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Microbiota and IBD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156761/extracts-from-hericium-erinaceus-relieve-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-regulating-immunity-and-gut-microbiota
#1
Chen Diling, Yang Xin, Zheng Chaoqun, Yang Jian, Tang Xiaocui, Chen Jun, Shuai Ou, Xie Yizhen
Hericium erinaceus (HE), a traditional edible mushroom, is known as a medicine food homology to ameliorate gastrointestinal diseases. To investigate whether HE is clinically effective in alleviating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), HE extracts (polysaccharide, alcoholic extracts and whole extracts were prepared using solvent extraction methods) were administrated for 2 weeks in rats with IBD induced by trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema (150 mg/kg). Significant clinical and histological changes in IBD rats were identified, including damage activity, common morphous and tissue damage index scores in colonic mucosa and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151253/a-two-week-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-course-in-pediatric-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Katarzyna Karolewska-Bochenek, Pawel Grzesiowski, Aleksandra Banaszkiewicz, Agnieszka Gawronska, Maria Kotowska, Marcin Dziekiewicz, Piotr Albrecht, Andrzej Radzikowski, Izabella Lazowska-Przeorek
Dysbiosis plays a major role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new promising option for IBD treatment. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a two-week FMT course in children with IBD. Ten patients, 10-17 years of age with moderate to severe IBD received a course of eight doses of freshly prepared FMT via a naso-duodenal tube or gastroscopy. All of the patients had pancolitis. There were eight cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and two of Crohn's disease (CD)...
November 19, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#3
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140453/faecal-transplantation-for-ibd-management-pitfalls-and-promises
#4
M N Quraishi, T Critchlow, N Bhala, N Sharma, T Iqbal
Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an area of active current research, having been stimulated by the remarkable efficacy of FMT in treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Sources of data: This review is based on data from numerous case series on FMT in IBD since 1989 and results of four RCTs in ulcerative colitis (UC); three fully published. Areas of agreement: Early signals of short to medium-term efficacy of FMT for UC are promising...
November 13, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135456/probiotics-and-their-use-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130553/the-akkermansia-muciniphila-is-a-gut-microbiota-signature-in-psoriasis
#6
LiRong Tan, Shuang Zhao, Wu Zhu, Lisha Wu, Jie Li, MinXue Sheng, Li Lei, Xiang Chen, Cong Peng
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease. Although its pathogenesis is not fully understood, Th17 cells and the cytokines they produce, such as IL-17, IL-22 and IL-23, play critical roles in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Evidence has demonstrated that psoriasis has some common features, including immune responses (due to Th17 cells) and inflammatory cytokine profiles, with systematic diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and obesity. Recently, studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in host homeostasis and immune response, particular in Th17 cells, but the role of the gut microbiota in psoriasis remains unclear...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124320/recipe-for-ibd-can-we-use-food-to-control-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
Mario Witkowski, Marco Witkowski, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
The mucosal immune system and the microbiota in the intestinal tract have recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both of these can be influenced by food. Thus, we propose dietary intervention as a therapeutic option for IBD. In this review, we discuss the interaction of the intestinal mucosal immune system and the intestinal microbiota in the context of IBD. In addition, we discuss the impact of food components on immune responses in IBD. Finally, we address the current evidence of how this interaction (i...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119385/intestinal-permeabiliy-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
M C Buscarinu, S Romano, R Mechelli, R Pizzolato Umeton, M Ferraldeschi, A Fornasiero, R Reniè, B Cerasoli, E Morena, C Romano, N D Loizzo, R Umeton, M Salvetti, G Ristori
Changes of intestinal permeability (IP) have been extensively investigated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease (CD), underpinned by a known unbalance between microbiota, IP and immune responses in the gut. Recently the influence of IP on brain function has greatly been appreciated. Previous works showed an increased IP that preceded experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development and worsened during disease with disruption of TJ. Moreover, studying co-morbidity between Crohn's disease and MS, a report described increased IP in a minority of cases with MS...
