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Ana Cecilia Mestre-Citrinovitz, Adrián Jorge Sestelo, María Belén Ceballos, José Lino Barañao, Patricia Saragüeta
Cell line establishment of somatic cells is a valuable resource to preserve genetic material of rare, difficult-to-find, endangered and giant species like Jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest South American felid. This unit focuses on the isolation and culture of fibroblasts from Jaguar skin and muscle biopsies, and ear cartilage dissection immediately after death to preserve one of the several endangered species in this biome. These culture techniques enabled us to contribute 570 samples from 45 autochthonous and endangered species, including Jaguar...
October 10, 2016: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
Thállitha S Vieira, Rafael F Vieira, Felipe S Krawczak, Herbert S Soares, Ana M Guimarães, Ivan R Barros-Filho, Mary Marcondes, Marcelo B Labruna, Alexander W Biondo, Odilon Vidotto
Although well established in dogs, Ehrlichia sp. infection has been scarcely reported in horses. The aim was to perform a comprehensive serological and molecular survey for the detection of Ehrlichia spp. in carthorses from Southern Brazil. Blood samples from 190 carthorses from Paraná State were sampled. Horses were also tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies were detected by a commercial rapid ELISA, and immunofluorescence antibody assays (IFA) with E...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Daniel Thornton, Kathy Zeller, Carlo Rondinini, Luigi Boitani, Kevin Crooks, Christopher Burdeh, Alan Rabinowitz, Howard Quigley
Umbrella species are employed as conservation short-cuts for the design of reserves or reserve networks. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of umbrellas is equivocal, which has prevented more widespread application of this conservation strategy. We perform a novel, large-scale evaluation of umbrella species by assessing the potential umbrella value of a jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation network (consisting of viable populations and corridors) that extends from Mexico to Argentina. Using species richness, habitat quality, and fragmentation indices of ~1500 co-occurring mammal species, we show that jaguar populations and corridors overlap a substantial amount and percentage of high-quality habitat for co-occurring mammals and that the jaguar network performs better than random networks in protecting high-quality, interior habitat...
June 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Chaitanya R Acharya, Janice M McCarthy, Kouros Owzar, Andrew S Allen
BACKGROUND: In order to better understand complex diseases, it is important to understand how genetic variation in the regulatory regions affects gene expression. Genetic variants found in these regulatory regions have been shown to activate transcription in a tissue-specific manner. Therefore, it is important to map the aforementioned expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) using a statistically disciplined approach that jointly models all the tissues and makes use of all the information available to maximize the power of eQTL mapping...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Francisco Palomares, Néstor Fernández, Severine Roques, Cuauhtemoc Chávez, Leandro Silveira, Claudia Keller, Begoña Adrados
Similar, coexisting species often segregate along the spatial ecological axis. Here, we examine if two top predators (jaguars and pumas) present different fine-scale habitat use in areas of coexistence, and discuss if the observed pattern can be explained by the risk of interference competition between them. Interference competition theory predicts that pumas should avoid habitats or areas used by jaguars (the dominant species), and as a consequence should present more variability of niche parameters across study areas...
2016: PloS One
Valeria Boron, Joseph Tzanopoulos, Jenny Gallo, Jorge Barragan, Laura Jaimes-Rodriguez, George Schaller, Esteban Payán
Large carnivores such as jaguars (Panthera onca) are species of conservation concern because they are suffering population declines and are keystone species in their ecosystems. Their large area requirements imply that unprotected and ever-increasing agricultural regions can be important habitats as they allow connectivity and dispersal among core protected areas. Yet information on jaguar densities across unprotected landscapes it is still scarce and crucially needed to assist management and range-wide conservation strategies...
2016: PloS One
Alberto Valenciano, Jon A Baskin, Juan Abella, Alejandro Pérez-Ramos, M Ángeles Álvarez-Sierra, Jorge Morales, Adam Hartstone-Rose
We describe cranial and mandibular remains of three undescribed individuals of the giant mustelid Megalictis ferox Matthew, 1907 from the latest Arikareean (Ar4), Early Miocene mammal fauna of Nebraska, and Wyoming (USA) housed at the American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA). Our phylogenetic hypothesis indicates that Ar4 specimens assigned to M. ferox constitute a monophyletic group. We assign three additional species previously referred to Paroligobunis to Megalictis: M. simplicidens, M. frazieri, and "M...
2016: PloS One
Kristaps Ermanis, Kevin E B Parkes, Tatiana Agback, Jonathan M Goodman
The DP4 parameter, which provides a confidence level for NMR assignment, has been widely used to help assign the structures of many stereochemically-rich molecules. We present an improved version of the procedure, which can be downloaded as Python script instead of running within a web-browser, and which analyses output from open-source molecular modelling programs (TINKER and NWChem) in addition to being able to use output from commercial packages (Schrodinger's Macromodel and Jaguar; Gaussian). The new open-source workflow incorporates a method for the automatic generation of diastereomers using InChI strings and has been tested on a range of new structures...
