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Mountain aid

Jacobus H Visser, Nigel C Bennett, Bettine Jansen van Vuuren
The subterranean niche harbours animals with extreme adaptations. These adaptations decrease the vagility of taxa and, along with other behavioural adaptations, often result in isolated populations characterized by small effective population sizes, high inbreeding, population bottlenecks, genetic drift and consequently, high spatial genetic structure. Although information is available for some species, estimates of genetic diversity and whether this variation is spatially structured, is lacking for the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis)...
2018: PloS One
Pirjo Koivusaari, Johanna Pohjanen, Piippa R Wäli, Saija H K Ahonen, Karita Saravesi, Anna Mari Markkola, Kaisa Haapala, Marko Suokas, Janne J Koskimäki, Mysore V Tejesvi, Anna Maria Pirttilä
Plant meristems were previously thought to be sterile. Today, meristem-associated shoot endophytes are mainly reported as contaminants from plant tissue cultures, the number of observed species being very low. However, the few strains characterized have the capacity for infecting host cells and affecting plant growth and development. Here we studied the communities of endophytic bacteria in the buds of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii (N. I. Orlova) Hämet-Ahti) exposed to winter moth (Operophtera brumata L...
February 22, 2018: Tree Physiology
Hooi Ling Khoo, Muaid Ahmed
This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time...
January 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Tara E Ness, Mary F Annese, Natalia Martinez-Paz, Kenton T Unruh, John D Scott, Brian R Wood
Mountain West AETC (AIDS Education and Training Center) ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes), a longitudinal HIV telemen-toring program, connects community providers and a multidisciplinary specialist team at the University of Washington. The program employs focused lectures and real-time case discussions to educate and support providers in low-resource and rural settings. We assessed the impact of the program on management of perinatal HIV through surveying community providers who participate, and reviewing cases presented by providers for consultation...
December 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Marconi Campos-Cerqueira, Wayne J Arendt, Joseph M Wunderle, T Mitchell Aide
An upward shift in elevation is one of the most conspicuous species responses to climate change. Nevertheless, downward shifts and, apparently, the absences of response have also been recently reported. Given the growing evidence of multiple responses of species distributions due to climate change and the paucity of studies in the tropics, we evaluated the response of a montane bird community to climate change, without the confounding effects of land-use change. To test for elevational shifts, we compared the distribution of 21 avian species in 1998 and 2015 using occupancy models...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Ayalew Assefa, Adane Bahiru
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The study area is known by its huge livestock resources with extensive ethnoveterinary practice. This knowledge was not documented scientifically until we proposed to do so. The study can aid in future planning of endangered species conservation as well as for experimental studies in search of modern pharmacotherapy. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study objective was to understand the extent of ethnoveterinary practice, methods, types of medicinal plant species used and to generate a comprehensive baseline data that can be used as a basis for further studies...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marconi Campos-Cerqueira, T Mitchell Aide
Background: Climate change and infectious diseases threaten animal and plant species, even in natural and protected areas. To cope with these changes, species may acclimate, adapt, move or decline. Here, we test for shifts in anuran distributions in the Luquillo Mountains (LM), a tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico by comparing species distributions from historical (1931-1989)and current data (2015/2016). Methods: Historical data, which included different methodologies, were gathered through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and published literature, and the current data were collected using acoustic recorders along three elevational transects...
2017: PeerJ
Silviya Korpilo, Tarmo Virtanen, Tiina Saukkonen, Susanna Lehvävirta
Planning and management needs up-to-date, easily-obtainable and accurate information on the spatial and social aspects of visitor behaviour in order to balance human use and impacts, and protection of natural resources in public parks. We used a web-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) approach to gather citizen data on visitor behaviour in Helsinki's Central Park in order to aid collaborative spatial decision-making. The study combined smartphone GPS tracking, route drawing and a questionnaire to examine differences between user groups in their use of formal trails, off-trail behaviour and the motivations that affect it...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Yanfei Geng, Guoxiong Hu, Sailesh Ranjitkar, Yinxian Shi, Yu Zhang, Yuhua Wang
BACKGROUND: Conservation of biodiversity is primary important of today's critically vulnerable environment. Efficient conservation can be possible only with the long-term participation and understanding of the communities. Ritual beliefs of the indigenous people are one of the important tools to understand the local communities and aid the nature conservation. In this paper, we documented contemporary ritual practices and ritual plant uses among the Naxi people and discussed the importance of traditional knowledge on ritual practice in the conservation of plants in the mountains presenting a case study of the Dongba culture...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Andrew R Weeks, Dean Heinze, Louise Perrin, Jakub Stoklosa, Ary A Hoffmann, Anthony van Rooyen, Tom Kelly, Ian Mansergh
Genetic rescue has now been attempted in several threatened species, but the contribution of genetics per se to any increase in population health can be hard to identify. Rescue is expected to be particularly useful when individuals are introduced into small isolated populations with low levels of genetic variation. Here we consider such a situation by documenting genetic rescue in the mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus. Rapid population recovery occurred in the target population after the introduction of a small number of males from a large genetically diverged population...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
T Thaiwong, S Sirivisoot, M Takada, V Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, M Kiupel
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of dendritic cell origin that is common in certain breeds of dogs. High prevalence of fatal, disseminated HS has been described in Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMDs). Support for genetic predisposition to develop HS has been presented in several studies, but to date, causative genetic events have not been reported. In addition, no driver mutations have been identified in tumours. Recently, E76K gain-of-function mutation in SHP2 encoded by the PTPN11 gene has been described in human histiocytic malignancies...