November 8, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118756/th17-cell-and-epithelial-cell-crosstalk-during-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-carcinogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Jan Kempski, Leonie Brockmann, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
The intestine is colonized by hundreds of different species of commensal bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Therefore, the intestinal immune system is constantly being challenged by foreign antigens. The immune system, the commensal microbiota, and the intestinal epithelial surface have to maintain a tight balance to guarantee defense against potential pathogens and to prevent chronic inflammatory conditions at the same time. Failure of these mechanisms can lead to a vicious cycle in which a perpetual tissue damage/repair process results in a pathological reorganization of the normal mucosal surface...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118468/the-intricate-link-among-gut-immunological-niche-microbiota-and-xenobiotics-in-intestinal-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Danilo Pagliari, Giovanni Gambassi, Ciriaco A Piccirillo, Rossella Cianci
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are diseases characterized by various degrees of inflammation involving the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are characterized by a dysregulated immune response leading to structural gut alterations in genetically predisposed individuals. Diverticular disease is characterized by abnormal immune response to normal gut microbiota. IBDs are linked to a lack of physiological tolerance of the mucosal immune system to resident gut microbiota and pathogens...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114101/gut-microbiota-oral-bacteria-a-cause-of-ibd
#11
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113344/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota-community
#12
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Shu Jiang, Nan-Nan Feng, Wen-Qian Qiu, Yong Ling
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101654/inflammatory-bowel-disease-effects-on-bone-and-mechanisms
#13
Francisco A Sylvester
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with decreased bone mass and alterations in bone geometry from the time of diagnosis, before anti-inflammatory therapy is instituted. Deficits in bone mass can persist despite absence of symptoms of active IBD. The effects of IBD on the skeleton are complex. Protein-calorie malnutrition, inactivity, hypogonadism, deficits in calcium intake and vitamin D consumption and synthesis, stunted growth in children, decreased skeletal muscle mass, and inflammation all likely play a role...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069606/distinct-microbial-communities-trigger-colitis-development-upon-intestinal-barrier-damage-via-innate-or-adaptive-immune-cells
#14
Urmi Roy, Eric J C Gálvez, Aida Iljazovic, Till Robin Lesker, Adrian J Błażejewski, Marina C Pils, Ulrike Heise, Samuel Huber, Richard A Flavell, Till Strowig
Inflammatory bowel disease comprises a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by chronic and relapsing mucosal inflammation. Alterations in microbiota composition have been proposed to contribute to disease development, but no uniform signatures have yet been identified. Here, we compare the ability of a diverse set of microbial communities to exacerbate intestinal inflammation after chemical damage to the intestinal barrier. Strikingly, genetically identical wild-type mice differing only in their microbiota composition varied strongly in their colitis susceptibility...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065967/pd-1-deficiency-protects-experimental-colitis-via-alteration-of-gut-microbiota
#15
Seong Jeong Park, Ji-Hae Kim, Mi-Young Song, Young Chul Sung, Seung-Woo Lee, Yunji Park
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is a coinhibitory molecule and plays a pivotal role in immune regulation. Here, we demonstrate a role for PD-1 in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Wild-type (WT) mice had severe wasting disease during experimentally induced colitis, while mice deficient for PD-1 (PD-1-/-) did not develop colon inflammation. Interestingly, PD-1-/- mice cohoused with WT mice became susceptible to colitis, suggesting that resistance of PD-1-/- mice to colitis is dependent on their gut microbiota...
October 25, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051760/interplay-of-gtpases-and-cytoskeleton-in-cellular-barrier-defects-during-gut-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Rocío López-Posadas, Michael Stürzl, Imke Atreya, Markus F Neurath, Nathalie Britzen-Laurent
An essential role of the intestine is to build and maintain a barrier preventing the luminal gut microbiota from invading the host. This involves two coordinated physical and immunological barriers formed by single layers of intestinal epithelial and endothelial cells, which avoid the activation of local immune responses or the systemic dissemination of microbial agents, and preserve tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, alterations of epithelial and endothelial barrier functions have been associated with gut inflammation, for example during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049404/low-complexity-microbiota-in-the-duodenum-of-children-with-newly-diagnosed-ulcerative-colitis
#17
Fei Sjöberg, Cecilia Barkman, Intawat Nookaew, Sofia Östman, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Robert Saalman, Agnes E Wold
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by gut dysbiosis. To date, the large bowel microbiota has been in focus. However, the microbiota of the small intestine may also be of importance, as the small bowel is a site for the induction and control of mucosal immune responses, which can be modulated by constituents of the local microbiota. METHODS: Duodenal fluids were collected during diagnostic work-up of treatment-naïve children who were suspected of having IBD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034981/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-avenues-for-microbial-management
#18
REVIEW
J McIlroy, G Ianiro, I Mukhopadhya, R Hansen, G L Hold
BACKGROUND: The concept of an altered collective gut microbiota rather than identification of a single culprit is possibly the most significant development in inflammatory bowel disease research. We have entered the "omics" era, which now allows us to undertake large-scale/high-throughput microbiota analysis which may well define how we approach diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the future, with a strong steer towards personalised therapeutics. AIM: To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of the current status of knowledge relating to the gut microbiome, and its role in IBD, with emphasis on reviewing the evidence relating to microbial therapeutics and future microbiome modulating therapeutics...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033923/emerging-trends-in-smart-probiotics-functional-consideration-for-the-development-of-novel-health-and-industrial-applications
#19
REVIEW
Racha El Hage, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Tom Van de Wiele
The link between gut microbiota and human health is well-recognized and described. This ultimate impact on the host has contributed to explain the mutual dependence between humans and their gut bacteria. Gut microbiota can be manipulated through passive or active strategies. The former includes diet, lifestyle, and environment, while the latter comprise antibiotics, pre- and probiotics. Historically, conventional probiotic strategies included a phylogenetically limited diversity of bacteria and some yeast strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032748/mechanistic-understanding-of-herbal-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Luqing Zhao, Shengsheng Zhang, Peijian He
The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which comprise ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are increasing dramatically worldwide. Immunomodulators and biological agents can help but cause severe side effects in long-term use. As such, complementary and alternative medicine, in particular herbal remedy, is becoming more and more popular in the treatment of IBD patients. Many natural compounds have been used in clinical trials and some have been proven promising in IBD treatment...
October 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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