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Mountain aid

Dennis Chan, Laura Marie Gallaher, Kuven Moodley, Ludovico Minati, Neil Burgess, Tom Hartley
This protocol describes the administration of the 4 Mountains Test (4MT), a short test of spatial memory, in which memory for the topographical layout of four mountains within a computer-generated landscape is tested using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm. Allocentric spatial memory is assessed by altering the viewpoint, colors and textures between the initially presented and target images. Allocentric spatial memory is a key function of the hippocampus, one of the earliest brain regions to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and impairment of hippocampal function predates the onset of dementia...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Heidi J MacLean, Jessica K Higgins, Lauren B Buckley, Joel G Kingsolver
Flight is a central determinant of fitness in butterflies and other insects, but it is restricted to a limited range of body temperatures. To achieve these body temperatures, butterflies use a combination of morphological, behavioural and physiological mechanisms. Here, we used common garden (without direct solar radiation) and reciprocal transplant (full solar radiation) experiments in the field to determine the thermal sensitivity of flight initiation for two species of Colias butterflies along an elevation gradient in the southwestern Rocky Mountains...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Daniel G Streicker, Jamie C Winternitz, Dara A Satterfield, Rene Edgar Condori-Condori, Alice Broos, Carlos Tello, Sergio Recuenco, Andrés Velasco-Villa, Sonia Altizer, William Valderrama
Anticipating how epidemics will spread across landscapes requires understanding host dispersal events that are notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we contrast host and virus genetic signatures to resolve the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying geographic expansions of vampire bat rabies virus (VBRV) in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis revealed recent viral spread between populations that, according to extreme geographic structure in maternally inherited host mitochondrial DNA, appeared completely isolated. In contrast, greater population connectivity in biparentally inherited nuclear microsatellites explained the historical limits of invasions, suggesting that dispersing male bats spread VBRV between genetically isolated female populations...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Enrico Donegani, Peter Paal, Thomas Küpper, Urs Hefti, Buddha Basnyat, Anna Carceller, Pierre Bouzat, Rianne van der Spek, David Hillebrandt
: Donegani, Enrico, Peter Paal, Thomas Küpper, Urs Hefti, Buddha Basnyat, Anna Carceller, Pierre Bouzat, Rianne van der Spek, and David Hillebrandt. Drug use and misuse in the mountains: a UIAA MedCom consensus guide for medical professionals. High Alt Med Biol. 17:157-184, 2016.-Aims: The aim of this review is to inform mountaineers about drugs commonly used in mountains. For many years, drugs have been used to enhance performance in mountaineering. It is the UIAA (International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation-Union International des Associations d'Alpinisme) Medcom's duty to protect mountaineers from possible harm caused by uninformed drug use...
September 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Diana F Tomback, Sarah C Blakeslee, Aaron C Wagner, Michael B Wunder, Lynn M Resler, Jill C Pyatt, Soledad Diaz
In stressful environments, facilitation often aids plant establishment, but invasive plant pathogens may potentially disrupt these interactions. In many treeline communities in the northern Rocky Mountains of the U.S. and Canada, Pinus albicaulis, a stress-tolerant pine, initiates tree islands at higher frequencies than other conifers - that is, leads to leeward tree establishment more frequently. The facilitation provided by a solitary (isolated) P. albicaulis leading to tree island initiation may be important for different life-history stages for leeward conifers, but it is not known which life-history stages are influenced and protection provided...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Kelley Suskie
The pathway to professional development does not require a start or end date. Professional development is a perpetual process that is set into motion the day you first ask "why?" or "how?" Anyone who has spent time with a toddler knows that the endless pursuit of knowledge and, therefore, intellectual growth starts at a very young age. As we mature, we refine our questions beyond the whys and hows and start the professional development journey. Throughout each academic pursuit, we accomplish another rung on the ladder of our achievements...
