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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924085/an-improved-enzymatic-indirect-method-for-simultaneous-determinations-of-3-mcpd-esters-and-glycidyl-esters-in-fish-oils
#1
Kinuko Miyazaki, Kazuo Koyama
The enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-Es) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (Gly-Es) make use of lipase from Candida cylindracea (previously referred to as C. rugosa). Because of low substrate specificity of the lipase for esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fish oils high in PUFAs are currently excluded from the range of application of the method. The objective of this study was to make the enzymatic indirect method applicable to fats and oils containing PUFAs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900242/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-as-lysophosphatidylcholine-but-not-as-free-acid-enriches-brain-dha-and-improves-memory-in-adult-mice
#2
Dhavamani Sugasini, Riya Thomas, Poorna C R Yalagala, Leon M Tai, Papasani V Subbaiah
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is uniquely concentrated in the brain, and is essential for its function, but must be mostly acquired from diet. Most of the current supplements of DHA, including fish oil and krill oil, do not significantly increase brain DHA, because they are hydrolyzed to free DHA and are absorbed as triacylglycerol, whereas the transporter at blood brain barrier is specific for phospholipid form of DHA. Here we show that oral administration of DHA to normal adult mice as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (40 mg DHA/kg) for 30 days increased DHA content of the brain by >2-fold...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900017/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-processes-from-molecules-to-man
#3
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893413/fish-oil-emulsion-supplementation-might-improve-quality-of-life-of-diabetic-patients-due-to-its-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#4
Lucia Laubertová, Katarína Koňariková, Helena Gbelcová, Zdeňka Ďuračková, Jana Muchová, Iveta Garaiova, Ingrid Žitňanová
Diabetes-related complications, including cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, are a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality among people with diabetes. Previous studies have confirmed that hyperglycemia has pro-oxidative and proinflammatory properties which cause diabetic complications. We hypothesized that supplementation of fish oil emulsion (FOE), rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, to diabetic patients might reduce hyperglycemia-induced pathological changes due to specific properties of FOE...
August 3, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888611/comparison-of-mammary-lipid-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-and-goats-fed-diets-supplemented-with-starch-plant-oil-or-fish-oil
#5
L Bernard, P G Toral, Y Chilliard
A direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid (FA) responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression in the bovine has suggested interspecies differences in rumen and mammary lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer some potential mechanisms responsible for the differences in mammary lipogenesis due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879655/pretreatment-with-fish-oil-attenuates-heart-ischemia-consequences-in-rats
#6
Alcione Lescano de Souza Junior, Jorge Mancini Filho, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Maria Cláudia Irigoyen, Rui Curi
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA)-rich fish oil supplementation has protective effects on heart ischemic injury. Left ventricular (LV) ischemia was induced in rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Saline, fish oil or soybean oil was administered daily by gavage (3 g kg(-1) b.w.) for 20 days before inducing ischemia. Outcomes were assessed 24 hours after left coronary artery ligation. Pretreatment with fish oil decreased the ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratio in the LV. Reduction in infarct size and in the intensity of ventricular systolic dysfunction was found in the fish oil group as compared with the saline or soybean oil groups through echocardiographic evaluation...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871832/adding-fish-oil-to-whey-protein-leucine-and-carbohydrate-over-a-6-week-supplementation-period-attenuates-muscle-soreness-following-eccentric-exercise-in-competitive-soccer-players
#7
Jordan D Philpott, Chris Donnelly, Ian H Walshe, James Dick, Stuart D R Galloway, Kevin D Tipton, Oliver C Witard
Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil-derived n-3PUFA, protein and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine and carbohydrate containing beverage over a 6 week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over 3 days following eccentric exercise...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859525/influence-of-essential-oils-in-diet-and-life-stage-on-gut-microbiota-and-fillet-quality-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#8