April 28, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Yixiang Cao, Thomas Hughes, Dave Giesen, Mathew D Halls, Alexander Goldberg, Tati Reddy Vadicherla, Madhavi Sastry, Bhargav Patel, Woody Sherman, Andrew L Weisman, Richard A Friesner
We have developed and implemented pseudospectral time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) in the quantum mechanics package Jaguar to calculate restricted singlet and restricted triplet, as well as unrestricted excitation energies with either full linear response (FLR) or the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) with the pseudospectral length scales, pseudospectral atomic corrections, and pseudospectral multigrid strategy included in the implementations to improve the chemical accuracy and to speed the pseudospectral calculations...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Christopher A Jordan, Cody J Schank, Gerald R Urquhart, Armando J Dans
Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird's tapirs...
2016: PloS One
Miriam L L Perilli, Fernando Lima, Flávio H G Rodrigues, Sandra M C Cavalcanti
Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient...
2016: PloS One
Claudia Wultsch, Lisette P Waits, Marcella J Kelly
With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)...
2016: PloS One
Roberto Avendaño, Flor Barrueta, Sofía Soto-Fournier, Max Chavarría, Otto Monge, Gustavo A Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Andrea Chaves
Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
L S Vidal, F R Guilherme, V F Silva, M C S R Faccio, M M Martins, D C Briani
Captive animals exhibit stereotypic pacing in response to multiple causes, including the inability to escape from human contact. Environmental enrichment techniques can minimize pacing expression. By using an individual-based approach, we addressed whether the amount of time two males and a female jaguar (Panthera onca) devote to pacing varied with the number of visitors and tested the effectiveness of cinnamon and black pepper in reducing pacing. The amount of time that all jaguars engaged in pacing increased significantly with the number of visitors...
June 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Pilar Rueda-Zozaya, Germán D Mendoza-Martínez, Daniel Martínez-Gómez, Octavio Monroy-Vilchis, José Antonio Godoy, Armando Sunny, Francisco Palomares, Cuauhtémoc Chávez, José Herrera-Haro
Genealogical records of animals (studbook) are created to avoid reproduction between closely related individuals, which could cause inbreeding, particularly for such endangered species as the Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758). Jaguar is the largest felid in the Americas and is considered an important ecological key species. In Mexico, wild jaguar populations have been significantly reduced in recent decades, and population decline typically accompany decreases in genetic variation. There is no current census of captive jaguars in Mexico, and zoos do not follow a standardized protocol in breeding programs based on genetic studies...
February 2016: Genetica
Martin Dehnhard, Vinod Kumar, Mithileshwari Chandrasekhar, Katarina Jewgenow, Govindhaswamy Umapathy
Non-invasive monitoring of hormones using feces has become a vital tool for reproductive management and reliable pregnancy diagnosis in big cats. Previous studies described the PGF2α metabolite (PGFM) as an indicator of pregnancy in various feline species. The present study aimed to standardize pregnancy detection in big cats like the tiger (Panthera tigris), jaguar (Panthera onca) and lion (Panthera leo) using fecal samples. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) were performed to identify PGFM in feces...
2015: PloS One
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Solange Maria Gennari, Cassia Yumi Ikuta, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Zenaide Maria de Morais, Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfírio, Leandro Silveira, Rahel Sollmann, Gisele Oliveira de Souza, Natália Mundim Tôrres, José Soares Ferreira Neto
This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca), 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus), 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus) were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira spp. and modified agglutination test for T...
2015: PloS One
Rodrigo Lima Massara, Ana Maria de Oliveira Paschoal, Paul Francis Doherty, André Hirsch, Adriano Garcia Chiarello
Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha...
2015: PloS One
Anne M Cleary, Anthony J Ryals, Samantha R Wagner
Research suggests that a feature-matching process underlies cue familiarity-detection when cued recall with graphemic cues fails. When a test cue (e.g., potchbork) overlaps in graphemic features with multiple unrecalled studied items (e.g., patchwork, pitchfork, pocketbook, pullcork), higher cue familiarity ratings are given during recall failure of all of the targets than when the cue overlaps in graphemic features with only one studied target and that target fails to be recalled (e.g., patchwork). The present study used semantic feature production norms (McRae et al...
January 2016: Memory & Cognition
Fernanda Pedone Valdez, Taiana Haag, Fernando C C Azevedo, Leandro Silveira, Sandra M C Cavalcanti, Francisco M Salzano, Eduardo Eizirik
Habitat loss and fragmentation are important threats to carnivores worldwide, and can be especially intense for large predators. Jaguars have already been extirpated from over half of their original area of distribution, and few regions still maintain large populations. For these, detailed understanding is crucial for setting appropriate recovery targets in impacted areas. The Pantanal is among the best examples of a region with a large jaguar population in a healthy environment. Here, we analyzed 12 microsatellite loci to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of 52 jaguars sampled in 4 localities of the southern Pantanal, and compared them with prior studies of heavily fragmented populations of the Atlantic Forest...
2015: Journal of Heredity
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