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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415064/the-jaguar-and-the-phd
#1
Sergio Avila-Villegas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408036/first-detection-of-feline-hemoplasmas-in-free-ranging-jaguars-panthera-onca
#2
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Betina Metzger, Lucia Helena O'Dwyer, Karina Dos Santos Paduan, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfírio, Leandro Silveira, Rahel Sollmann, Natália Mundim Tôrres, José Soares Ferreira Neto
Species of hemoplasmas have been described worldwide, but little information is available for wild felids. Between February 2000 and January 2010, blood samples were collected from 30 jaguars (Panthera onca) and 22 domestic cats (Felis catus) from the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. In all samples molecular tests were performed for Mycoplasma haemofelis/Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhf/Mhc), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt). Twenty-two (73.4%) jaguars and four domestic cats (18...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379688/are-pumas-subordinate-carnivores-and-does-it-matter
#3
L Mark Elbroch, Anna Kusler
Background: Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356132/participatory-development-of-incentives-to-coexist-with-jaguars-and-pumas
#4
Ronit Amit, Susan K Jacobson
Reducing costs and increasing benefits for rural communities coexisting with large carnivores is necessary for conservation of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). To design acceptable incentives, stakeholders must be involved in the process. We conducted an innovative structured group communication process, based on a Delphi technique, as a template for identifying potential incentives. Community workshops with 133 members of 7 communities and iterative surveys with 25 multidisciplinary experts from government, NGOs and academia provided iterative data to design a plan of incentives through 4 rounds of discussion...
January 22, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298553/conserved-citrullinating-exoenzymes-in-porphyromonas-species
#5
G Gabarrini, M A Chlebowicz, M E Vega Quiroz, A C M Veloo, J W A Rossen, H J M Harmsen, M L Laine, J M van Dijl, A J van Winkelhoff
Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the major oral pathogens implicated in the widespread inflammatory disorder periodontitis. Moreover, in recent years, P. gingivalis has been associated with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. The peptidylarginine deiminase enzyme of P. gingivalis (PPAD) is a major virulence factor that catalyzes the citrullination of both bacterial and host proteins, potentially contributing to production of anticitrullinated protein antibodies. Considering that these antibodies are very specific for rheumatoid arthritis, PPAD appears to be a link between P...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298311/when-roads-appear-jaguars-decline-increased-access-to-an-amazonian-wilderness-area-reduces-potential-for-jaguar-conservation
#6
Santiago Espinosa, Gerardo Celis, Lyn C Branch
Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructure development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234892/how-accurate-is-the-description-of-ligand-protein-interactions-by-a-hybrid-qm-mm-approach
#7
Jakub Kollar, Vladimir Frecer
During the last decades, the application of hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods has been extended to the field of drug design. In principle, the approximate QM/MM approach offers a more complete description of drug-receptor non-covalent interactions. This is especially true when charge or proton transfer, chelation of metal ions or strong polarization of ligand and protein or surface chemical groups are involved. The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of calculated non-covalent ligand-protein interaction energies ([Formula: see text]) obtained by the hybrid QM/MM approach employed in QSite/Jaguar of Schrödinger's Small-Molecule Drug Discovery Suite on a set of small-molecule model systems when compared to rigorous QM calculations...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076550/evaluation-of-reproductive-performance-and-genetic-variation-in-bulls-of-the-polish-white-backed-breed
#8
W Sawicka-Zugaj, W Chabuz, Z Litwińczuk, K Kasprzak-Filipek
The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic variation, reproductive performance and the degree of relationship of White-Backed bulls entered in the breed registry and approved for breeding. The study included 32 bulls of the White-Backed (WB) breed with an entry in the breed registry and used for breeding in the years 2003-2015. Eleven microsatellite DNA sequences (TGLA222, BM2113, TGLA53, ETH10, SPS115, TGLA126, TGLA122, INRA23, ETH3, ETH225 and BM1824) were used to analyse variation in the WB bulls. The bulls most often used for breeding were Chilon (1,073 doses), Mak (939 doses) and Jaguar (858 doses)...
October 27, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902958/nonregenerative-immune-mediated-anemia-associated-with-a-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-a-captive-jaguar-panthera-onca
#9
Monika A Keresztes, Manfred Henrich, Penelope Baloi, Sascha Gerst, Jens-Christian Rudnick, Judith Langenstein, Andreas Moritz, Natali Bauer
An 18-year-old male castrated jaguar (Panthera onca) was presented with anorexia and continuous bleeding from the oral cavity after a history of fighting with the partner animal. Clinical evaluation revealed ulcerating lesions on the gingiva and hard palate and a hematoma on the tongue. Computed tomography of the head and endoscopic examination of the esophagus and stomach were unremarkable. Hematology and clinical chemistry revealed severe nonregenerative anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, and moderate azotemia...