September 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Jun-Jun Liu, Holly Williams, Xiao Rui Li, Anna W Schoettle, Richard A Sniezko, Michael Murray, Arezoo Zamany, Gary Roke, Hao Chen
RNA-seq analysis on whitebark pine needles demonstrated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-triggered transcriptome re-programming substantially overlapped with defense responses against insects and fungal pathogens in Pinus species, increasing current knowledge regarding induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens and pests in whitebark pine. Many whitebark pine populations are in steep decline due to high susceptibility to mountain pine beetle and the non-native white pine blister rust (WPBR). Resistance, including induced systemic resistance (ISR), is not well characterized in whitebark pine, narrowing the current options for increasing the success of restoration and breeding programs...
November 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Amee M Schwitters
Lesotho, a small, mountainous country completely surrounded by the Republic of South Africa, has a population of approximately 2 million persons with an estimated gross national income of $1,280 per capita; 73% of the population resides in rural areas (1). Lesotho has a generalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (2). In 2014, the prevalence of HIV infection among persons aged 15-49 years was 24.6%, with an incidence of 1.9 new infections per 100 person-years of exposure (3). As the leading cause of premature death, HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) has contributed to Lesotho's reporting the shortest life expectancy at birth among 195 countries and territories (4)...
August 4, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Kibo Nam, Maria Stanczak, Flemming Forsberg, Ji-Bin Liu, John R Eisenbrey, Charalambos C Solomides, Andrej Lyshchik
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of molecular ultrasound with dual-targeted microbubbles to detect metastatic disease in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in swine model of naturally occurring melanoma. The SLN is the first lymph node in the lymphatic chain draining primary tumor, and early detection of metastatic SLN involvement is critical in the appropriate management of melanoma. PROCEDURE: Nine Sinclair swine (weight 3-7 kg; Sinclair BioResources, Columbia, MO, USA) with naturally occurring melanoma were examined...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Xuesong Han, Yumin Guo, Chunrong Mi, Falk Huettmann, Lijia Wen
The black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) is the only alpine crane species and is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. The breeding habitats of this species are poorly understood, which greatly hampers practical research and conservation work. Using machine learning methods and the best-available data from our 7,000-kilometer mega-transect survey and open access data, we built the first species distribution model (SDM) to analyze the black-necked crane's breeding habitats. Our model showed that current conservation gaps account for 26...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tierra Smiley Evans, Linda J Lowenstine, Kirsten V Gilardi, Peter A Barry, Benard J Ssebide, Jean Felix Kinani, Fred Nizeyimana, Jean Bosco Noheri, Michael R Cranfield, Antoine Mudakikwa, Tracey Goldstein, Jonna A K Mazet, Christine Kreuder Johnson
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects greater than 90% of humans, is recognized as a significant comorbidity with HIV/AIDS, and is an etiologic agent for some human cancers. The critically endangered mountain gorilla population was suspected of infection with an EBV-like virus based on serology and infant histopathology similar to pulmonary reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (PRLH), a condition associated with EBV in HIV-infected children. To further examine the presence of EBV or an EBV-like virus in mountain gorillas, we conducted the first population-wide survey of oral samples for an EBV-like virus in a nonhuman great ape...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gabriella M K Rossetti, Jamie H Macdonald, Lee J Wylie, Samuel J Little, Victoria Newton, Benjamin Wood, Kieran A Hawkins, Rhys Beddoe, Hannah E Davies, Samuel J Oliver
Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances sea level performance and may ameliorate hypoxemia at high altitude. However, nitrate may exacerbate acute mountain sickness (AMS), specifically headache. This study investigated the effect of nitrate supplementation on AMS symptoms and exercise responses with 6-h hypoxia. Twenty recreationally active men [age, 22 ± 4 yr, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max), 51 ± 6 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), means ± SD] completed this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover study...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Yong-Quan Xu, Chun Zou, Ying Gao, Jian-Xin Chen, Fang Wang, Gen-Sheng Chen, Jun-Feng Yin
The physicochemical characteristics, sensory quality, and antioxidant activity of tea infusions prepared with purified water (PW), mineral water (MW), mountain spring water (MSW), and tap water (TW) from Hangzhou were investigated. The results showed that the taste quality, catechin concentration, and antioxidant capacity of green, oolong, and black tea infusions prepared using MW and TW were significantly lower than those prepared using PW. Extraction of catechins and caffeine was reduced with high-conductivity water, while high pH influenced the stability of catechins...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Klára Dózsa-Farkas, Tamás Felföldi
Five Achaeta species (A. affinis, A. bohemica sensu stricto, A. camerani, A. cf. danica, A. unibulba) and a new species, described here as A. tothi sp. n., were found during the investigation of the enchytraeid fauna of western Hungary (Őrség National Park and Kőszeg Mts.). Comparative morphological and molecular taxonomic investigations were performed with several individuals representing these six Achaeta species. A detailed description of the new species is given, and we also present some additional morphological data and photos about the other five Achaeta species...
June 2, 2017: Zootaxa
Moumita Basu, Saptarshi Ghosh, Arnab Jana, Somprakash Bandyopadhyay, Ravikant Singh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore a log of WhatsApp messages exchanged among members of the health care group Doctors For You (DFY) while they were providing medical relief in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquake in April 2015. Our motivation was to identify medical resource requirements during a disaster in order to help government agencies and other responding organizations to be better prepared in any upcoming disaster. METHODS: A large set of WhatsApp (WhatsApp Inc, Mountain View, CA) messages exchanged among DFY members during the Nepal earthquake was collected and analyzed to identify the medical resource requirements during different phases of relief operations...
June 13, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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