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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645222/dietary-fat-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-recent-controversies-and-advances
#1
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635579/-fish-oil-in-pregnancy-can-it-prevent-asthma-in-children
#2
P L P Brand, M B Katan
Taking fish oil supplements in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with significantly less wheezing or asthma in the child at the age of 3-5 years, according to a randomized clinical trial by Bisgaard et al., NEJM 2017. However, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. The primary end points were modified at a late stage in the study, and two primary end points, eczema in the first 3 years of life and allergic sensitization at 18 months of age, were demoted to secondary end points, and showed no significant effect of treatment...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622159/weeding-out-the-justification-for-marijuana-treatment-in-patients-with-developmental-and-behavioral-conditions
#3
Theodora Nelson, Yi Hui Liu, Kara S Bagot, Martin T Stein
Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606404/dietary-inclusion-of-fish-oil-changes-the-semen-lipid-composition-but-does-not-improve-the-post-thaw-semen-quality-of-ram-spermatozoa
#4
Rommy Díaz, Mariana A Torres, Erwin Paz, John Quiñones, Silvana Bravo, Jorge G Farías, Néstor Sepúlveda
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO) time-response on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol levels and sperm cryosurvival in ram semen. Criollo Araucano rams were randomly assigned to two groups (n=4) according to the type of supplementation: a control group without FO and a supplemented group fed a diet with 3% FO for 8 weeks. The semen lipid profile and post-thaw sperm quality were analyzed at weeks 0 (pre-supplementation), 4, 8, 12 and 16 (post-supplementation) to evaluate the effects of FO supplementation by time interaction...
May 18, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601459/in-vitro-response-to-epa-dpa-and-dha-comparison-of-effects-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-biohydrogenation-of-18-carbon-fatty-acids-in-cows-and-ewes
#5
P G Toral, G Hervás, D Carreño, H Leskinen, A Belenguer, K J Shingfield, P Frutos
The modulation of milk fat nutritional quality through fish oil supplementation seems to be largely explained by the action of n-3 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of C18 fatty acids (FA). However, relationships among this action, disappearance of those PUFA in the rumen, and potential detrimental consequences on ruminal fermentation remain uncertain. This study compared the effect of 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA), 22:5n-3 (docosapentaenoic acid; DPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA) on rumen fermentation and BH of C18 FA and was conducted simultaneously in cows and sheep to provide novel insights into interspecies differences...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599630/omega-3-supplementation-from-pregnancy-to-postpartum-to-prevent-depressive-symptoms-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Juliana Dos Santos Vaz, Dayana Rodrigues Farias, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim Adegboye, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Gilberto Kac
BACKGROUND: Low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been linked to depression, but the preventive effect of n-3PUFAs supplementation on maternal depression needs further investigation. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a daily dose of n-3 PUFAs supplementation (fish oil) on the prevention of postpartum depression (PPD). METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial was designed and nested into a cohort study conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
June 9, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598848/synaptic-membrane-synthesis-in-rats-depends-on-dietary-sufficiency-of-vitamin-c-vitamin-e-and-selenium-relevance-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Mehmet Cansev, Mesut Turkyilmaz, John W C Sijben, Cansu Sevinc, Laus M Broersen, Nick van Wijk
Chronic consumption of a diet enriched with nutritional precursors of phospholipids, including uridine and the polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was shown previously to enhance levels of brain phospholipids and synaptic proteins in rodents. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium may directly affect the breakdown or synthesis of membrane phospholipids. The present study investigated the necessity of antioxidants for the effectiveness of supplementation with uridine plus DHA and EPA (as fish oil) in rats...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595290/dietary-fat-intake-and-fecundability-in-two-preconception-cohort-studies
#8
Lauren A Wise, Amelia K Wesselink, Katherine L Tucker, Shilpa Saklani, Ellen M Mikkelsen, Heidi Cueto, Anders H Riis, Ellen Trolle, Craig J McKinnon, Kristen A Hahn, Kenneth J Rothman, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Elizabeth E Hatch
The association between dietary fat and fertility is not well-studied. We evaluated intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA), and omega-3 and-6 fatty acids in relation to fecundability in Danish and North American preconception cohort studies. Female pregnancy planners completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Pregnancy status was updated bimonthly for 12 months or until pregnancy. Fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable proportional probabilities regression...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594075/influence-of-dietary-fat-source-on-sow-and-litter-performance-colostrum-and-milk-fatty-acid-profile-in-late-gestation-and-lactation
#9
Chao Jin, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Caimei Wu, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various fat sources (3.8-3.9% of diet) during late pregnancy and lactation on the reproductive performance, fatty acids profile in colostrum, milk and serum of sow progeny. A total of 80 multiparous sows were randomly fed a control (adding no oil), palm oil (PO), fish oil (FO) or soybean oil (SO) supplemented diet from 90 days of pregnancy to weaning. Supplementation of FO increased litter size of weak piglets, compared with the control-fed sows (P < 0...
