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Microbiota and IBD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102757/dysbiosis-in-crohn-s-disease-joint-action-of-stochastic-injuries-and-focal-inflammation-in-the-gut
#1
Ludovica F Buttó, Dirk Haller
Gut homeostasis involves interrelated biological networks that include the immune system, specialized cells of the epithelium, such as Paneth and goblet cells, as well as triggers derived from the microbiota. Disruption of these homeostatic interactions may lead to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To develop more targeted and individual treatments in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it becomes more and more important to link key mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis to distinct IBD subsets...
January 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102756/treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Krista M Newman, Kevin M Rank, Byron P Vaughn, Alexander Khoruts
We recently compared results of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI), with and without underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we extend this cohort and analyze outcomes in greater detail by subtype of IBD. We find that FMT is generally effective in breaking the cycle of CDI recurrence, but its effects on overall IBD progression are much less predictable. We discuss a number of challenges intrinsic to this complex clinical situation and outline the next steps that can address these challenges going forward...
January 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099495/intestinal-bacteria-composition-and-translocation-of-bacteria-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Spyros Vrakas, Konstantinos C Mountzouris, George Michalopoulos, George Karamanolis, George Papatheodoridis, Charalampos Tzathas, Maria Gazouli
BACKGROUND: Live commensal intestinal bacteria are present in the peripheral blood where they can induce inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intestinal bacteria composition and translocation of bacteria in IBD. METHODS: Both blood and tissue biopsy samples were collected from adult patients with active/inactive Crohn's disease (CD), active/inactive ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy individuals. Most of the patients were newly diagnosed and none of them received antibiotics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089111/the-molecular-landscape-of-colitis-associated-carcinogenesis
#4
Deborah Saraggi, Matteo Fassan, Claudia Mescoli, Marco Scarpa, Nicola Valeri, Andrea Michielan, Renata D'Incá, Massimo Rugge
In spite of the well-established histopathological phenotyping of IBD-associated preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, their molecular landscape remains to be fully elucidated. Several studies have pinpointed the initiating role of longstanding/relapsing inflammatory insult on the intestinal mucosa, with the activation of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ), chemokines and metabolites of arachidonic acid resulting in the activation of key transcription factors such as NF-κB. Longstanding inflammation may also modify the intestinal microbiota, prompting the overgrowth of genotoxic microorganisms, which may act as further cancer promoters...
December 21, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061847/role-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolites-on-gut-homeostasis-and-human-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Lan Lin, Jianqiong Zhang
BACKGROUND: A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinal microbiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of host innate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health. METHODS: This paper reviews the effects on immunity of gut microbe-derived nucleic acids, and gut microbial metabolites, as well as the involvement of commensals in the gut homeostasis...
January 6, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059612/fecal-microbial-transplantation-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-patients-colonized-with-antibiotic-resistant-organisms
#6
Michael Laffin, Braden Millan, Karen L Madsen
Despite increasing interest in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), its full therapeutic potential has yet to be determined. Since its increase in popularity, FMT has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of both Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrent form. Interest in FMT now expands well beyond the treatment of CDI to other processes with known associations to the microbiota such as antibiotic resistant infections, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hepatic encephalopathy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and metabolic disease...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052195/quantitative-metaproteomics-and-activity-based-probe-enrichment-reveals-significant-alterations-in-protein-expression-from-a-mouse-model-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Michael D Mayers, Clara Moon, Gregory S Stupp, Andrew I Su, Dennis W Wolan
