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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769113/thinking-beyond-opisthorchis-viverrini-for-risk-of-cholangiocarcinoma-in-the-lower-mekong-region-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer A Steele, Carsten H Richter, Pierre Echaubard, Parichat Saenna, Virginia Stout, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Bruce A Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal bile duct cancer associated with infection by the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, in the lower Mekong region. Numerous public health interventions have focused on reducing exposure to O. viverrini, but incidence of CCA in the region remains high. While this may indicate the inefficacy of public health interventions due to complex social and cultural factors, it may further indicate other risk factors or interactions with the parasite are important in pathogenesis of CCA...
May 17, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761329/bactericidal-and-virucidal-activity-of-povidone-iodine-and-chlorhexidine-gluconate-cleansers-in-an-in-vivo-hand-hygiene-clinical-simulation-study
#2
Maren Eggers, Torsten Koburger-Janssen, Lois S Ward, Craig Newby, Stefan Müller
INTRODUCTION: Standard in vitro and in vivo tests help demonstrate efficacy of hand hygiene products; however, there is no standard in vivo test method for viruses. We investigated the bactericidal and virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) 7.5% scalp and skin cleanser, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) 4% hand cleanser and the reference hand wash (soft soap) in 15 healthy volunteers following European Standard EN1499 (hygienic hand wash test method for bacteria), which was adapted for virucidal testing...
May 14, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731513/a-global-mitigation-hierarchy-for-nature-conservation
#3
William N S Arlidge, Joseph W Bull, Prue F E Addison, Michael J Burgass, Dimas Gianuca, Taylor M Gorham, Céline Jacob, Nicole Shumway, Samuel P Sinclair, James E M Watson, Chris Wilcox, E J Milner-Gulland
Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales...
May 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721634/discordant-association-of-the-crebrf-rs373863828-a-allele-with-increased-bmi-and-protection-from-type-2-diabetes-in-m%C3%A4-ori-and-pacific-polynesian-people-living-in-aotearoa-new-zealand
#4
Mohanraj Krishnan, Tanya J Major, Ruth K Topless, Ofa Dewes, Lennex Yu, John M D Thompson, Lesley McCowan, Janak de Zoysa, Lisa K Stamp, Nicola Dalbeth, Jennie Harré Hindmarsh, Nuku Rapana, Ranjan Deka, Winston W H Eng, Daniel E Weeks, Ryan L Minster, Stephen T McGarvey, Satupa'itea Viali, Take Naseri, Muagututi'a Sefuiva Reupena, Phillip Wilcox, David Grattan, Peter R Shepherd, Andrew N Shelling, Rinki Murphy, Tony R Merriman
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The A (minor) allele of CREBRF rs373863828 has been associated with increased BMI and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in the Samoan populations of Samoa and American Samoa. Our aim was to test rs373863828 for associations with BMI and the odds of type 2 diabetes, gout and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Māori and Pacific (Polynesian) people living in Aotearoa/New Zealand. METHODS: Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association of the A allele of CREBRF rs373863828 with BMI, log-transformed BMI, waist circumference, type 2 diabetes, gout and CKD in 2286 adults...
May 2, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703133/cross-site-comparison-of-ribosomal-depletion-kits-for-illumina-rnaseq-library-construction
#5
Zachary T Herbert, Jamie P Kershner, Vincent L Butty, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Sulbha Choudhari, Yuriy O Alekseyev, Jun Fan, Jessica W Podnar, Edward Wilcox, Jenny Gipson, Allison Gillaspy, Kristen Jepsen, Sandra Splinter BonDurant, Krystalynne Morris, Maura Berkeley, Ashley LeClerc, Stephen D Simpson, Gary Sommerville, Leslie Grimmett, Marie Adams, Stuart S Levine
BACKGROUND: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) comprises at least 90% of total RNA extracted from mammalian tissue or cell line samples. Informative transcriptional profiling using massively parallel sequencing technologies requires either enrichment of mature poly-adenylated transcripts or targeted depletion of the rRNA fraction. The latter method is of particular interest because it is compatible with degraded samples such as those extracted from FFPE and also captures transcripts that are not poly-adenylated such as some non-coding RNAs...