Florencia Ceppa, Filippo Faccenda, Carlotta De Filippo, Davide Albanese, Massimo Pindo, Roberta Martelli, Paola Marconi, Fernando Lunelli, Francesca Fava, Giuliana Parisi
Developing fish farming to meet the demands of food security and sustainability in the 21st century will require new farming systems and improved feeds. Diet and microbe interactions in the gut is an important variable with the potential to make a significant impact on future fish farming diets and production systems. It was monitored the gut microbiota of farmed rainbow trout using 16S rRNA profiling over 51 weeks during standard rearing conditions and feeding diet with supplementation of an essential oils (MixOil) mixture from plants (at a concentration in diet of 200 mg/kg)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855224/dha-rich-n-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-decreases-dna-methylation-in-blood-leukocytes-the-omegad-study
#9
Mohsen Karimi, Inger Vedin, Yvonne Freund Levi, Hans Basun, Gerd Faxén Irving, Maria Eriksdotter, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Marianne Schultzberg, Erik Hjorth, Tommy Cederholm, Jan Palmblad
Background: Dietary fish oils, rich in long-chain n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) [e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)], modulate inflammatory reactions through various mechanisms, including gene expression, which is measured as messenger RNA concentration. However, the effects of long-term treatment of humans with DHA and EPA on various epigenetic factors-such as DNA methylation, which controls messenger RNA generation-are poorly described.Objective: We wanted to determine the effects of 6 mo of dietary supplementation with an n-3 FA preparation rich in DHA on global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the relation to plasma EPA and DHA concentrations in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830741/effects-of-omega-3-in-the-treatment-of-violent-schizophrenia-patients
#10
Yi Qiao, Yi Mei, Huiqin Han, FengJu Liu, Xiao Min Yang, Yang Shao, Bin Xie, Bin Long
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to explore the relationship in between the daily consumption of fish oil (360mg DHA+540mg EPA), and reduction of symptoms and violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: Fifty inpatients meeting ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia and scoring more than four of Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) with antipsychotics treatment were randomly assigned to receive either fish oil (N=28) or a placebo (N=22) in a twelve week, double-blind supplementation trial...
August 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830711/changes-in-growth-blood-immune-parameters-and-expression-of-immune-related-genes-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-in-response-to-diet-supplemented-with-ducrosia-anethifolia-essential-oil
#11
Arya Vazirzadeh, Fatemeh Dehghan, Roya Kazemeini
An 8- week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of Ducrosia anethifolia essential oil on growth, blood immune parameters and immune related genes expression in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were allocated into 4 groups and fed on diet containing different levels of essential oil (0, 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1%) to apparent satiation in 30 min 3 times daily. Growth and immunological parameters were measured every ten days and tissue samples were taken from kidney and spleen on days 10, 30 and 50 to study the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α...
August 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822504/is-smog-innocuous-air-pollution-and-cardiovascular-disease
#12
EDITORIAL
Sundeep Mishra
Air pollution is a significant environmental and health hazard. Earlier studies had examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter on respiratory disease. However, later studies demonstrated that was actually cardiovascular disease that accounted for majority of mortality. Furthermore, it was not gaseous pollutants like oxides of nitrate, sulfur, carbon mono-oxide or ozone but the particulate matter or PM, of fine or coarse size (PM2.5 and PM10) which was linearly associated with mortality; PM2...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816722/omega-3-fatty-acids-in-rheumatic-diseases-a-critical-review
#13
Umair Akbar, Melissa Yang, Divya Kurian, Chandra Mohan
Many clinical trials of omega-3 fatty acids, supplied as fish oil supplements, have been carried out in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), lupus nephritis, and osteoarthritis (OA) over the past 3 decades. This review attempts to summarize the highlights of these studies to evaluate the clinical efficacy for omega-3 fatty acids to be added alongside existing treatment regimens. A total of 20 clinical trials have been carried out in RA, of which 16 exhibited significant improvements in multiple disease clinical outcomes...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805928/effects-of-dietary-fish-oil-supplementation-on-performance-meat-quality-and-cecal-fermentation-of-growing-rabbits