Tandem mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics of distal gut microbiomes is exceedingly difficult due to the inherent complexity and taxonomic diversity of the samples. We introduce two new methodologies to improve metaproteomic studies of microbiome samples. These methods include the stable isotope labeling in mammals to permit protein quantitation across two mouse cohorts, as well as the application of activity-based probes to enrich and analyze both host and microbial proteins with specific functionalities...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#8
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008837/-enteric-microflora-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#9
Oumaira Rahmouni, Laurent Dubuquoy, Pierre Desreumaux, Christel Neut
During the last years, the importance of a well equilibrated intestinal microbiota (eubiosis) has become more and more obvious in human health. Dysbiosis is now a well-recognized feature associated with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease). Rupture of the normal microbiota can occur through different mechanisms: (1) by a typical Western diet rich in fat and low in fiber, (2) by an acute disruption of the microbiota (by an acute gastroenteritis or by intake of antibiotics) or (3) by a combination of event in early childhood avoiding the establishment of eubiosis (the hygiene hypothesis)...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008786/a-probiotic-combination-attenuates-experimental-colitis-through-inhibition-of-innate-cytokine-production
#10
M S Kim, J S Byun, Y S Yoon, D Y Yum, M J Chung, J C Lee
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a severe immune cell-mediated syndrome characterised by extensive inflammatory and effector mucosal responses leading to tissue destruction in the colon and small intestine. The leading hypothesis is that dysbiosis of the gut flora causes an excessive immune response and inflammation in the gastrointestinal track. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can correct dysbiosis of the normal microbiota. In the current study, the therapeutic potential of seven LAB strains in combination to treat IBD was evaluated using experimental colitis model...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000477/probiotic-effectiveness-nutrition-in-cancer-treatment-and-prevention
#11
Débora Mara Kich, Angélica Vincenzi, Fernanda Majolo, Claucia Fernanda Volken de Souza, Márcia Inês Goettert
Among the neoplasias, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men and women. The increasing incidence of this type of cancer is due to the increase in the population's life expectancy, by the increase in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, primarily ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and the change in eating habits. The American Cancer Society (2011) shows that diet might be responsible for approximately 30% of cancer cases in developed countries, moreover when considering only colorectal cancer, the number can reach 30% to 50%...
November 29, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999802/lower-level-of-bacteroides-in-the-gut-microbiota-is-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Yingting Zhou, Fachao Zhi
Background and Aims. Multiple studies have reported associations between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the flora disequilibrium of Bacteroides. We performed a meta-analysis of the available data to provide a more precise estimate of the association between Bacteroides level in the gut and IBD. Methods. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Wiley Library, BIOSIS previews, Web of Science, CNKI, and ScienceDirect databases for published literature on IBD and gut microbiota from 1990 to 2016...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997070/a-fresh-look-at-ibs-opportunities-for-systems-medicine-approaches
#13
A Albusoda, N Barki, T Herregods, J B J Kamphuis, T B Karunaratne, M Lazarou, I Lee, N Mazurak, E Perna, A Polster, T Pribic, F Uhlig, H Wang, P Enck
NeuroGUT is a EU-funded initial training network (ITN) of 14 research projects in neurogastroenterology that have employed an equal number of early-stage researchers. Neurogut trainees have-among other activities-attended an international conference on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Bologna in 2016 and were asked to critically review and evaluate the current knowledge on IBS for their respective research activities, and to state what they were missing. Most appreciated were the topics brain imaging of gut activity, the role of the gut microbiota, the pharmacology of gut functions, the IBS-IBD interrelation, the new Rome IV criteria, the role of gas, and the placebo response in functional disorders...
