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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043351/reproductive-analysis-of-male-and-female-captive-jaguars-panthera-onca-in-a-colombian-zoological-park
#1
Santiago Jimenez Gonzalez, Jo Gayle Howard, Janine Brown, Henry Grajales, Jorge Pinzón, Haydy Monsalve, María Angélica Moreno, Claudia Jimenez Escobar
A reproductive analysis of a captive group of jaguars (Panthera onca; n = 6) at the Santacruz Zoological Foundation in Cundinamarca, Colombia, was conducted by performing a longitudinal, noninvasive, hormonal analysis of estradiol and progestogens in females and of androgens in males. During four seasons, female jaguars confined in solitary were evaluated for ovarian activity and spontaneous ovulation, male jaguars for testicular activity. A second hormonal follow-up was conducted in the females after administration of gonadotropins...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030568/space-use-and-movement-of-a-neotropical-top-predator-the-endangered-jaguar
#2
Ronaldo G Morato, Jared A Stabach, Chris H Fleming, Justin M Calabrese, Rogério C De Paula, Kátia M P M Ferraz, Daniel L Z Kantek, Selma S Miyazaki, Thadeu D C Pereira, Gediendson R Araujo, Agustin Paviolo, Carlos De Angelo, Mario S Di Bitetti, Paula Cruz, Fernando Lima, Laury Cullen, Denis A Sana, Emiliano E Ramalho, Marina M Carvalho, Fábio H S Soares, Barbara Zimbres, Marina X Silva, Marcela D F Moraes, Alexandre Vogliotti, Joares A May, Mario Haberfeld, Lilian Rampim, Leonardo Sartorello, Milton C Ribeiro, Peter Leimgruber
Accurately estimating home range and understanding movement behavior can provide important information on ecological processes. Advances in data collection and analysis have improved our ability to estimate home range and movement parameters, both of which have the potential to impact species conservation. Fitting continuous-time movement model to data and incorporating the autocorrelated kernel density estimator (AKDE), we investigated range residency of forty-four jaguars fit with GPS collars across five biomes in Brazil and Argentina...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012903/multiple-host-pathogens-in-domestic-hunting-dogs-in-nicaragua-s-bosaw%C3%A3-s-biosphere-reserve
#3
Christine V Fiorello, Mary H Straub, Laura M Schwartz, James Liu, Amanda Campbell, Alexa K Kownacki, Janet E Foley
Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp...
December 21, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973584/implications-of-fine-grained-habitat-fragmentation-and-road-mortality-for-jaguar-conservation-in-the-atlantic-forest-brazil
#4
Laury Cullen, Jessica C Stanton, Fernando Lima, Alexandre Uezu, Miriam L L Perilli, H Reşit Akçakaya
Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951674/multiconformation-density-functional-theory-based-pka-prediction-in-application-to-large-flexible-organic-molecules-with-diverse-functional-groups
#5
Art D Bochevarov, Mark A Watson, Jeremy R Greenwood, Dean M Philipp
We consider the conformational flexibility of molecules and its implications for micro- and macro-pKa. The corresponding formulas are derived and discussed against the background of a comprehensive scientific and algorithmic description of the latest version of our computer program Jaguar pKa, a density functional theory-based pKa predictor, which is now capable of acting on multiple conformations explicitly. Jaguar pKa is essentially a complex computational workflow incorporating research and technologies from the fields of cheminformatics, molecular mechanics, quantum mechanics, and implicit solvation models...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928654/using-certified-timber-extraction-to-benefit-jaguar-and-ecosystem-conservation
#6
REVIEW
John Polisar, Benoit de Thoisy, Damián I Rumiz, Fabricio Díaz Santos, Roan Balas McNab, Rony Garcia-Anleu, Gabriela Ponce-Santizo, Rosario Arispe, Claudia Venegas
The jaguar Panthera onca requires large areas of relatively intact habitats containing adequate amounts of prey to survive. Since a substantial portion of jaguar range occurs outside of strict protected areas, there is a need for economic incentives for habitat conservation, which carefully managed selective logging can provide. Forest Stewardship Council and Pan European Forest Council certifications intended to regulate wood extraction to maintain the ecological functions of forests require evidence of biodiversity and ecosystem conservation...
December 7, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918737/influence-of-bethanechol-on-salivary-parameters-in-irradiated-patients
#7
C Cotomacio, L Campos, A Simões, G Jaguar, E-M Crosato, F Abreu-Alves
BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown evidence that the prophylactic use of bethanechol chloride (BC) may be useful in preventing the incidence and/or severity of xerostomia (XT). However, the indication of BC in irradiated patients with XT needs to be better characterized. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of BC on XT, salivary flow rate, and salivary composition in patients previously submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty five irradiated patients complaining of XT used 50 mg/day of BC for 3 months, and the salivary parameters were evaluated in 4 Phases (Before BC therapy, after one month of BC, 2 months of BC, and 3 months of BC)...
