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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469044/tcr-v%C3%AE-usage-of-peripheral-blood-and-liver-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
Jianwei Zhou, Cui Kong, Bo Ban, Haixin Dong, Chengqiang Jin
INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is still a public health problem and its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we detect the skewness of T cell receptor beta chain variable gene (TCR Vβ) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and the liver infiltrating lymphocytes (LIL) of patients with CHB; and hope to provide information for further research on the pathogenic mechanism of CHB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with CHB, ten healthy volunteers and three patients with liver cysts were recruited as the subjects...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467002/intraocular-dhodh-inhibitor-pp-001-suppresses-relapsing-experimental-uveitis-and-cytokine-production-of-human-lymphocytes-but-not-of-rpe-cells
#2
Maria Diedrichs-Möhring, Sandy Niesik, Claudia S Priglinger, Stephan R Thurau, Franz Obermayr, Stefan Sperl, Gerhild Wildner
BACKGROUND: Uveitis is a potentially blinding inflammatory disease of the inner eye with a high unmet need for new therapeutic interventions. Here, we wanted to investigate the suppressive effect of the intraocular application of the small molecule dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-inhibitor PP-001 on experimental relapsing rat uveitis and furthermore determine its effect on proliferation and cytokine secretion of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446074/a-hitchhiker-s-guide-to-humanized-mice-new-pathways-to-studying-viral-infections
#3
REVIEW
J K Skelton, A M Ortega-Prieto, M Dorner
Humanized mice are increasingly appreciated as an incredibly powerful platform for infectious disease research. The often very narrow species tropism of many viral infections, coupled with the sometimes-misleading results from preclinical studies in animal models (e.g. fatal immune reactions in the PEARL study 1 ) further emphasize the need for more predictive model systems based on human cells rather than surrogates. Humanized mice represent such a model and have been greatly enhanced in regards to their immune system reconstitution as well as immune functionality in the past years, resulting in their recommendation as pre-clinical model by the US Food and Drug Administration...
February 15, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444930/immunophenotyping-of-newly-diagnosed-and-recurrent-glioblastoma-defines-distinct-immune-exhaustion-profiles-in-peripheral-and-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes
#4
Malte Mohme, Simon Schliffke, Cecile L Maire, Alessandra Rünger, Laura Glau, Klaus C Mende, Jakob Matschke, Christina Gehbauer, Nuray Akyüz, Svenja Zapf, Mareike Holz, Miriam Schaper, Tobias Martens, Nils O Schmidt, Sven Peine, Manfred Westphal, Mascha Binder, Eva Tolosa, Katrin Lamszus
PURPOSE: Immunotherapeutic treatment strategies for glioblastoma (GBM) are under investigation in clinical trials. However, our understanding of the immune phenotype of GBM-infiltrating T-cells (TILs) and changes during disease progression is limited. Deeper insight is urgently needed to therapeutically overcome tumor-induced immune exhaustion. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used flow-cytometry and cytokine assays to profile TILs and blood lymphocytes (PBL) from GBM patients, comparing newly diagnosed or recurrent GBM to long-term survivors (LTS) and healthy donors...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437847/dental-students-perceived-clinical-competence-in-prosthodontics-comparison-of-traditional-and-problem-based-learning-methodologies
#5
Javier Montero, Abraham Dib, Yasmina Guadilla, Javier Flores, Juan Antonio Santos, Rosa Anaya Aguilar, Cristina Gómez-Polo
The aim of this study was to compare the perceived competence for treating prosthodontic patients of two samples of fourth-year dental students: those educated using traditional methodologies and those educated using problem-based learning (PBL). Two cohorts of fourth-year dental students at a dental school in Spain were surveyed: the traditional methods cohort (n=46) was comprised of all students in academic years 2012 and 2013, and the PBL cohort (n=57) was comprised of all students in academic years 2014 and 2015...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437846/attitudes-towards-problem-based-learning-of-faculty-members-at-12-u-s-medical-and-dental-schools-a-comparative-study
#6
Ahmad Abdelkarim, Dorothy Schween, Timothy Ford
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching method used in medical and dental education to promote students' problem-solving skills. It may also be a viable tool for interprofessional education in which medical and dental students learn together, collaborate, and learn about, from, and with each other. The aim of this study was to compare medical and dental faculty members' attitudes about and perceptions of PBL at 12 U.S. medical and dental schools known to use PBL. In 2015, 111 medical and 132 dental faculty members (combined n=243) from six medical and six dental schools completed a survey containing ten statements and an open comment section...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437767/t-cell-exhaustion-signatures-vary-with-tumor-type-and-are-severe-in-glioblastoma
#7
Karolina Woroniecka, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Kristen E Rhodin, Hanna R Kemeny, Cosette A Dechant, Samuel H Farber, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Xiuyu Cui, Shohei Koyama, Christina C Jackson, Landon J Hansen, Tanner M Johanns, Luis Sanchez-Perez, Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan, Yen-Rei A Yu, Darell D Bigner, Amber J Giles, Patrick Healy, Glenn Dranoff, Kent J Weinhold, Gavin P Dunn, Peter E Fecci
PURPOSE: T cell dysfunction is a hallmark of GBM. While anergy and tolerance have been well characterized, T cell exhaustion remains relatively unexplored. Exhaustion, characterized in part by the upregulation of multiple immune checkpoints, is a known contributor to failures amidst immune checkpoint blockade, a strategy that has lacked success thus far in GBM. This study is among the first to examine, and credential as bona fide, exhaustion among T cells infiltrating human and murine GBM...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434175/can-hybrid-educational-activities-of-team-and-problem-based-learning-program-be-effective-for-japanese-medical-students
#8
Kentaro Iwata, Asako Doi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate the medical students'perceptions of the Hybrid Educational Activities between team based learning (TBL) and problem based learning (PBL) Program (HEATAPP), a novel educational program that combines characteristics of PBL and TBL. METHODS: A five-day HEATAPP on infectious diseases was provided to 4th year medical students at Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan. After the program, a focus group discussion was held among 6 medical students who participated in HEATAPP...
