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Fish oil supplements

Robert K McNamara
Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD...
September 2016: J Nutr Intermed Metab
Harinder Singh Bedi, Vivek Tewarson, Kamal Negi
We report a 55-year-old man who underwent off-pump bypass surgery and had diffuse oozing and bruising postoperatively. His hematological profile had been normal preoperatively and he had been off antiplatelets for a week prior to surgery. Postoperatively, a detailed talk revealed that he had been on dietary supplements containing fish oil and garlic - both of which are known to affect platelet function. It behooves the surgeon and anesthetist to screen all patients preoperatively for the possibility of intake of any dietary supplements taken by the patient...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Terry K Morgan, Emilie Jensen, Jeong Lim, Russell Riggs
BACKGROUND: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is an intermediate option between analgesics and knee joint replacement in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Our objective was to test whether image-guided HA injections may improve knee OA outcomes after 6 months of treatment independent of potential covariates. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series with multivariate outcome-based analysis of 207 consecutive adult patients with mild to severe knee OA treated at a single out-patient clinic employing fluoroscopy-guided HA injections...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Ivor B Asztalos, Joi A Gleason, Sakine Sever, Reyhan Gedik, Bela F Asztalos, Katalin V Horvath, Michael L Dansinger, Stefania Lamon-Fava, Ernst J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the primary omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the independent effects of EPA and DHA on lipid and apolipoprotein levels, as well as on inflammatory biomarkers of CVD risk, using doses often used in the general population. DESIGN: A blinded, randomized 6-week trial was performed in 121 healthy, normolipidemic subjects who received olive oil placebo 6g/d, EPA 600mg/d, EPA 1800mg/d, or DHA 600mg/d...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Elizabeth D Kantor, Colin D Rehm, Mengmeng Du, Emily White, Edward L Giovannucci
Importance: Dietary supplements are commonly used by US adults; yet, little is known about recent trends in supplement use. Objective: To report trends in dietary supplement use among US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional study using nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected between 1999 and 2012. Participants include noninstitutionalized adults residing in the United States, surveyed over 7 continuous 2-year cycles (sample size per cycle, 4863 to 6213)...
October 11, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Núria Taltavull, Rosa Ras, Sílvia Mariné, Marta Romeu, Montserrat Giralt, Lucía Méndez, Isabel Medina, Sara Ramos-Romero, Josep L Torres, M Rosa Nogués
A high intake of fat and sucrose can dramatically increase bioactive lipids such as ceramides in tissues. Ceramides regulate several steps in the insulin signal pathway. The effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin resistance are inconsistent, especially in liver. We investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA (EPA/DHA 1 : 1) from fish oil on hepatic ceramides in a pre-diabetic animal model. Three groups of rats were fed standard feed, high fat high sucrose feed (HFHS) or HFHS enriched with n-3 PUFA. We investigated by lipidomic analysis how supplementation of a HFHS diet with n-3 PUFA modifies the hepatic ceramide profile triggered by a HFHS diet...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Rahul Chaudhary, Katayoon Saadin, Kevin P Bliden, William S Harris, Bao Dinh, Tushar Sharma, Udaya S Tantry, Paul A Gurbel
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine the associations between plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and various cardiovascular risk factors and with the use of fish oil supplements (FOS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac catheterization (n=433) were studied. Serum fatty acid (FA) composition, the concentrations of lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress, and dietary/lifestyle factors were measured...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Xiaoyan Jiang, Hongjian Pu, Xiaoming Hu, Zhishuo Wei, Dandan Hong, Wenting Zhang, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Yejie Shi
White matter injury induced by ischemic stroke elicits sensorimotor impairments, which can be further deteriorated by persistent proinflammatory responses. We previously reported that delayed and repeated treatments with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve spatial cognitive functions and hippocampal integrity after ischemic stroke. In the present study, we report a post-stroke n-3 PUFA therapeutic regimen that not only confers protection against neuronal loss in the gray matter but also promotes white matter integrity...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Sebastien Elis, Alice Desmarchais, Sandrine Freret, Virginie Maillard, Valérie Labas, Juliette Cognié, Eric Briant, Celine Hivelin, Joëlle Dupont, Svetlana Uzbekova
The objective of this study was to determine whether fish oil supplement has an effect on adipose tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows were supplemented with either long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; protected fish oil) or control PUFA (n-6; toasted soybeans) for 2 mo after calving (n = 23 per diet). These cows showed no difference in milk production or metabolic parameters, but exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in early embryo mortality rate after artificial insemination...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Akira Kotani, Mizuki Watanabe, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Fumiyo Kusu, Hideki Hakamata
A high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) system was developed for the simultaneous determination of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) in human plasma. In the present HPLC-ECD system, EPA, DHA, and AA were separated using a reverse-phase C30 column and detected based on the voltammetric reduction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone (DBBQ). Chromatographic peak areas were proportional to the concentration of EPA, DHA, and AA from 0...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Naglaa F Khedr