January 1, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898922/influence-of-pork-and-pork-by-products-on-macronutrient-and-energy-digestibility-and-palatability-in-large-exotic-felids
#8
C J Iske, C L Morris, K L Kappen
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869944/evaluation-of-drug-prescription-quality-indicators-in-a-primary-health-care-facility-with-different-models-of-health-care
#9
Daniela Oliveira de Melo, Sílvia Regina Ansaldi da Silva, Lia Lusitana Cardozo de Castro
OBJECTIVE: to describe drug prescription indicators in a primary health care facility with different models of health care. METHODS: this was a descriptive study using secondary data of prescriptions with regard to quality indicators in a health facility that has three health care models: Outpatient Medical Care (OMC), Primary Health Care Unit (PHU) and Family Health Strategy (FHS) in Vila Nova Jaguaré OMC/PHU in São Paulo-SP, Brazil, from July to October 2011...
April 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849229/maternal-depression-and-child-development-evidence-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-s-western-region-cohort-study
#10
Alexandra Brentani, Günther Fink
Introduction: While a growing body of evidence has investigated the relationship between maternal mental health and child development, evidence on children's early life outcomes remains mixed. We analyze the empirical relationship between maternal depression and children's development at age one using data from the São Paulo Western Region Cohort project. Method: Seven hundred and ninety-eight (798) mother-child dyads living in the Butantã-Jaguaré' region of São Paulo were assessed through a home visit between January and March 2015...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849006/a-biodiversity-hotspot-losing-its-top-predator-the-challenge-of-jaguar-conservation-in-the-atlantic-forest-of-south-america
#11
Agustin Paviolo, Carlos De Angelo, Katia M P M B Ferraz, Ronaldo G Morato, Julia Martinez Pardo, Ana C Srbek-Araujo, Beatriz de Mello Beisiegel, Fernando Lima, Denis Sana, Marina Xavier da Silva, Myriam C Velázquez, Laury Cullen, Peter Crawshaw, María Luisa S P Jorge, Pedro M Galetti, Mario S Di Bitetti, Rogerio Cunha de Paula, Eduardo Eizirik, T Mitchell Aide, Paula Cruz, Miriam L L Perilli, Andiara S M C Souza, Verónica Quiroga, Eduardo Nakano, Fredy Ramírez Pinto, Sixto Fernández, Sebastian Costa, Edsel A Moraes, Fernando Azevedo
The jaguar is the top predator of the Atlantic Forest (AF), which is a highly threatened biodiversity hotspot that occurs in Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. By combining data sets from 14 research groups across the region, we determine the population status of the jaguar and propose a spatial prioritization for conservation actions. About 85% of the jaguar's habitat in the AF has been lost and only 7% remains in good condition. Jaguars persist in around 2.8% of the region, and live in very low densities in most of the areas...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828993/predators-prey-and-habitat-structure-can-key-conservation-areas-and-early-signs-of-population-collapse-be-detected-in-neotropical-forests
#12
Benoit de Thoisy, Ibrahim Fayad, Luc Clément, Sébastien Barrioz, Eddy Poirier, Valéry Gond
Tropical forests with a low human population and absence of large-scale deforestation provide unique opportunities to study successful conservation strategies, which should be based on adequate monitoring tools. This study explored the conservation status of a large predator, the jaguar, considered an indicator of the maintenance of how well ecological processes are maintained. We implemented an original integrative approach, exploring successive ecosystem status proxies, from habitats and responses to threats of predators and their prey, to canopy structure and forest biomass...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783617/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-mesoamerican-jaguars-panthera-onca-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#13
Claudia Wultsch, Anthony Caragiulo, Isabela Dias-Freedman, Howard Quigley, Salisa Rabinowitz, George Amato
Mesoamerican jaguars (Panthera onca) have been extirpated from over 77% of their historic range, inhabiting fragmented landscapes at potentially reduced population sizes. Maintaining and restoring genetic diversity and connectivity across human-altered landscapes has become a major conservation priority; nonetheless large-scale genetic monitoring of natural populations is rare. This is the first regional conservation genetic study of jaguars to primarily use fecal samples collected in the wild across five Mesoamerican countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723084/isolation-of-primary-fibroblast-culture-from-wildlife-the-panthera-onca-case-to-preserve-a-south-american-endangered-species
#14
Ana Cecilia Mestre-Citrinovitz, Adrián Jorge Sestelo, María Belén Ceballos, José Lino Barañao, Patricia Saragüeta
Cell line establishment of somatic cells is a valuable resource to preserve genetic material of rare, difficult-to-find, endangered and giant species like Jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest South American felid. This unit focuses on the isolation and culture of fibroblasts from Jaguar skin and muscle biopsies, and ear cartilage dissection immediately after death to preserve one of the several endangered species in this biome. These culture techniques enabled us to contribute 570 samples from 45 autochthonous and endangered species, including Jaguar...
