies into cortical thickness in psychiatric diseases based on T1-weighted MRI frequently report on aberrations in the cerebral cortex. Due to limitations in image resolution for studies conducted at conventional MRI field strengths (e.g. 3 Tesla (T)) this information cannot be used to establish which of the cortical layers may be implicated. Here we propose a new analysis method that computes one high-resolution average cortical profile per brain region extracting myeloarchitectural information from T1-weighted MRI scans that are routinely acquired at a conventional field strength...
January 19, 2018: Neuroinformatics
Catherine Lebel, Sean Deoni
Throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, our brains undergo remarkable changes. Processes including myelination and synaptogenesis occur rapidly across the first 2-3 years of life, and ongoing brain remodeling continues into young adulthood. Studies have sought to characterize the patterns of structural brain development, and early studies predominately relied upon gross anatomical measures of brain structure, morphology, and organization. MRI offers the ability to characterize and quantify a range of microstructural aspects of brain tissue that may be more closely related to fundamental neurodevelopmental processes...
January 3, 2018: NeuroImage
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we discuss the different ways in which the primate pulvinar has been subdivided, based on cytoarchitectural and myeloarchitectural criteria. One original criterion, based on cytoarchitecture, subdivided the pulvinar into nucleus pulvinaris medialis (PM), nucleus pulvinaris lateralis (PL), and nucleus pulvinaris inferior (PI). Later, the anterior limits of the pulvinar were extended and a subdivision was added to this nucleus, named pulvinar oralis (PO). PO occupies the anterior portion of the pulvinar and appears between the nucleus centrum medianum (CM) and the nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis (VPL)...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
The pulvinar can be subdivided into well-delimitated regions based on chemoarchitectural, cytoarchitectural, myeloarchitectural, connectivity, and electrophysiological criteria. Subdivisions of the pulvinar based on its chemoarchitectural features are the most consistently preserved across species of New and Old World monkeys. It is reasonable to speculate that the occurrence and distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the pulvinar, such as calbindin and parvalbumin, have been preserved along evolution...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Frederic K Dick, Matt I Lehet, Martina F Callaghan, Tim A Keller, Martin I Sereno, Lori L Holt
Auditory selective attention is vital in natural soundscapes. But, it is unclear how attentional focus on the primary dimension of auditory representation - acoustic frequency - might modulate basic auditory functional topography during active listening. In contrast to visual selective attention, which is supported by motor-mediated optimization of input across saccades and pupil dilation, the primate auditory system has fewer means of differentially sampling the world. This makes spectrally-directed endogenous attention a particularly crucial aspect of auditory attention...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Christina Herold, Christina Paulitschek, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Onur Güntürkün, Karl Zilles
At the beginning of the 20(th) century it was suggested that a complex group of nuclei in the avian posterior ventral telencephalon is comparable to the mammalian amygdala. Subsequent findings, however, revealed that most of these structures share premotor characteristics, while some indeed constitute the avian amygdala. These developments resulted in 2004 in a change of nomenclature of these nuclei, which from then on were named arcopallial or amygdala nuclei and referred to as the arcopallium/amygdala complex...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Hui Wang, Caroline Magnain, Ruopeng Wang, Jay Dubb, Ani Varjabedian, Lee S Tirrell, Allison Stevens, Jean C Augustinack, Ender Konukoglu, Iman Aganj, Matthew P Frosch, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Bruce Fischl, David A Boas
Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) with serial sectioning has enabled the investigation of 3D structures in mouse and human brain tissue samples. By using intrinsic optical properties of back-scattering and birefringence, PSOCT reliably images cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and fiber orientations. In this study, we developed a fully automatic serial sectioning polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (as-PSOCT) system to enable volumetric reconstruction of human brain samples with unprecedented sample size and resolution...
October 7, 2017: NeuroImage
Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Kerrin Pine, Nikolaus Weiskopf
The human neocortex is organized radially into six layers which differ in their myelination and the density and arrangement of neuronal cells. This cortical cyto- and myeloarchitecture plays a central role in the anatomical and functional neuroanatomy but is primarily accessible through invasive histology only. To overcome this limitation, several non-invasive MRI approaches have been, and are being, developed to resolve the anatomical cortical layers. As a result, recent studies on large populations and structure-function relationships at the laminar level became possible...
September 20, 2017: NeuroImage
Fernando Calamante, Ben Jeurissen, Robert E Smith, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Alan Connelly
PURPOSE: To investigate whether diffusion MRI can be used to study cortical segregation based on a contrast related to neurite density, thus providing a complementary tool to myelin-based MRI techniques used for myeloarchitecture. METHODS: Several myelin-sensitive MRI methods (e.g., based on T1 , T2 , and T2*) have been proposed to parcellate cortical areas based on their myeloarchitecture. Recent improvements in hardware, acquisition, and analysis methods have opened the possibility of achieving a more robust characterization of cortical microstructure using diffusion MRI...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Eunjung Min, Sungbea Ban, Yanyan Wang, Sung Chul Bae, Gabriel Popescu, Catherine Best-Popescu, Woonggyu Jung
We present the scattering properties of mouse brain using multispectral diffraction phase microscopy. Typical diffraction phase microscopy was incorporated with the broadband light source which offers the measurement of the scattering coefficient and anisotropy in the spectral range of 550-900 nm. The regional analysis was performed for both the myeloarchitecture and cytoarchitecture of the brain tissue. Our results clearly evaluate the multispectral scattering properties in the olfactory bulb and corpus callosum...