#14
M Rodríguez, M D Carro, V Valiente, N Formoso-Rafferty, P G Rebollar
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil on growth performance (during all fatening period), carcass characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of muscle and fat tissues (at slaughter), as well as cecal fermentation and ileal mucosa morphology of growing rabbits (at 30, 45, and 60 d of age). Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, only differing in their fat source, were formulated and provided each to 24 does (12 per diet) and their offspring during pregnancy and lactation...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805916/the-reduction-of-starch-in-finishing-diets-supplemented-with-oil-does-not-prevent-the-accumulation-of-trans-10-18-1-in-lamb-meat
#15
M Costa, S P Alves, A Francisco, J Almeida, C M Alfaia, S V Martins, J A M Prates, J Santos-Silva, O Doran, R J B Bessa
The experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the replacement of cereal with low-starch feed ingredients in lambs' finishing diets supplemented with oils could prevent the accumulation of -10-18:1 in meat. Forty lambs were fed 1 of 4 diets supplemented with soybean oil (5.9%) and fish oil (1%) for 6 wk before slaughter. The control (CON) diet contained 43% barley, and in the other diets, barley was completely replaced by dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP), dehydrated sugar beet pulp (DBP), or soybean hulls (SH)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800398/a-13-week-randomized-pilot-trial-of-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-and-lifestyle-modification-program-combining-low-glycemic-load-protein-shakes-and-targeted-nutraceuticals-improved-weight-loss-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-over-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-alone
#16
Clinton J Dahlberg, Joseph J Ou, John G Babish, Joseph J Lamb, Sarah Eliason, Holly Brabazon, Wei Gao, Mohan R Kaadige, Matthew L Tripp
An open label, randomized, exploratory study comprising 44 healthy, overweight subjects with cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a proprietary lifestyle modification program without (DIET) and with (PROG) targeted nutraceutical supplementation including soy, pea and whey proteins, phytosterols, antioxidants, probiotics, fish oil and berberine over 13-weeks. Key metrics were recorded at baseline, weeks 9 and 13. For DIET and PROG compliance was 85% and 86%, respectively, with no adverse events related to the diet or supplements...
August 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800114/fatty-acid-profile-is-modulated-by-dietary-resveratrol-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#17
Claudia Torno, Stefanie Staats, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa, Gerald Rimbach, Carsten Schulz
To produce fish of a high quality that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) and simultaneously generate more sustainable aquaculture, the combined use of phytochemicals and vegetable oils in fish feed seems to be a promising approach. Resveratrol (RV) potentially induces endogenous fatty acid synthesis, resulting in elevated n-3 FA levels in fish. RV putatively influences ∆6-desaturase, the key enzyme in FA metabolism, and serves as a ligand for PPARα, a transcription factor regulating β-oxidation. Rainbow trout (36...
August 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783061/impact-of-biological-feedback-and-incentives-on-blood-fatty-acid-concentrations-including-omega-3-index-in-an-employer-based-wellness-program
#18
Michael I McBurney, Julia K Bird
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations...
August 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758717/epa%C3%A2-%C3%A2-dha-supplementation-reduces-pmn-activation-in-microenvironment-of-chronic-venous-leg-ulcers-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-study
#19
Jodi C McDaniel, Laura Szalacha, Michelle Sales, Sashwati Roy, Scott Chafee, Narasimham Parinandi
Sustained high levels of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and PMN-derived proteases in the microenvironment of chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) are linked to chronic inflammation and delayed healing. Uncontrolled PMN activity eventually destroys newly developed tissue and degrades critical growth factors. The bioactive components of fish oil (n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) have strong inflammation-resolving actions and have been shown to assuage PMN activity, but have not been tested in CVLU patients...
July 31, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754005/can-early-omega-3-fatty-acid-exposure-reduce-risk-of-childhood-allergic-disease
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations...
July 21, 2017: Nutrients
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