September 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880947/comparing-hair-morphology-and-molecular-methods-to-identify-fecal-samples-from-neotropical-felids
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Carlos C Alberts, Bruno H Saranholi, Fernando Frei, Pedro M Galetti
To avoid certain problems encountered with more-traditional and invasive methods in behavioral-ecology studies of mammalian predators, such as felids, molecular approaches have been employed to identify feces found in the field. However, this method requires a complete molecular biology laboratory, and usually also requires very fresh fecal samples to avoid DNA degradation. Both conditions are normally absent in the field. To address these difficulties, identification based on morphological characters (length, color, banding, scales and medullar patterns) of hairs found in feces could be employed as an alternative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854258/temporal-variation-in-black-caiman-nest-predation-in-varzea-of-central-brazilian-amazonia
#11
Kelly Torralvo, Robinson Botero-Arias, William E Magnusson
On the Amazon floodplain, the main predators of black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) eggs are jaguars (Panthera onca), tegu lizards (Tupinambis teguixim), capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus) and humans (Homo sapiens). In this study, we investigated the relationship between predator attacks on nests and incubation period, and evaluated the influence of initial predation on subsequent predation in the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve. We also evaluated the influence of presence of females near the nests and manipulation of nests on the occurrence of attacks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841692/using-niche-modelling-and-species-specific-cost-analyses-to-determine-a-multispecies-corridor-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#12
Karen E DeMatteo, Miguel A Rinas, Juan Pablo Zurano, Nicole Selleski, Rosio G Schneider, Carina F Argüelles
Misiones, Argentina, contains the largest remaining tract of Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion; however, ~50% of native forest is unprotected and located in a mosaic of plantations, agriculture, and pastures. Existing protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated due to ongoing habitat modification. These factors, combined with lower than expected regional carnivore densities, emphasize the need to understand the effect of fragmentation on animal movement and connectivity between protected areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832728/mercury-content-in-the-fur-of-jaguars-panthera-onca-from-two-areas-under-different-levels-of-gold-mining-impact-in-the-brazilian-pantanal
#13
Joares A May, Howard Quigley, Rafael Hoogesteijn, Fernando R Tortato, Allison Devlin, Rui M DE Carvalho, Ronaldo G Morato, Leonardo R Sartorello, Lilian E Rampim, Mario Haberfeld, Rogério C DE Paula, Jairo José Zocche
The Pantanal is the largest inland wetland in the world and is under increasing anthropogenic threats, including long-term regionally intensive gold mining practices. Gold mining activities are known to cause the release of harmful pollutants such as mercury (Hg) to the surrounding environment. Jaguars (Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758)) are apex predators, and therefore show great potential to accumulate Hg by biomagnification. We hypothesize that total Hg content in the fur of jaguars from two sites within the Brazilian Pantanal would be significantly different as a function of distance from active gold mining operations...
August 17, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776029/genome-wide-signatures-of-complex-introgression-and-adaptive-evolution-in-the-big-cats
#14
Henrique V Figueiró, Gang Li, Fernanda J Trindade, Juliana Assis, Fabiano Pais, Gabriel Fernandes, Sarah H D Santos, Graham M Hughes, Aleksey Komissarov, Agostinho Antunes, Cristine S Trinca, Maíra R Rodrigues, Tyler Linderoth, Ke Bi, Leandro Silveira, Fernando C C Azevedo, Daniel Kantek, Emiliano Ramalho, Ricardo A Brassaloti, Priscilla M S Villela, Adauto L V Nunes, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Ronaldo G Morato, Damian Loska, Patricia Saragüeta, Toni Gabaldón, Emma C Teeling, Stephen J O'Brien, Rasmus Nielsen, Luiz L Coutinho, Guilherme Oliveira, William J Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik
The great cats of the genus Panthera comprise a recent radiation whose evolutionary history is poorly understood. Their rapid diversification poses challenges to resolving their phylogeny while offering opportunities to investigate the historical dynamics of adaptive divergence. We report the sequence, de novo assembly, and annotation of the jaguar (Panthera onca) genome, a novel genome sequence for the leopard (Panthera pardus), and comparative analyses encompassing all living Panthera species. Demographic reconstructions indicated that all of these species have experienced variable episodes of population decline during the Pleistocene, ultimately leading to small effective sizes in present-day genomes...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690147/novel-anaplasma-and-ehrlichia-organisms-infecting-the-wildlife-of-two-regions-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#15
Herbert S Soares, Arlei Marcili, Amália R M Barbieri, Antonio H H Minervino, Antonio F Malheiros, Solange M Gennari, Marcelo B Labruna
During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene...