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder and has a profound impact on women's reproductive health. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of a mixture of fish oil (FO) and wheat-germ oil (WGO) on ovarian dysfunction in diabetic rats. Female Albino rats were divided into control, diabetic and FO-WGO-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 65mgkg-1 streptozotocin (STZ). Three weeks later, rats were given oral supplement of 0.4gkg-1 oil mix (1000mg FO+100mg WGO) daily for 3 weeks...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jean A Hall, Jaye Hartman, Monica M Skinner, Adam R Schwindt, Kay A Fischer, William R Vorachek, Gerd Bobe, Beth A Valentine
The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades, which may be related to higher dietary intake of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower intake of (n-3) PUFA, e.g., those contained in fish oil. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary PUFA enrichment decreases mucus production or the inflammatory response associated with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation. Mice (n = 10/group) were fed control, 20% fish oil, or 20% corn oil enriched diets for a total of 12 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Xue Du, Yali Liu, Lizhi Lu, Weiqun Wang, Tao Zeng, Yong Tian, Xiaoqin Xu, Jianliang Shen, Dong Niu, Yingru Lu
The effects of different dietary fats with variable levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on egg quality of Shan Partridge Duck, serum, and yolk lipid parameters were examined in this study. A flock of 585 optimal produced ducks were selected and diets enriched with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% fish oil (F)/flaxseed oil (FL)/rapeseed oil (R)/tallow (T) plus basal diet were supplied through a 28-d period. Supplemental fat source and fat level had no effects on egg qualities. Proportions of yolk total cholesterol (TC), saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were reduced (P < 0...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Luís Gustavo De Sousa, Gilson M Murata, Amanda Rabello Crisma, Carlos Flores Rodrigues Junior, Phablo Abreu, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Sandro M Hirabara, Philip Newsholme, Rui Curi
The effects of either eicosapentaenoic (EPA)- or docosahexaenoic (DHA)-rich fish oils on hindlimb suspension (HS)-induced muscle disuse atrophy were compared. Daily oral supplementations (0.3 mL/100 g b.w.) with mineral oil (MO) or high EPA or high DHA fish oils were performed in adult rats. After 2 weeks, the animals were subjected to HS for further 2 weeks. The treatments were maintained alongside HS At the end of 4 weeks, we evaluated: body weight gain, muscle mass and fat depots, composition of fatty acids, cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the soleus muscle and soleus muscle fibers, activities of cathepsin L and 26S proteasome, and content of carbonylated proteins in the soleus muscle...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Megan J Schlichte, Abbey Vandersall, Rajani Katta
In the context of increasing popularity of "natural" alternatives to conventional medicine, several dietary supplements have gained the attention of researchers and consumers alike in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Readily available without a prescription and frequently perceived to have fewer side effects than traditional medications, these "natural" remedies may be featured in discussions with patients, and clinicians should therefore be familiar with their efficacy and safety. Based on trials to date, no dietary supplements can be recommended for routine use in the treatment of AD...
July 2016: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
Zhenzhen Zhang, Mark Garzotto, Tomasz M Beer, Philippe Thuillier, Stephen Lieberman, Motomi Mori, Wesley A Stoller, Paige E Farris, Jackilen Shannon
Animal and human studies suggest fish oil and green tea may have protective effect on prostate cancer. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been hypothesized to be linked to chemoprotective effects of both compounds. This study evaluated the independent and joint effects of fish oil (FO) and green tea supplement (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) on FAS and Ki-67 levels in prostate tissue. Through a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 2 × 2 factorial design, 89 men scheduled for repeat prostate biopsy following an initial negative prostate biopsy were randomized into either FO alone (1...
September 20, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Jenifer I Fenton, Eric A Gurzell, Emily A Davidson, William S Harris
Numerous clinical trials examining the use of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) on various health outcomes have been conducted, and fish oil remains one of the most widely used nutritional supplements. More recently, studies have begun to utilize the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA+DHA in red blood cells (RBCs), as both a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA exposure and a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Considerably less research evaluates whether RBC phospholipid fatty acids reflect the phospholipid fatty acid composition of other tissues across increasing intakes of n-3 LCPUFAs...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
M Scott Hardy, Adrijana Kekic, Nicole L Graybill, Zachary R Lancaster
A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods.
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
M K Park, W Li, S Y Paek, X Li, S Wu, T Li, A A Qureshi, E Cho
Fish are rich in marine omega-3 fatty acids (FA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Since marine omega-3 FAs have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties(1) , their potential use as a dietary adjunct in the treatment of psoriasis has been explored(2,3) . Fish oil supplements have shown potentially protective effects on progression of psoriasis in small-scale (n=9~145) clinical studies(2-4) . However, fish oil's benefit for psoriasis has been difficult to confirm because of the lack of baseline measures of dietary and nutritional status(5) ...
September 15, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
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