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Microbiota and IBD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219317/dietary-fiber-gap-and-host-gut-microbiota
#1
Meng Han, Ping Liu, Defa Li, Yuan Li, Xi Ma
Accumulating evidence are dramatically increasing access to the facts that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host metabolism and health, which revealed the possibility of a plethora of associations between gut bacteria and human diseases. Several functional roles carried out by a major class of host's diet, such as fiber. Fiber is the main source of microbiota-accessible carbohydrate in the diet of humans. In modern diet, it is difficult to intake dietary fiber as enough as recommended standard. The low-fiber diet in the modern life, known as fiber gap, can trigger to a substantial depletion of the human gut microbiota diversity and beneficial metabolites...
February 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217370/tryptophan-a-gut-microbiota-derived-metabolites-regulating-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Benoit Chassaing, Andrew T Gewirtz
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which comprise Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic intestinal disorders with an increased prevalence and incidence over the last decade in many different regions over the world. The etiology of IBD is still not well defined, but evidence suggest that it results from perturbation of the homeostasis between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system, with the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. Genome wide association studies, which involve large-scale genome-wide screening of potential polymorphism, have identified several mutations associated with IBD...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#3
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194152/hsp65-producing-lactococcus-lactis-prevents-inflammatory-intestinal-disease-in-mice-by-il-10-and-tlr2-dependent-pathways
#4
Ana Cristina Gomes-Santos, Rafael Pires de Oliveira, Thaís Garcias Moreira, Archimedes Barbosa Castro-Junior, Bernardo Coelho Horta, Luísa Lemos, Leonardo Augusto de Almeida, Rafael Machado Rezende, Denise Carmona Cara, Sérgio Costa Oliveira, Vasco Ariston Carvalho Azevedo, Anderson Miyoshi, Ana Maria Caetano Faria
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly expressed at all sites of inflammation. As they are ubiquitous and immunodominant antigens, these molecules represent good candidates for the therapeutic use of oral tolerance in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from uncontrolled inflammatory responses to intestinal microbiota. Hsps are immunodominant proteins expressed by several immune cells and by commensal bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179509/iga-coated-e-coli-enriched-in-crohn-s-disease-spondyloarthritis-promote-th17-dependent-inflammation
#5
Monica Viladomiu, Charles Kivolowitz, Ahmed Abdulhamid, Belgin Dogan, Daniel Victorio, Jim G Castellanos, Viola Woo, Fei Teng, Nhan L Tran, Andrew Sczesnak, Christina Chai, Myunghoo Kim, Gretchen E Diehl, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Xi K Zhou, Sergio Schwartzman, Lisa A Mandl, Meira Abramowitz, Vinita Jacob, Brian Bosworth, Adam Steinlauf, Ellen J Scherl, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu, Kenneth W Simpson, Randy S Longman
Peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a common extraintestinal manifestation in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by inflammatory enthesitis, dactylitis, or synovitis of nonaxial joints. However, a mechanistic understanding of the link between intestinal inflammation and SpA has yet to emerge. We evaluated and functionally characterized the fecal microbiome of IBD patients with or without peripheral SpA. Coupling the sorting of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-coated microbiota with 16S ribosomal RNA-based analysis (IgA-seq) revealed a selective enrichment in IgA-coated Escherichia coli in patients with Crohn's disease-associated SpA (CD-SpA) compared to CD alone...
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176667/gut-microbiota-modulation-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-dietary-polyphenols-in-ibd-new-and-consolidated-perspectives
#6
Angelo Santino, Aurelia Scarano, Stefania De Santis, Maria De Benedictis, Giovanna Giovinazzo, Marcello Chieppa
BACKGROUND: Polyphenols represent a great variety of compounds occurring in fruits, vegetables and plant-derived products. Dietary polyphenols have been found displaying several biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-aging activities, cardiovascular and neuro-protection, and reduction of the risk of intestinal diseases. The bio-efficacy of polyphenols is tightly linked to their bioavailability, to structural complexity and composition of food matrix in which they are present...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176664/role-of-lactic-acid-probiotic-bacteria-in-ibd
#7
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Rajaraman Eri
BACKGROUND: IBD is considered as one of the major public health concerns worldwide. The pathophysiology and gut microbial alteration during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are still not completely understood. Gut microbiota is implicated in most of the gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases including IBD. From the time of gut microbiota establishment and through aging, it undergoes a lot of changes in the composition. METHODS: In a healthy state, the composition of beneficial microbes in the gut is comparatively higher and due to factors such as malnutrition, use of antibiotics and any underlying diseases allow the colonization and invasion of pathogens...
February 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176047/gastrointestinal-physiology-and-function
#8
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson, David Grundy
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract...