July 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677421/molecular-detection-of-viral-agents-in-free-ranging-and-captive-neotropical-felids-in-brazil
#16
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Iracema Nunes de Barros, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Sandra Cavalcanti, Laury Cullen, Claudia Filoni, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Rodrigo Silva Pinto Jorge, Nairléia Dos Santos Silva, Leandro Silveira, José Soares Ferreira Neto
We describe molecular testing for felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), alphacoronavirus 1 (feline coronavirus [FCoV]), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) in whole blood samples of 109 free-ranging and 68 captive neotropical felids from Brazil. Samples from 2 jaguars ( Panthera onca) and 1 oncilla ( Leopardus tigrinus) were positive for FHV-1; 2 jaguars, 1 puma ( Puma concolor), and 1 jaguarundi ( Herpairulus yagouaroundi) tested positive for CPPV-1; and 1 puma was positive for FIV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658274/long-term-monitoring-of-jaguars-in-the-cockscomb-basin-wildlife-sanctuary-belize-implications-for-camera-trap-studies-of-carnivores
#17
Bart J Harmsen, Rebecca J Foster, Emma Sanchez, Carmina E Gutierrez-González, Scott C Silver, Linde E T Ostro, Marcella J Kelly, Elma Kay, Howard Quigley
In this study, we estimate life history parameters and abundance for a protected jaguar population using camera-trap data from a 14-year monitoring program (2002-2015) in Belize, Central America. We investigated the dynamics of this jaguar population using 3,075 detection events of 105 individual adult jaguars. Using robust design open population models, we estimated apparent survival and temporary emigration and investigated individual heterogeneity in detection rates across years. Survival probability was high and constant among the years for both sexes (φ = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536686/mandible-metastasis-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-mimicking-a-residual-cyst
#18
Renata Mendonça Moraes, Fabio Abreu Alves, Bruna Fernandes do Carmo Carvalho, Felipe D'Almeida Costa, Rodrigo Nascimento Lopes, Graziella Chagas Jaguar
Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is an uncommon tumor characterized by an aggressive behavior with early metastasis, usually to the contralateral lung, liver, brain, and bones. There are only five cases of this particular tumor metastasizing to the oral cavity described in the English literature. We present the case of metastatic SCLC in the mandible with radiographic findings resembling a residual cyst. A 66-year-old man with previous diagnosis and treatment for a SCLC was referred to the Stomatology Department with a history of persistent pain in the mandible 1 year after the inferior right pre-molar tooth extraction...
January 2017: Autopsy & Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512727/variability-of-high-dose-melphalan-exposure-on-oral-mucositis-in-patients-undergoing-prophylactic-low-level-laser-therapy
#19
Gustavo Henrique Rodrigues, Graziella Chagas Jaguar, Fabio Abreu Alves, Andre Guollo, Vanessa Oliveira Camandoni, Aline Santos Damascena, Vladmir Claudio Cordeiro Lima
The present study outlines the clinical impact and risk factors of oral mucositis in 79 patients with multiple myeloma following high-dose melphalan for autologous transplant. All patients underwent daily prophylactic low-level indium gallium aluminum phosphate diode laser therapy (660 nm, 15 mW, 3.75 J/cm(2), 10 s per point) from the beginning of the conditioning regimen up to day +2. Oral mucositis assessments were made daily until hospital discharge. For analysis, oral mucositis was divided into two groups according to severity: group 1, patients with oral mucositis grade <III (n = 71) and group 2, patients with oral mucositis grade ≥III (n = 8)...
July 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435029/activity-of-carboxylesterases-glutathione-s-transferase-and-monooxygenase-on-rhipicephalus-microplus-exposed-to-fluazuron
#20
Fabrício Nascimento Gaudêncio, Guilherme Marcondes Klafke, Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Thaís Paes Ferreira, Cristiane Nunes Coelho, Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca, Isabele da Costa Angelo, Jairo Pinheiro
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the exposure to fluazuron on the activity of common pesticide detoxification enzyme groups in the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). Engorged females of a susceptible strain (POA) and a resistant strain (Jaguar) were exposed in vitro to fluazuron and their eggs and larvae were used to compare the activities of the general esterases, mixed-function oxidases (MFO) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The results showed significant elevation in MFO contents and esterases activity in the resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain, in eggs and larvae respectively...
April 20, 2017: Parasitology International
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