March 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664896/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-prazosin-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#6
Claire E Wilcox, J Scott Tonigan, Michael P Bogenschutz, Joshua Clifford, Rose Bigelow, Tracy Simpson
OBJECTIVES: The noradrenergic system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Medications in this class may reduce drinking. Our aims were to investigate this in a unique sample of individuals with AUD. METHODS: Thirty-six individuals with AUD were randomized to treatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 noradrenergic antagonist, or placebo, for 6 weeks (target daily dose 16 mg). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the effect of treatment group on rate of change in primary (drinks per week [DPW]) and several secondary outcome measures...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659753/patient-and-strain-characteristics-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-transmission-and-adverse-outcomes
#7
Jessica S H Martin, David W Eyre, Warren N Fawley, David Griffiths, Kerrie Davies, Damian P C Mawer, Timothy E A Peto, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background: No previous study has used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate risk factors for C. difficile(CD) transmission between symptomatic cases, or assessed the impact of recent acquisition on patient outcome. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included consecutive diarrhoeal samples positive by cytotoxin assay in Leeds, UK(Aug10-Apr12). All samples underwent culture, ribotyping and WGS(Illumina). Sequenced isolates were compared using single nucleotide variants(SNVs)...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659747/two-distinct-patterns-of-clostridium-difficile-diversity-across-europe-indicates-contrasting-routes-of-spread
#8
David W Eyre, Kerrie A Davies, Georgina Davis, Warren N Fawley, Kate E Dingle, Nicola De Maio, Andreas Karas, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background: Rates of Clostridium difficile infection vary widely across Europe, as do prevalent ribotypes. The extent of Europe-wide diversity within each ribotype is however unknown. Methods: Inpatient diarrhoeal faecal samples submitted on one day in summer and winter (2012-2013) to laboratories in 482 European hospitals were cultured for C. difficile, and isolates ribotyped; those from the 10 most prevalent ribotypes were Illumina whole-genome sequenced. Pairwise single nucleotide differences (SNPs) were obtained from recombination-corrected maximum-likelihood phylogenies...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656913/faith-activity-and-nutrition-randomized-dissemination-and-implementation-study-countywide-adoption-reach-and-effectiveness
#9
Sara Wilcox, Ruth P Saunders, Andrew T Kaczynski, Melinda Forthofer, Patricia A Sharpe, Cheryl Goodwin, Margaret Condrasky, Vernon L Kennedy, Danielle E Jake-Schoffman, Deborah Kinnard, Brent Hutto
INTRODUCTION: Faith-based organizations can contribute to improving population health, but few dissemination and implementation studies exist. This paper reports countywide adoption, reach, and effectiveness from the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition dissemination and implementation study. DESIGN: This was a group-randomized trial. Data were collected in 2016. Statistical analyses were conducted in 2017. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Churches in a rural, medically underserved county in South Carolina were invited to enroll, and attendees of enrolled churches were invited to complete questionnaires (n=1,308 participated)...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651523/simple-and-inexpensive-micromachined-aluminum-microfluidic-devices-for-acoustic-focusing-of-particles-and-cells
#10
Gayatri P Gautam, Tobias Burger, Andrew Wilcox, Michael J Cumbo, Steven W Graves, Menake E Piyasena
We introduce a new method to construct microfluidic devices especially useful for bulk acoustic wave (BAW)-based manipulation of cells and microparticles. To obtain efficient acoustic focusing, BAW devices require materials that have high acoustic impedance mismatch relative to the medium in which the cells/microparticles are suspended and materials with a high-quality factor. To date, silicon and glass have been the materials of choice for BAW-based acoustofluidic channel fabrication. Silicon- and glass-based fabrication is typically performed in clean room facilities, generates hazardous waste, and can take several hours to complete the microfabrication...
April 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644467/proficiency-based-preparation-significantly-improves-fes-certification-performance
#11
Angela A Guzzetta, Joshua J Weis, Sara A Hennessy, Ross E Willis, Victor Wilcox, Brian J Dunkin, Deborah C Hogg, Daniel J Scott
BACKGROUND: The Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery (FES) certification has recently been mandated by the American Board of Surgery but best methods for preparing for the exam are lacking. Our previous work demonstrated a 40% pass rate for PGY5 residents in our program. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a proficiency-based skills and cognitive curriculum for FES certification. METHODS: Residents who agreed to participate (n = 15) underwent an orientation session, followed by skills pre-testing using three previously described models (Trus, Operation targeting task, and Kyoto) as well as the actual FES skills exam (vouchers provided by the FES committee)...
April 11, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618572/influence-of-diabetes-on-trends-in-perioperative-cardiovascular-events
#12
Jonathan D Newman, Tanya Wilcox, Nathaniel R Smilowitz, Jeffrey S Berger
OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing noncardiac surgery frequently have diabetes mellitus (DM) and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unknown whether temporal declines in the frequency of perioperative major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) apply to patients with DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients ≥45 years of age who underwent noncardiac surgery from January 2004 to December 2013 were identified using the U.S. National Inpatient Sample...
April 4, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530533/fabry-disease-revisited-management-and-treatment-recommendations-for-adult-patients
#13
REVIEW
Alberto Ortiz, Dominique P Germain, Robert J Desnick, Juan Politei, Michael Mauer, Alessandro Burlina, Christine Eng, Robert J Hopkin, Dawn Laney, Aleš Linhart, Stephen Waldek, Eric Wallace, Frank Weidemann, William R Wilcox
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene leading to deficient α-galactosidase A activity, glycosphingolipid accumulation, and life-threatening complications. Phenotypes vary from the "classic" phenotype, with pediatric onset and multi-organ involvement, to later-onset, a predominantly cardiac phenotype. Manifestations are diverse in female patients in part due to variations in residual enzyme activity and X chromosome inactivation patterns. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and adjunctive treatments can provide significant clinical benefit...