February 8, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175257/p788-microbiota-related-disease-activity-and-distribution-in-subgroups-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
P Ricanek, K Rahul, Y Ber, S Vatn, L Finnby, T Lindahl, D Bergemalm, A Carsten, J Söderholm, J Jahnsen, F Gomollon, J Halfvarson, J Satsangi, C Casen, M H Vatn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175224/p790-microbiota-profile-in-pediatric-ibd-correlations-with-phenotype-and-disease-activity
#10
S Gatti, R Annibali, G Del Baldo, E Franceschini, E Lionetti, V Albano, T Galeazzi, C Catassi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174946/p056-gut-microbiota-characterisation-in-south-asian-ibd-patients-resident-in-the-uk
#11
M N Quraishi, A Rossiter, N Bhala, M Beaumont, S Pathmakanthan, S Ghosh, T H Iqbal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174738/microgeographic-proteomic-networks-of-the-human-colonic-mucosa-and-their-association-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Xiaoxiao Li, James LeBlanc, David Elashoff, Ian McHardy, Maomeng Tong, Bennett Roth, Andrew Ippoliti, Gildardo Barron, Dermot McGovern, Keely McDonald, Rodney Newberry, Thomas Graeber, Steve Horvath, Lee Goodglick, Jonathan Braun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interactions between mucosal cell types, environmental stressors, and intestinal microbiota contribute to pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we applied metaproteomics of the mucosal-luminal interface to study the disease-related biology of the human colonic mucosa. METHODS: We recruited a discovery cohort of 51 IBD and non-IBD subjects endoscopically sampled by mucosal lavage at 6 colonic regions, and a validation cohort of 38 no-IBD subjects...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167958/association-of-fucosyltransferase-2-gene-polymorphisms-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-patients-from-southeast-china
#13
Hao Wu, Liang Sun, Dao-Po Lin, Xiao-Xiao Shao, Sheng-Long Xia, Ming Lv
Aims. Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene potentially affects the constituent of intestinal microbiota, which play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated the association of FUT2 gene polymorphisms with IBD in southeast China. Methods. We collected 671 IBD patients and 502 healthy controls. FUT2 gene polymorphisms (C357T, A385T, and G428A) were determined by SNaPshot. Frequencies of the FUT2 genotypes, alleles, and haplotype between groups were compared by χ(2) test...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147375/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Walter Reinisch
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it is thought to arise from an aberrant immune response to a change in colonic environment in a genetically susceptible individual. The intestinal microbiota are located at the complex interface of the epithelial barrier and are sensitive to changes in environmental factors, such as diets, drugs or smoking and signals derived from the intestinal immune system and the gut-brain axis. In patients with IBD, an imbalance in the structural and/or functional configuration of the intestinal microbiota leading to the disruption of the host-microorganism homeostasis (dysbiosis) has been reproducibly reported...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125558/o-010-microbial-metabolites-establish-a-gradient-of-protons-which-mediate-interkingdom-host-microbiome-cross-talk-and-maintain-intestinal-homeostasis-via-two-proton-sensing-gprs
#15
Ashfaqul Alam, Huixia Wu, Jason Matthews, Bejan Saeedi, Rheinallt Jones, Andrew Neish
BACKGROUND: The mammalian intestine houses a complex microbial community, which fundamentally influences the development and activation of the immune system, and is integral to the repair of damaged intestinal mucosa. Intestinal damage is observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), enteric infections, as well as following surgical trauma, and environmental insults. Tissue restitution is a complex but coordinated cellular process to repair gut mucosa, which involves both cellular proliferation and migration...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123052/bifidobacterium-breve-reduces-apoptotic-epithelial-cell-shedding-in-an-exopolysaccharide-and-myd88-dependent-manner
#16
K R Hughes, L C Harnisch, C Alcon-Giner, S Mitra, C J Wright, J Ketskemety, D van Sinderen, A J M Watson, L J Hall
Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi-a process termed 'cell shedding'. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115375/ursodeoxycholic-acid-and-its-taurine-glycine-conjugated-species-reduce-colitogenic-dysbiosis-and-equally-suppress-experimental-colitis-in-mice
#17
Lien Van den Bossche, Pieter Hindryckx, Lindsey Devisscher, Sarah Devriese, Sophie Van Welden, Tom Holvoet, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Marius Vital, Dietmar H Pieper, Julie Vanden Bussche, Lynn Vanhaecke, Tom Van de Wiele, Martine De Vos, Debby Laukens
: The promising results with secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine/glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis...
January 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102757/dysbiosis-in-crohn-s-disease-joint-action-of-stochastic-injuries-and-focal-inflammation-in-the-gut
#18
Ludovica F Buttó, Dirk Haller
Gut homeostasis involves interrelated biological networks that include the immune system, specialized cells of the epithelium, such as Paneth and goblet cells, as well as triggers derived from the microbiota. Disruption of these homeostatic interactions may lead to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To develop more targeted and individual treatments in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it becomes more and more important to link key mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis to distinct IBD subsets...
January 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102756/treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Krista M Newman, Kevin M Rank, Byron P Vaughn, Alexander Khoruts
We recently compared results of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI), with and without underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we extend this cohort and analyze outcomes in greater detail by subtype of IBD. We find that FMT is generally effective in breaking the cycle of CDI recurrence, but its effects on overall IBD progression are much less predictable. We discuss several challenges intrinsic to this complex clinical situation and outline the next steps that can address these challenges going forward...
January 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099495/intestinal-bacteria-composition-and-translocation-of-bacteria-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Spyros Vrakas, Konstantinos C Mountzouris, George Michalopoulos, George Karamanolis, George Papatheodoridis, Charalampos Tzathas, Maria Gazouli
BACKGROUND: Live commensal intestinal bacteria are present in the peripheral blood where they can induce inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intestinal bacteria composition and translocation of bacteria in IBD. METHODS: Both blood and tissue biopsy samples were collected from adult patients with active/inactive Crohn's disease (CD), active/inactive ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy individuals. Most of the patients were newly diagnosed and none of them received antibiotics...
2017: PloS One
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