November 10, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410709/genomic-5-mc-contents-in-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-were-independent-protective-factors-for-coronary-artery-disease-with-a-specific-profile-in-different-leukocyte-subtypes
#9
Qianyun Deng, Wei Huang, Chunyan Peng, Jiajia Gao, Zuhua Li, Xueping Qiu, Na Yang, Bifeng Yuan, Fang Zheng
Background: Alterations in DNA methylation are demonstrated in atherosclerosis pathogenesis. However, changing rules of global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and different blood cell subtypes of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients are still inconclusive, and much less is known about mechanisms underlying. Results: We recruited 265 CAD patients and 270 healthy controls with genomic DNA from PBLs, of which 50 patients and 50 controls were randomly chosen with DNA from isolated neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes, and RNA from PBLs...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406106/characteristics-and-formation-mechanism-of-regional-haze-episodes-in-the-pearl-river-delta-of-china
#10
Wenguang Li, Xingang Liu, Yuanhang Zhang, Kang Sun, Yusheng Wu, Rui Xue, Limin Zeng, Yu Qu, Junling An
To investigate the characteristics and the specific mechanism of continuous haze, comprehensive measurements were conducted from 15 October to 19 November in the Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Super-Station in Heshan of Guangdong province. Five haze episodes occurred in October and November 2014 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. The meteorological parameters, gas data, chemical compositions, and optical parameters of the aerosols were obtained. Among these events, the second haze episode, with the highest concentration of PM2...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403496/recent-advances-in-targeting-cd8-t-cell-immunity-for-more-effective-cancer-immunotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Aurélie Durgeau, Yasemin Virk, Stéphanie Corgnac, Fathia Mami-Chouaib
Recent advances in cancer treatment have emerged from new immunotherapies targeting T-cell inhibitory receptors, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen (CTLA)-4 and programmed cell death (PD)-1. In this context, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated survival benefits in numerous cancers, including melanoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. PD-1-expressing CD8+ T lymphocytes appear to play a major role in the response to these immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) eliminate malignant cells through recognition by the T-cell receptor (TCR) of specific antigenic peptides presented on the surface of cancer cells by major histocompatibility complex class I/beta-2-microglobulin complexes, and through killing of target cells, mainly by releasing the content of secretory lysosomes containing perforin and granzyme B...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396044/frequencies-of-il-15r%C3%AE-cells-in-patients-with-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-and-the-effects-of-overexpressing-il-15r%C3%AE-on-disease-symptoms-in-mice
#12
S M Shamsul Islam, Bunsoon Choi, Juyoung Choi, Eun-So Lee, Seonghyang Sohn
It has been suggested higher serum levels of IL-15 and lower expression levels of IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα) are correlated with pathogenesis of Behçet's disease (BD). However, whether overexpressing IL-15Rα could be used as a therapeutic candidate for BD is currently unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether overexpressing IL-15Rα could affect BD symptoms in a mouse model. IL-15/IL-15Rα complex expressing vector or protein complex of IL-15/IL-15Rα-Fc was used to treat BD mice...
January 27, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391011/caprine-herpesvirus-2-associated-malignant-catarrhal-fever-of-captive-sika-deer-cervus-nippon-in-an-intensive-management-system
#13
Hongwei Zhu, Qingrong Huang, Xiaoliang Hu, Wenhui Chu, Jianlong Zhang, Linlin Jiang, Xin Yu, Xingxiao Zhang, Shipeng Cheng
BACKGROUND: Caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) infection usually induces chronic malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in sika deer (Cervus nippon), with the primary signs of weight loss, dermatitis and alopecia. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of CpHV-2-associated acute MCF in a sika deer herd raised in an intensive management system distant to the reservoir goats. Affected deer developed clinical signs of high fever (41 °C) followed by nasal discharge and lameness...