May 2016: Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM
Kwang Hyun Ko
Mitochondrial Eve confirms the "out of Africa" theory, but the evidence also supports interbreeding between Homo sapiens and other hominins: Neanderthals, Denisovans, and Homo heidelbergensis. This article explains how interbreeding between early H. sapiens and archaic hominins occurred. The availability of edible insects in East Asia aided the spread of the unaggressive, highly cooperative Neanderthals, who interbred with H. sapiens in Asia, resulting in a higher admixture of Neanderthal DNA in East Asian populations...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
María Dolores Bargues, Jorge Bruno Malandrini, Patricio Artigas, Claudia Cecilia Soria, Jorge Néstor Velásquez, Silvana Carnevale, Lucía Mateo, Messaoud Khoubbane, Santiago Mas-Coma
BACKGROUND: In South America, fascioliasis stands out due to the human endemic areas in many countries. In Argentina, human endemic areas have recently been detected. Lymnaeid vectors were studied in two human endemic localities of Catamarca province: Locality A beside Taton and Rio Grande villages; Locality B close to Recreo town. METHODS: Lymnaeids were characterised by the complete sequences of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and fragments of the mtDNA 16S and cox1. Shell morphometry was studied with the aid of a computer image analysis system...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
E Jane Costello, William Copeland, Adrian Angold
AIMS: To describe the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS). METHODS: GSMS is a longitudinal study of child psychiatric disorders that began in 1992 to look at need for mental health services in a rural area of the USA. Over 20 years it has expanded its range to include developmental epidemiology more generally, not only the development of psychiatric and substance abuse problems but also their correlates and predictors: family and environmental risk, physical development including puberty, stress and stress-related hormones, trauma, the impact of poverty, genetic markers, and epigenetics...
May 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Alaina Darby, Matthew W Strum, Erin Holmes, Justin Gatwood
Diabetes, a prevalent disease in the United States, is greatly impacted by lifestyle choices, notably nutrition. The goal of this research was to determine which of the nutritional tracking applications (apps) available for Apple (Cupertino, CA) iOS, Android® (Google, Mountain View, CA), and Windows (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) platforms should be a first recommendation to diabetes patients searching for a smartphone app to aid in dietary logging and, for some apps, other varying lifestyle and health data. This project did so by identifying the smartphone apps available on the iTunes® (Apple), Google Play, and Microsoft stores that have nutritional tracking capabilities and are of potential benefit to a patient with diabetes based on certain criteria...
March 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Bamini Gopinath, Catherine M McMahon, George Burlutsky, Paul Mitchell
BACKGROUND: concurrent vision and hearing loss are common in older adults; however, epidemiological data on their relationship with the incidence of falls are lacking. OBJECTIVE: we assessed the association between dual sensory impairment (DSI) and incidence of falls. We examined the influence of self-perceived hearing handicap and hearing aid use and risk of falls. DESIGN: a population-based, cohort study of participants followed over 5 years...
May 2016: Age and Ageing
Thomas Connor, Vanessa Hull, Jianguo Liu
Telemetry studies that track animals through space and time can lead to advances in scientific understanding that are vital in conservation efforts. For example, telemetry studies of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) have shed light on many aspects of panda biology, but small sample sizes in each separate study make it difficult to draw broad conclusions. To overcome this problem we conducted the first synthesis of all 5 panda telemetry studies conducted to date. Using these data we investigated patterns in 6 main topics: home range, space-use interactions, core areas, movement patterns, seasonal migration and natal dispersal...
July 2016: Integrative Zoology
Karla K Evans, Edith M Marom, Myrna C B Godoy, Diana Palacio, Tara Sagebiel, Sonia Betancourt Cuellar, Mark McEntee, Charles Tian, Patrick C Brennan, Tamara Miner Haygood
Expertise with encoding material has been shown to aid long-term memory for that material. It is not clear how relevant this expertise is for image memorability (e.g., radiologists' memory for radiographs), and how robust over time. In two studies, we tested scene memory using a standard long-term memory paradigm. One compared the performance of radiologists to naïve observers on two image sets, chest radiographs and everyday scenes, and the other radiologists' memory with immediate as opposed to delayed recognition tests using musculoskeletal radiographs and forest scenes...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Robert J Koester, Ian Greatbatch
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the spatial characteristics of missing aircraft in actual distress. No previous studies have looked at the distance from the last radar plot to the crash site. The purpose of this study was to characterize this distance and then identify environmental and flight characteristics that might be used to predict the spatial relationship and, therefore, aid search and rescue planners. METHODS: Detailed records were obtained from the U...