June 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587463/lipidomic-profiling-of-human-adipose-tissue-identifies-a-pattern-of-lipids-associated-with-fish-oil-supplementation
#10
Elizabeth G Stanley, Benjamin J Jenkins, Celia G Walker, Albert Koulman, Annette L West, Philip C Calder, Susan A Jebb, Julian Leether Griffin
To understand the interaction between diet and health, biomarkers that accurately reflect consumption of foods of perceived health relevance are needed. The aim of this investigation was to use direct infusion-mass spectrometry (DI-MS) lipidomics to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on lipid profiles of human adipose tissue. Adipose tissue samples from an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation study (n = 66) were analysed to compare the pattern following supplementation equivalent to 0 or 4 portions of oily fish per week...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587203/effect-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-metabolic-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#11
M Gorety Jacobo-Cejudo, Roxana Valdés-Ramos, Ana L Guadarrama-López, Rosa-Virgen Pardo-Morales, Beatriz E Martínez-Carrillo, Laurence S Harbige
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on adipokines, metabolic control, and lipid profile in T2DM Mexican adults. METHODS: In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 54 patients with T2DM received 520 mg of DHA + EPA-enriched fish-oil (FOG) or a placebo (PG) daily...
June 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578704/dietary-supplementation-with-n-3-fatty-acids-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-and-cachexia-marine-phospholipids-versus-fish-oil-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial
#12
Kristin Werner, Daniela Küllenberg de Gaudry, Lenka A Taylor, Tobias Keck, Clemens Unger, Ulrich T Hopt, Ulrich Massing
BACKGROUND: Like many other cancer patients, most pancreatic carcinoma patients suffer from severe weight loss. As shown in numerous studies with fish oil (FO) supplementation, a minimum daily intake of 1.5 g n-3-fatty acids (n-3-FA) contributes to weight stabilization and improvement of quality of life (QoL) of cancer patients. Given n-3-FA not as triglycerides (FO), but mainly bound to marine phospholipids (MPL), weight stabilization and improvement of QoL has already been seen at much lower doses of n-3-FA (0,3 g), and MPL were much better tolerated...
June 2, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574870/dietary-supplementation-with-fish-oil-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-enhancement-of-sensitivity-to-the-behavioral-effects-of-quinpirole
#13
Caroline Hernandez-Casner, Jeremiah Ramos, Katherine M Serafine
Eating a diet high in fat can lead to negative health consequences, including obesity and insulin resistance. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as those found in fish oil) prevent high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Eating a high fat diet also enhances sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of drugs that act on dopamine systems (e.g. quinpirole, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist). To test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhanced sensitivity to the behavioral effects of quinpirole (0...
June 1, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558855/high-quality-fish-oil-has-a-more-favourable-effect-than-oxidised-fish-oil-on-intermediate-density-lipoprotein-and-ldl-subclasses-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Amanda Rundblad, Kirsten B Holven, Inger Ottestad, Mari C Myhrstad, Stine M Ulven
Fish oil (FO) supplementation reduces the risk of CVD. However, it is not known if FO of different qualities have different effects on lipoprotein subclasses in humans. We aimed at investigating the effects of oxidised FO and high-quality FO supplementation on lipoprotein subclasses and their lipid concentrations in healthy humans. In all, fifty-four subjects completed a double-blind randomised controlled intervention study. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive high-quality FO (n 17), oxidised FO (n 18) or high-oleic sunflower oil capsules (HOSO, n 19) for 7 weeks...