April 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522982/financial-decision-making-power-is-associated-with-moderate-to-severe-anemia-a-prospective-cohort-study-among-pregnant-women-in-rural-south-india
#14
Karl Krupp, Caitlyn D Placek, Meredith Wilcox, Kavitha Ravi, Vijaya Srinivas, Anjali Arun, Purnima Madhivanan
OBJECTIVE: According to the World Health Organization, about half of all pregnant women in India suffer from some form of anemia. While poor nutrition is the most common cause, social factors, such as gender and religion, also impact anemia status. This study investigates the relationship between anemia and socioeconomic and health-related factors among pregnant women in Mysore, India. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study conducted between January 2009 and 2012 SETTING: 144 rural villages ten or more kilometers outside of Mysore City received integrated antenatal care and HIV testing services provided by mobile medical clinic in their communities...
June 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521453/sleep-on-the-ward-in-intensive-care-unit-survivors-a-case-series-of-polysomnography
#15
M Elizabeth Wilcox, Andrew S Lim, Ruxandra Pinto, Sandra E Black, Mary Pat McAndrews, Gordon D Rubenfeld
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated sleep in patients after intensive care despite the possibility that inadequate sleep might further complicate an acute illness impeding recovery. AIMS: Our objectives were to assess the quality and quantity of a patients' sleep on the ward by polysomnography (PSG) within a week of intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and to explore the prevalence of key in-ICU risk factors for persistent sleep fragmentation. METHODS: We enrolled twenty patients after they have been mechanically ventilated for at least 3 days and survived to ICU discharge...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513072/regulation-of-fluid-reabsorption-in-rat-or-mouse-proximal-renal-tubules-by-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-adma-dimethylarginine-dimethylaminohydrolase-ddah-1
#16
Tracy Bell, Magali Araujo, Zaiming Luo, James Tomlinson, James Leiper, William J Welch, Christopher S Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide prevents hypertension yet paradoxically reduces proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption. Nitric oxide synthase is inhibited by asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) that is metabolized by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) whose type 1 isoform is expressed abundantly in the PT. HYPOTHESIS: That ADMA generated by DDAH-1 fluid reabsorbtion (Jv) by the proximal tubule. METHODS: S2 segments of the PT were perfused in vivo to assess Jv...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490987/discovery-and-validation-of-circulating-biomarkers-of-colorectal-adenoma-by-high-depth-small-rna-sequencing
#17
Brian S Roberts, Andrew A Hardigan, Dianna E Moore, Ryne C Ramaker, Angela L Jones, Meredith B Fitz-Gerald, Gregory M Cooper, C Mel Wilcox, Robert P Kimberly, Richard M Myers
Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, causing approximately 700,000 deaths each year. The majority of colorectal cancers begin as adenomas. Definitive screening for colorectal adenomas is currently accomplished through colonoscopy but, owing largely to costs and invasiveness, is typically limited to patient groups at higher risk by virtue of age or family history. We sought to determine if blood-based small RNA markers could detect colorectal adenoma. Experimental Design: We applied high-depth small RNA sequencing to plasma from a large ( n = 189) cohort of patients, balanced for age, sex, and ancestry...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487138/accounting-for-errors-in-low-coverage-high-throughput-sequencing-data-when-constructing-genetic-maps-using-biparental-outcrossed-populations
#18
Timothy P Bilton, Matthew R Schofield, Michael A Black, David Chagné, Phillip L Wilcox, Ken G Dodds
Next-generation sequencing is an efficient method that allows for substantially more markers than previous technologies, providing opportunities for building high-density genetic linkage maps, which facilitate the development of nonmodel species' genomic assemblies and the investigation of their genes. However, constructing genetic maps using data generated via high-throughput sequencing technology ( e.g. , genotyping-by-sequencing) is complicated by the presence of sequencing errors and genotyping errors resulting from missing parental alleles due to low sequencing depth...
May 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485924/the-influence-of-life-events-and-psychological-stress-on-objectively-measured-physical-activity-a-12-month-longitudinal-study
#19
Amanda E Paluch, Robin P Shook, Gregory A Hand, Daniel P O'Connor, Sara Wilcox, Clemens Drenowatz, Meghan Baruth, Stephanie Burgess, Steven N Blair
BACKGROUND: This study examined how life event occurrences and stressfulness influence objectively measured light through vigorous physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHODS: Every 3 months over a 12-month period, 404 healthy young adults completed questionnaires on the occurrence and stress of 16 life events and wore an accelerometer for 10 days. RESULTS: A modest positive relationship was seen between cumulative life event occurrences [between effect: β = 22...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453244/white-matter-change-with-apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#20
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity...
March 20, 2018: Neurology
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