March 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Zhiwei Ma, Nanyin Zhang
Cross-population covariance of brain morphometric quantities provides a measure of interareal connectivity, as it is believed to be determined by the coordinated neurodevelopment of connected brain regions. Although useful, structural covariance analysis predominantly employed bulky morphological measures with mixed compartments, whereas studies of the structural covariance of any specific subdivisions such as myelin are rare. Characterizing myelination covariance is of interest, as it will reveal connectivity patterns determined by coordinated development of myeloarchitecture between brain regions...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Boris C Bernhardt, Fatemeh Fadaie, Reinder Vos de Wael, Seok-Jun Hong, Min Liu, Marie C Guiot, David A Rudko, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi
The majority of MRI studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have utilized morphometry to map widespread cortical alterations. Morphological markers, such as cortical thickness or grey matter density, reflect combinations of biological events largely driven by overall cortical geometry rather than intracortical tissue properties. Because of its sensitivity to intracortical myelin, quantitative measurement of longitudinal relaxation time (qT1 ) provides and an in vivo proxy for cortical microstructure. Here, we mapped the regional distribution of qT1 in a consecutive cohort of 24 TLE patients and 20 healthy controls...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
Micah Allen, Darya Frank, James C Glen, Francesca Fardo, Martina F Callaghan, Geraint Rees
Empathy is a key component of our ability to engage and interact with others. In recent years, the neural mechanisms underlying affective and cognitive empathy have garnered intense interest. This work demonstrates that empathy for others depends upon a distributed network of regions such as the insula, parietal cortex, and somatosensory areas, which are also activated when we ourselves experience an empathized-with emotion (e.g., pain). Individuals vary markedly in their ability to empathize with others, which predicts the tendency to help others and relates to individual differences in the neuroanatomy of these areas...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Roberto Viviani, Tony Stöcker, Julia C Stingl
The MR signal from gray matter has been long known to present small differences in intensity that have been attributed to variations in cortical myelin content. Previous studies have shown that the T1-, T2-weighted signal and their ratio are sensitive to these variations. Here, we investigated different combinations of signal from MPRAGE and FLAIR images in multimodal segmentation with parametric models of signal intensity to identify a procedure for the identification of contrast in cortical gray matter and the segmentation of different cortical components at 3T...
February 28, 2017: NeuroImage
Micah Allen, James C Glen, Daniel Müllensiefen, Dietrich Samuel Schwarzkopf, Francesca Fardo, Darya Frank, Martina F Callaghan, Geraint Rees
The ability to introspectively evaluate our experiences to form accurate metacognitive beliefs, or insight, is an essential component of decision-making. Previous research suggests individuals vary substantially in their level of insight, and that this variation is related to brain volume and function, particularly in the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear, as qualitative, macroscopic measures such as brain volume can be related to a variety of microstructural features...
April 1, 2017: NeuroImage
José P Marques, Diana Khabipova, Rolf Gruetter
In this manuscript, the use of quantitative imaging at ultra-high field is evaluated as a mean to study cyto and myelo-architecture of the cortex. The quantitative contrasts used are the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1), apparent transverse relaxation rate (R2(*)) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). The quantitative contrasts were computed using high resolution in-vivo (0.65mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7T. The performance of the different quantitative approaches was evaluated by visualizing the contrast between known highly myelinated primary sensory cortex regions and the neighbouring cortex...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
Benjamin A E Hunt, Prejaas K Tewarie, Olivier E Mougin, Nicolas Geades, Derek K Jones, Krish D Singh, Peter G Morris, Penny A Gowland, Matthew J Brookes
The human brain relies upon the dynamic formation and dissolution of a hierarchy of functional networks to support ongoing cognition. However, how functional connectivities underlying such networks are supported by cortical microstructure remains poorly understood. Recent animal work has demonstrated that electrical activity promotes myelination. Inspired by this, we test a hypothesis that gray-matter myelin is related to electrophysiological connectivity. Using ultra-high field MRI and the principle of structural covariance, we derive a structural network showing how myelin density differs across cortical regions and how separate regions can exhibit similar myeloarchitecture...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Robert Turner
When blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was discovered in the early 1990s, it provoked an explosion of interest in exploring human cognition, using brain mapping techniques based on MRI. Standards for data acquisition and analysis were rapidly put in place, in order to assist comparison of results across laboratories. Recently, MRI data acquisition capabilities have improved dramatically, inviting a rethink of strategies for relating functional brain activity at the systems level with its neuronal substrates and functional connections...
October 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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