May 31, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554328/the-role-of-diet-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#15
Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, Gema Frühbeck, Maria De Angelis, Ornella De Bari, David Q-H Wang, Frank Lammert, Piero Portincasa
Cholesterol gallstone disease is a major health problem in Westernized countries and depends on a complex interplay between genetic factors, lifestyle and diet, acting on specific pathogenic mechanisms. Overweigh, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and altered cholesterol homeostasis have been linked to increased gallstone occurrence, and several studies point to a number of specific nutrients as risk- or protective factors with respect to gallstone formation in humans, motivating a rising interest in the identification of common and modifiable dietetic factors that put the patients at risk of gallstones or that are able to prevent gallstone formation and growth...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552094/no-impact-of-fish-oil-supplements-on-bleeding-risk-a-systematic-review
#16
Katrine Munk Begtrup, Andreas Engel Krag, Anne-Mette Hvas
INTRODUCTION: Fish oil supplementation may inhibit platelet aggregation and can potentially increase the risk of bleeding. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplements on haemostasis and bleeding risk, and to provide recommendations on whether it is necessary to discontinue fish oil supplementation prior to surgery. METHODS: Studies were identified through PubMed and Embase searches and by reviewing the reference lists of the included papers...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526935/diabetes-induced-abnormalities-of-mitochondrial-function-in-rat-brain-cortex-the-effect-of-n-3-fatty-acid-diet
#17
Maria Chomova, Maria Balazova, Jana Muchova
Diabetic encephalopathy, a proven complication of diabetes is associated with gradually developing end-organ damage in the CNS increasing the risk of stroke, cognitive dysfunction or Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated the response of rat cortical mitochondria to streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the potential for fish oil emulsion (FOE) to modulate mitochondrial function. Diabetes-induced deregulation of the respiratory chain function as a result of diminished complex I activity (CI) and cytochrome c oxidase hyperactivity was associated with attenuation of antioxidant defense of isolated cortical mitochondria, monitored by SOD activity, the thiol content, the dityrosine and protein-lipid peroxidation adduct formation...
May 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518102/nmr-spectroscopy-as-a-robust-tool-for-the-rapid-evaluation-of-the-lipid-profile-of-fish-oil-supplements
#18
Kathryn Williamson, Emmanuel Hatzakis
The western diet is poor in n-3 fatty acids, therefore the consumption of fish oil supplements is recommended to increase the intake of these essential nutrients. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative analysis of encapsulated fish oil supplements using high-resolution (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy utilizing two different NMR instruments; a 500 MHz and an 850 MHz instrument. Both proton ((1)H) and carbon ((13)C) NMR spectra can be used for the quantitative determination of the major constituents of fish oil supplements...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508737/the-future-for-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-the-prevention-of-coronary-heart-disease-do-we-need-to-target-non-fish-eaters
#19
W L Hall
Dietary guidelines in many countries include a recommendation to consume oily fish, mainly on the basis of evidence from prospective cohort studies that fish consumption is cardioprotective. However, average intakes are very low in a large proportion of the UK population. Some groups, such as vegans and vegetarians, purposely omit fish (along with meat) from their diet resulting in zero or trace intakes of long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Although the efficacy of dietary fish oil supplementation in the prevention of CVD has been questioned in recent years, the balance of evidence indicates that LC n-3 PUFA exert systemic pleiotropic effects through their influence on gene expression, cell signalling, membrane fluidity and by conversion to specialised proresolving mediators; autacoid lipid mediators that resolve inflammatory events...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506517/fish-oil-supplementation-benefits-the-murine-host-during-the-acute-phase-of-a-parasitic-infection-from-trypanosoma-cruzi
#20
Maria I Lovo-Martins, Aparecida D Malvezi, Rosiane V da Silva, Nágela G Zanluqui, Vera L H Tatakihara, Niels O S Câmara, Ana Paula L de Oliveira, Jean P S Peron, Marli C Martins-Pinge, Kevin L Fritsche, Phileno Pinge-Filho
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are known to modulate a variety of immune cell functions. On occasion, this has led to diminished host resistance to certain viral and bacterial infections. Little is known about the impact of n-3 PUFA on host resistance to parasitic infection, however, based on results from a small study conducted more than two decades ago, we hypothesized that providing mice LC n-3 PUFA will diminish host resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic pathogen responsible for Chagas disease...
May 2017: Nutrition Research
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