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Microbiota and IBD

Benoit Chassaing, Andrew T Gewirtz
A critically important new study by leading inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) researcher Fabio Cominelli and colleagues reveals that, in mice, the artificial sweetener SPLENDA deleteriously impacts the intestinal microbiota in a manner that promotes Crohn's-type disease in genetically susceptible hosts. These results suggest that consumption of this product may be a risk factor for IBD.
March 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Belal Chami, Nathan J J Martin, Joanne M Dennis, Paul K Witting
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating disorder involving inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The incidence of IBD is increasing worldwide. Immunological responses in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to altered gut microbiota, mucosal injury and loss of intestinal epithelial cell function all contribute to a complex mechanism underlying IBD pathogenesis. Immune cell infiltration, particularly neutrophils, is a histological feature of IBD. This innate immune response is aimed at resolving intestinal damage however, neutrophils and monocytes that are recruited and accumulate in the GI wall, participate in IBD pathogenesis by producing inflammatory cytokines and soluble mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS; one- and two-electron oxidants)...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Rene Y Choi, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal microbiome is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are many shared clinical manifestations between IBD and spondyloarthritis (SpA), of which the most common are peripheral arthritis and uveitis. Clinical overlap along with similar genetics between these diseases suggests a possible shared pathogenetic mechanism, which might center on the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we discuss the available evidence that SpA is a microbiome-driven disease and indicate how SpA-associated uveitis could be tied to gut dysbiosis...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Vida Abedi, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Interactions among the gut microbiome, dysregulated immune responses, and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nlrx1 -/- mice have exacerbated disease severity, colonic lesions, and increased inflammatory markers. Global transcriptomic analyses demonstrate enhanced mucosal antimicrobial defense response, chemokine and cytokine expression, and epithelial cell metabolism in colitic Nlrx1 -/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Cell-specificity studies using cre-lox mice demonstrate that the loss of NLRX1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recapitulate the increased sensitivity to DSS colitis observed in whole body Nlrx1 -/- mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xinghua Gao, Qiuhua Cao, Yan Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Zhuo Wang, Hongbao Yang, Qijin Wu, Linjun You, Yue Wang, Yanting Lin, Xianjing Li, Yun Wang, Jin-Song Bian, Dongdong Sun, Lingyi Kong, Lutz Birnbaumer, Yong Yang
Chronic stress is known to promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unresolved. Here, we found chronic stress to sensitize mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis; to increase the infiltration of B cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory ly6Chi macrophages in colonic lamina propria; and to present with decreased thymus and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) coefficients. Circulating total white blood cells were significantly increased after stress, and the proportion of MLN-associated immune cells were largely changed...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tuo Chen, Qun Zhou, Dan Zhang, Feng Jiang, Jing Wu, Jin-Yong Zhou, Xiao Zheng, Yu-Gen Chen
Background: Evidence concerning the effect of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been firmly established. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate FMT treatment outcomes in patients with IBD treated for CDI. Methods: An electronic search of four databases was conducted until November 1st, 2017. Cohort studies of FMT efficacy and safety in CDI patients with IBD were included...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Daniele Corridoni, Thomas Chapman, Tim Ambrose, Alison Simmons
Activation of the innate immune system through pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) signaling plays a pivotal role in the early induction of host defense following exposure to pathogens. Loss of intestinal innate immune regulation leading aberrant immune responses has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The precise role of PRRs in gut inflammation is not well understood, but considering their role as bacterial sensors and their genetic association with IBD, they likely contribute to dysregulated immune responses to the commensal microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Brinda Bhatt, Peng Zeng, Huabin Zhu, Sathish Sivaprakasam, Siyi Li, Haiyan Xiao, Lixin Dong, Pamela Shiao, Ravindra Kolhe, Nikhil Patel, Honglin Li, Daniel Levy-Bercowski, Vadivel Ganapathy, Nagendra Singh
A set of coordinated interactions between gut microbiota and the immune cells surveilling the intestine play a key role in shaping local immune responses and intestinal health. Gpr109a is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed at a very high level on innate immune cells and previously shown to play a key role in the induction of colonic regulatory T cells. In this study, we show that Gpr109a-/- Rag1-/- mice exhibit spontaneous rectal prolapse and colonic inflammation, characterized by the presence of an elevated number of IL-17-producing Rorγt+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs; ILC3)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Mathilde J H Girard-Madoux, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Catherine Mooser, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew J Macpherson, Eric Vivier
Biological redundancy ensures robustness in living organisms at several levels, from genes to organs. In this review, we explore the concept of redundancy and robustness through an analysis of the caecal appendix, an organ that is often considered to be a redundant remnant of evolution. However, phylogenic data show that the Appendix was selected during evolution and is unlikely to disappear once it appeared. In humans, it is highly conserved and malformations are extremely rare, suggesting a role for that structure...