October 10, 2016: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638113/ehrlichia-sp-infection-in-carthorses-of-low-income-owners-southern-brazil
#15
Thállitha S Vieira, Rafael F Vieira, Felipe S Krawczak, Herbert S Soares, Ana M Guimarães, Ivan R Barros-Filho, Mary Marcondes, Marcelo B Labruna, Alexander W Biondo, Odilon Vidotto
Although well established in dogs, Ehrlichia sp. infection has been scarcely reported in horses. The aim was to perform a comprehensive serological and molecular survey for the detection of Ehrlichia spp. in carthorses from Southern Brazil. Blood samples from 190 carthorses from Paraná State were sampled. Horses were also tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies were detected by a commercial rapid ELISA, and immunofluorescence antibody assays (IFA) with E...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509752/assessing-the-umbrella-value-of-a-range-wide-conservation-network-for-jaguars-panthera-onca
#16
Daniel Thornton, Kathy Zeller, Carlo Rondinini, Luigi Boitani, Kevin Crooks, Christopher Burdeh, Alan Rabinowitz, Howard Quigley
Umbrella species are employed as conservation short-cuts for the design of reserves or reserve networks. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of umbrellas is equivocal, which has prevented more widespread application of this conservation strategy. We perform a novel, large-scale evaluation of umbrella species by assessing the potential umbrella value of a jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation network (consisting of viable populations and corridors) that extends from Mexico to Argentina. Using species richness, habitat quality, and fragmentation indices of ~1500 co-occurring mammal species, we show that jaguar populations and corridors overlap a substantial amount and percentage of high-quality habitat for co-occurring mammals and that the jaguar network performs better than random networks in protecting high-quality, interior habitat...
June 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341818/exploiting-expression-patterns-across-multiple-tissues-to-map-expression-quantitative-trait-loci
#17
Chaitanya R Acharya, Janice M McCarthy, Kouros Owzar, Andrew S Allen
BACKGROUND: In order to better understand complex diseases, it is important to understand how genetic variation in the regulatory regions affects gene expression. Genetic variants found in these regulatory regions have been shown to activate transcription in a tissue-specific manner. Therefore, it is important to map the aforementioned expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) using a statistically disciplined approach that jointly models all the tissues and makes use of all the information available to maximize the power of eQTL mapping...
June 24, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187596/fine-scale-habitat-segregation-between-two-ecologically-similar-top-predators
#18
Francisco Palomares, Néstor Fernández, Severine Roques, Cuauhtemoc Chávez, Leandro Silveira, Claudia Keller, Begoña Adrados
Similar, coexisting species often segregate along the spatial ecological axis. Here, we examine if two top predators (jaguars and pumas) present different fine-scale habitat use in areas of coexistence, and discuss if the observed pattern can be explained by the risk of interference competition between them. Interference competition theory predicts that pumas should avoid habitats or areas used by jaguars (the dominant species), and as a consequence should present more variability of niche parameters across study areas...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144280/jaguar-densities-across-human-dominated-landscapes-in-colombia-the-contribution-of-unprotected-areas-to-long-term-conservation
#19
Valeria Boron, Joseph Tzanopoulos, Jenny Gallo, Jorge Barragan, Laura Jaimes-Rodriguez, George Schaller, Esteban Payán
Large carnivores such as jaguars (Panthera onca) are species of conservation concern because they are suffering population declines and are keystone species in their ecosystems. Their large area requirements imply that unprotected and ever-increasing agricultural regions can be important habitats as they allow connectivity and dispersal among core protected areas. Yet information on jaguar densities across unprotected landscapes it is still scarce and crucially needed to assist management and range-wide conservation strategies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054570/megalictis-the-bone-crushing-giant-mustelid-carnivora-mustelidae-oligobuninae-from-the-early-miocene-of-north-america
#20
Alberto Valenciano, Jon A Baskin, Juan Abella, Alejandro Pérez-Ramos, M Ángeles Álvarez-Sierra, Jorge Morales, Adam Hartstone-Rose
We describe cranial and mandibular remains of three undescribed individuals of the giant mustelid Megalictis ferox Matthew, 1907 from the latest Arikareean (Ar4), Early Miocene mammal fauna of Nebraska, and Wyoming (USA) housed at the American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA). Our phylogenetic hypothesis indicates that Ar4 specimens assigned to M. ferox constitute a monophyletic group. We assign three additional species previously referred to Paroligobunis to Megalictis: M. simplicidens, M. frazieri, and "M...
2016: PloS One
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