February 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Yonghong Zheng, Xuemei Shao, Fei Lu, Yan Li
February-May temperature strongly affects ecological processes and socio-economics in central China, yet its long-term variability has not been thoroughly assessed due to the shortness of instrumental records. In order to improve the understanding of the regularities of temperature variability in central China, in this study, we present a new tree-ring chronology from the Shengnongjia Mountains in central China which provides a valuable 245-year record of temperature variability. The reconstructed temperature correlated strongly with February-May mean temperature records of the Fangxian meteorological station from AD 1958 to AD 2011, and the derived reconstruction explained 44...
August 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Matthew W Hopken, Elizabeth K Orning, Julie K Young, Antoinette J Piaggio
BACKGROUND: The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a ground-nesting bird from the Northern Rocky Mountains and a species at risk of extinction in in multiple U.S. states and Canada. Herein we report results from a proof of concept that mitochondrial and nuclear DNAs from mammalian predator saliva could be non-invasively collected from depredated greater sage-grouse eggshells and carcasses and used for predator species identification. Molecular forensic approaches have been applied to identify predators from depredated remains as one strategy to better understand predator-prey dynamics and guide management strategies...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Bruna Coser Guignone, Ludimila Karsbergen Silva, Rodrigo Villamarim Soares, Emilio Akaki, Marcelo Coelho Goiato, Matheus Melo Pithon, Dauro Douglas Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions. METHODS: Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18) according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva). The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA), Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA), Mystique (GAC International Inc...
July 2015: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
A J Bakken, S C Schoof, M Bickerton, K L Kamminga, J C Jenrette, S Malone, M A Abney, D A Herbert, D Reisig, T P Kuhar, J F Walgenbach
Nonmanaged plants occurring along forest edges and in suburban settings were sampled for brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in North Carolina (NC) and Virginia (VA) over the course of three growing seasons. Commercial soybeans (Glycine max), an attractive cultivated host, were also sampled in 2014 in NC and in VA from 2010-2014. Very few H. halys were found on nonmanaged plants or soybean fields in the coastal plain region of either state, but substantial populations were recorded in the piedmont and mountain regions...
August 2015: Environmental Entomology
Sadie P Hutson
Little is known about the health access and end-of-life (EOL) concerns of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Appalachia, where religious and cultural values are largely traditional. A qualitative, descriptive study with 9 participants was undertaken to assess EOL care needs among those from South Central Appalachian PLWHA. The focus of the study was to examine subjective data regarding EOL needs assessment related to advanced care planning. Five men and 4 women self-acknowledged a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and completed a 2-hour face-to-face interview with the nurse researcher...
August 18, 2015: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Nidhi Gupta, Kunwarjeet Singh
Fiber reinforced composite resin fixed partial dentures (FRCFPD) with composite resin, PFM or all ceramic pontic can be used as a short term or long term alternative to conventional fixed partial dentures or implant supported crown in young patients where conventional FPD is contraindicated (large pulp chambers) or in patient's unwilling to invasive implant placement surgical procedure and those who do not want to allow preparation of natural sound abutments for placement of retainers for FPD. FRCFPD can be successfully used for replacing missing anterior tooth (Turker and Sener, J Prosthet Dent 100:254-258, 2008), in conditions which allows minimum occlusal loading of pontic, over jet and overbite not greater than 3 mm (Ricketts, Provocations and perceptions in craniofacial orthopedics: dental science and facial art/parts 1 and 2...
December 2014: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
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