February 1, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359635/early-detection-of-lung-cancer-potential-among-egyptian-wood-workers
#14
Inas Fawzy Gaballah, Sawsan Farouk Helal, Basma Hussein Mourad
Wood dust is known to be a human carcinogen, with a considerable risk of lung cancer. The increased cancer risk is likely induced through its genotoxic effects resulting from oxidative DNA damage. This study aimed at assessing the genotoxicity of wood dust and demonstrating the role of sputum PCR as a screening tool for early prediction of lung cancer among wood workers. The study was carried out in the carpentry section of a modernized factory involved with the manufacture of wooden furniture in Greater Cairo, Egypt...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356916/management-and-outcomes-of-women-diagnosed-with-primary-breast-lymphoma-a-multi-institution-experience
#15
Nafisha Lalani, Karen M Winkfield, Daniel E Soto, Beow Y Yeap, Andrea K Ng, Peter M Mauch, Rachel B Jimenez
PURPOSE: Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) comprises < 1% of breast malignancies, leading to a paucity of data to guide management. We evaluated PBL recurrence patterns across two academic hospitals in the era of modern systemic-therapy and radiotherapy. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with PBL between October 1994 and June 2016 were identified. Demographic/clinical variables were assessed via primary chart review. Local control (LC) was estimated using the cumulative incidence function and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier method...
January 22, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355064/how-learners-learn-a-new-microanalytic-assessment-method-to-mapdecision-making
#16
Phillippa Smith, Gerry Corrigan
BACKGROUND: Microanalytic techniques have shown considerable potential as avenues for understanding learning in a range of learning contexts. If a microanalytic approach is to be tested for utility, a suitable learning context is required. We chose problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials as our context. AIMS: We sought to determine if a new microanalytic approach is suitable for investigating the learning decisions made by students during PBL and what this form of microanalysis reveals...
January 21, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344449/motivating-students-for-project-based-learning-for-application-of-research-methodology-skills
#17
Ranjana Tiwari, Raj Kumar Arya, Manoj Bansal
Introduction: Project-based learning (PBL) is motivational for students to learn research methodology skills. It is a way to engage and give them ownership over their own learning. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to use PBL for application of research methodology skills for better learning by encouraging an all-inclusive approach in teaching and learning rather than an individualized tailored approach. Methodology: The present study was carried out for MBBS 6th- and 7th-semester students of community medicine...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338484/the-association-between-micronucleus-nucleoplasmic-bridges-and-nuclear-buds-frequency-and-the-degree-of-uterine-cervical-lesions
#18
Goneta Gashi, Vesna Mahovlić, Suzana Manxhuka-Kerliu, Arjeta Podrimaj-Bytyqi, Luljeta Gashi, Isa R Elezaj
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The loss of genomic stability play an important role in carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is imperative to use certain biomarkers of DNA damage due to genomic instability in order to predict cancer risk. The aim of this study was the evaluation of genomic instability in patients with cervical lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the genetic damages in 80 subjects: (40) patients with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), (20) patients with invasive squamous cervical cancer (SCC) and (20) healthy women with a biomarker in two different tissues; the micronucleus (MN) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and in buccal exfoliated cells (BEC)...
January 17, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306950/immune-consequences-of-in-vitro-infection-of-human-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-with-vesicular-stomatitis-virus
#19
Tomasz Tomczyk, Grażyna Wróbel, Radosław Chaber, Iwona Siemieniec, Egbert Piasecki, Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Beata U Orzechowska
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be delivered intravenously to target primary and metastatic lesions, but the interaction between human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and VSV remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to assess the overall immunological consequences of ex vivo infection of PBLs with VSV. METHODS: Phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subsets and apoptosis were evaluated with flow cytometry. Caspase 3/7 activity was detected by luminescence assay...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303024/bortezomib-in-combination-with-dose-adjusted-epoch-etoposide-prednisone-vincristine-cyclophosphamide-and-doxorubicin-induces-long-term-survival-in-patients-with-plasmablastic-lymphoma-a-retrospective-analysis
#20
Christopher Dittus, Natalie Grover, Steven Ellsworth, Xianming Tan, Steven I Park
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare and aggressive form of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This subtype of lymphoma has a post-germinal center cell-of-origin called the plasmablast, and the immunophenotype is more consistent with that of a plasma cell than a lymphocyte. Because of these unique features, PBL is notoriously difficult to treat. Case reports and small reviews have evaluated the addition of agents directed against plasma cell disorders in combination with traditional lymphoma-directed regimens. We describe the largest case series to date, with the longest follow-up, evaluating bortezomib in combination with etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (V-EPOCH) for the treatment of PBL...
January 5, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
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