March 2, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Taekil Eom, Yong Sung Kim, Chang Hwan Choi, Michael J Sadowsky, Tatsuya Unno
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a result of chronic inflammation caused, in some part, by dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota, mainly commensal bacteria. Gut dysbiosis can be caused by multiple factors, including abnormal immune responses which might be related to genetic susceptibility, infection, western dietary habits, and administration of antibiotics. Consequently, the disease itself is characterized as having multiple causes, etiologies, and severities. Recent studies have identified >200 IBD risk loci in the host...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
J Alard, V Peucelle, D Boutillier, J Breton, S Kuylle, B Pot, S Holowacz, C Grangette
Alterations in the gut microbiota composition play a key role in the development of chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The potential use of probiotics therefore gained attention, although outcomes were sometimes conflicting and results largely strain-dependent. The present study aimed to identify new probiotic strains that have a high potential for the management of this type of pathologies. Strains were selected from a large collection by combining different in vitro and in vivo approaches, addressing both anti-inflammatory potential and ability to improve the gut barrier function...
February 27, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Shaghayegh Baradaran Ghavami, Elham Rostami, Abbas Akhavan Sephay, Shabnam Shahrokh, Hedieh Balaii, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
It is hypothesized that direct and indirect homeostasis between gut microbiota plays a key role in different intestine disorders. Archaea methanogens, an ancient domain of single-celled organism, are major archaea in the digestive system. Recent evidence has shown that the variable prevalence of methanogens in different individuals could have certain effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We aimed to assess the prevalence of Methanobrevibacter smithii between Iranian patients suffering from IBD and healthy control subjects...
February 22, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ashish K Singh, Rosanne Y Hertzberger, Ulla G Knaus
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by cycles of acute flares, recovery and remission phases. Treatments for accelerating tissue restitution and prolonging remission are scarce, but altering the microbiota composition to promote intestinal homeostasis is considered a safe, economic and promising approach. Although probiotic bacteria have not yet fulfilled fully their promise in clinical trials, understanding the mechanism of how they exert beneficial effects will permit devising improved therapeutic strategies...
February 12, 2018: Redox Biology
Bruno Bonaz, Thomas Bazin, Sonia Pellissier
The microbiota, the gut, and the brain communicate through the microbiota-gut-brain axis in a bidirectional way that involves the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve (VN), the principal component of the parasympathetic nervous system, is a mixed nerve composed of 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibers. The VN, because of its role in interoceptive awareness, is able to sense the microbiota metabolites through its afferents, to transfer this gut information to the central nervous system where it is integrated in the central autonomic network, and then to generate an adapted or inappropriate response...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jin-Sil Park, JeongWon Choi, Ji Ye Kwon, Kyung-Ah Jung, Chul Woo Yang, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
BACKGROUND: An altered gut microbiota balance is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and several probiotic strains are used as dietary supplements to improve intestinal health. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of 12 probiotics in combination with prebiotics, rosavin, and zinc in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. METHODS: The probiotic complex or the combination drug was administered orally to mice with DSS-induced colitis, and the body weight, disease activity index, colon length, and histopathological parameters were evaluated...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Aonghus Lavelle, Harry Sokol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Atsushi Hirano, Junji Umeno, Yasuharu Okamoto, Hiroki Shibata, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tomohiko Moriyama, Takehiro Torisu, Shin Fujioka, Yuta Fuyuno, Yutaka Kawarabayasi, Takayuki Matsumoto, Takanari Kitazono, Motohiro Esaki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The gut microbiota is suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, inter-individual and spatial variations hamper the identification of UC-related changes. We thus investigated paired mucosa-associated microbiota obtained from both inflamed and non-inflamed sites of UC patients and corresponding sites of non-IBD controls. METHODS: Mucosal biopsies of both inflamed and non-inflamed sites were obtained from 14 patients with active UC of the left-sided or proctitis type...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Nicholas A Kennedy, Christopher A Lamb, Susan H Berry, Alan W Walker, John Mansfield, Miles Parkes, Rachel Simpkins, Mark Tremelling, Sarah Nutland, Julian Parkhill, Chris Probert, Georgina L Hold, Charlie W Lees
Background/Aims: Current models of Crohn's disease (CD) describe an inappropriate immune response to gut microbiota in genetically susceptible individuals. NOD2 variants are strongly associated with development of CD, and NOD2 is part of the innate immune response to bacteria. This study aimed to identify differences in fecal microbiota in CD patients and non-IBD controls stratified by NOD2 genotype. Methods: Patients with CD and non-IBD controls of known NOD2 genotype were identified from patients in previous UK IBD genetics studies and the Cambridge bioresource (genotyped/phenotyped volunteers)...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Pedro Gonçalves, João Ricardo Araújo, James P Di Santo
Gut microbiota has a fundamental role in the energy homeostasis of the host and is essential for proper "education" of the immune system. Intestinal microbial communities are able to ferment dietary fiber releasing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The SCFAs, particularly butyrate (BT), regulate innate and adaptive immune cell generation, trafficing, and function. For example, BT has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the recruitment and proinflammatory activity of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and effector T cells and by increasing the number and activity of regulatory T cells...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Rodrick J Chiodini, Scot E Dowd, James N Barron, Susan Galandiuk, Brian Davis, Angela Glassing
PURPOSE: Crohn's disease is a chronic debilitating intestinal syndrome of unknown aetiology that is thought to result in part from an imbalance (dysbiosis) of the intestinal microbial populations, known as the microbiota. In this study we sought to compare the microbiota at the mucosal and submucosal levels at the resection margin in Crohn's disease to those in other intestinal dysbiotic disease controls to determine the level of bacterial translocation. METHODOLOGY: 16S microbiota sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from mucosal and submucosal samples from resected intestinal tissues from Crohn's disease and controls...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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