November 7, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981307/microbiota-small-rnas-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
REVIEW
Anca T Filip, Ovidiu Balacescu, Catalin Marian, Andrei Anghel
MiRNAs are a class of potential gene regulators of critical importance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). This review aims to present the connection between gut microbiota, probiotics administration and microRNA (miRNA) expression in IBD. It also brings into question cross-kingdom RNAi (RNA interference). Not only that gut host cells garden the intestinal microbiome via miRNA, but also strong evidence supports the idea that different species of bacteria have an impact on the intestinal immune response by modulating miRNA expression...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980034/qsec-inhibition-as-an-antivirulence-approach-for-colitis-associated-bacteria
#15
Michelle G Rooks, Patrick Veiga, Analise Z Reeves, Sydney Lavoie, Koji Yasuda, Yasunari Asano, Kazufumi Yoshihara, Monia Michaud, Leslie Wardwell-Scott, Carey Ann Gallini, Jonathan N Glickman, Nobuyuki Sudo, Curtis Huttenhower, Cammie F Lesser, Wendy S Garrett
Hosts and their microbes have established a sophisticated communication system over many millennia. Within mammalian hosts, this dynamic cross-talk is essential for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. In a genetically susceptible host, dysbiosis of the gut microbiome and dysregulated immune responses are central to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous surveys of stool from the T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) IBD mouse model revealed microbial features that discriminate between health and disease states...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930307/cosmc-is-an-x-linked-inflammatory-bowel-disease-risk-gene-that-spatially-regulates-gut-microbiota-and-contributes-to-sex-specific-risk
#16
Matthew R Kudelka, Benjamin H Hinrichs, Trevor Darby, Carlos S Moreno, Hikaru Nishio, Christopher E Cutler, Jianmei Wang, Huixia Wu, Junwei Zeng, Yingchun Wang, Tongzhong Ju, Sean R Stowell, Asma Nusrat, Rheinallt M Jones, Andrew S Neish, Richard D Cummings
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from aberrant immune stimulation against a dysbiotic mucosal but relatively preserved luminal microbiota and preferentially affects males in early onset disease. However, factors contributing to sex-specific risk and the pattern of dysbiosis are largely unexplored. Core 1 β3GalT-specific molecular chaperone (Cosmc), which encodes an X-linked chaperone important for glycocalyx formation, was recently identified as an IBD risk factor by genome-wide association study. We deleted Cosmc in mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and found marked reduction of microbiota diversity in progression from the proximal to the distal gut mucosa, but not in the overlying lumen, as seen in IBD...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921309/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-induced-interleukin-33-expression-in-intestinal-epithelia-contributes-to-mucosal-homeostasis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
M Sun, C He, W Wu, G Zhou, F Liu, Y Cong, Z Liu
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), an important barrier to gut microbiota, are subject to low oxygen tension, particularly during intestinal inflammation. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is expressed highly in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functions as a key regulator in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, how IEC-derived HIF-1α regulates intestinal immune responses in IBD is still not understood completely. We report here that the expression of HIF-1α and IL-33 was increased significantly in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients as well as mice with colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)...
November 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915988/vitamin-d-vdr-probiotics-and-gastrointestinal-diseases
#18
Mei Shang, Jun Sun
Vitamin D is an important factor in regulating inflammation, immune responses, and carcinoma inhibition via action of its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D/VDR in regulating host-bacterial interactions. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria with the power of supporting or favoring life on the host. In the current review, we will discuss the recent progress on the roles of vitamin D/VDR in gut microbiome and inflammation. We will summarize evidence of probiotics in modulating vitamin D/VDR and balancing gut microbiota in health and gastrointestinal diseases...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912750/fermented-barley-and-soybean-bs-mixture-enhances-intestinal-barrier-function-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mouse-model
#19
Jong Kyu Woo, Seungho Choi, Ju-Hee Kang, Dae Eung Kim, Byung-Serk Hurh, Jong-Eun Jeon, Sun Yeou Kim, Seung Hyun Oh
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic or relapsing immune system activation and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. The lack of safety and efficacy of standard therapies, the use of food supplements for managing IBD is increasing, and many studies have reported that various food supplements provide many beneficial effects for the IBD. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-colitis effects of dietary supplementation with a fermented barley and soybean mixture (BS) on intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891639/consensus-report-faecal-microbiota-transfer-clinical-applications-and-procedures
#20
REVIEW
J König, A Siebenhaar, C Högenauer, P Arkkila, M Nieuwdorp, T Norén, C Y Ponsioen, U Rosien, N G Rossen, R Satokari, A Stallmach, W de Vos, J Keller, R J Brummer
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer (FMT) aims at replacing or reinforcing the gut microbiota of a patient with the microbiota from a healthy donor. Not many controlled or randomised studies have been published evaluating the use of FMT for other diseases than Clostridium difficile infection, making it difficult for clinicians to decide on a suitable indication. AIM: To provide an expert consensus on current clinical indications, applications and methodological aspects of FMT...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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