Read by QxMD icon Read

Microbiota and IBD

Lynnette R Ferguson, Matthew P G Barnett
For many years, there has been confusion about the role that nutrition plays in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). It is apparent that good dietary advice for one individual may prove inappropriate for another. As with many diseases, genome-wide association studies across large collaborative groups have been important in revealing the role of genetics in IBD, with more than 200 genes associated with susceptibility to the disease. These associations provide clues to explain the differences in nutrient requirements among individuals...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ankit Malik, Deepika Sharma, Qifan Zhu, Rajendra Karki, Clifford S Guy, Peter Vogel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) affect over 5 million individuals in the industrialized world, with an increasing incidence rate worldwide. IBD also predisposes affected individuals to development of colorectal cancer, which is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in adults. Mutations in genes encoding molecules in the IL-33 signaling pathway are associated with colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC), but how IL-33 modulates gut homeostasis is unclear. Here, we have shown that Il33-deficient mice are highly susceptible to colitis and CAC...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a first-line therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) thought to induce remission through changes in the gut microbiome. With microbiome assessment largely focused on microbial taxonomy and diversity, it remains unclear to what extent EEN induces functional changes that thereby contribute to its therapeutic effect. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 15 pediatric CD patients prior to and after EEN treatment, as well as from 5 healthy controls...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Cristiano Pagnini, Michela Martorelli, Claudio Lanini, Gianfranco Delle Fave
The consistent technical and conceptual progress in the study of the microbiota has led novel impulse to the research for therapeutical application of probiotic bacteria in human pathologies, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Considering the heterogenous results of probiotics in clinical studies, the model of translational medicine may lead to a more specific and efficacious utilization of probiotic bacteria in IBD. In this regard, the selection and utilization of appropriate experimental models may drive the transition from pure in vitro systems to practical clinical application...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
D Roggenbuck, D Reinhold, D C Baumgart, P Schierack, K Conrad, M W Laass
Inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been linked to a loss of tolerance to self-antigens suggesting the existence of autoantibodies in specific disease phenotypes. However, the lack of clearly defined autoantigenic targets has slowed down research. Genome-wide association studies have identified an impressive number of immune-related susceptibility loci for IBD with no clearly discernible pattern among them. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that innate immune responses to a low-diversity and impaired gut microbiota may be of key importance in initiating and perpetuating chronic inflammation in IBD...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Stephanie Bora, Margherita T Cantorna
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In experimental IBD the targets of vitamin D that result in protection from IBD include gut epithelial cells, innate immune cells, T cells, and the microbiota. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces production of vitamin D in the skin and suppresses T cell responses in the host. There is limited data demonstrating an effect of UVR on experimental IBD but the mechanisms of UVR suppression in IBD have not been defined. There are several shared effects of vitamin D and UVR on T cells including inhibition of proliferation and suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T cells...
September 8, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Rosario Lucas López, María José Grande Burgos, Antonio Gálvez, Rubén Pérez Pulido
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes a spectrum of diseases from ulcerative colitis (UC) to Crohn's disease (CD). Many studies have addressed the changes in the microbiota of individuals affected by UC and CD. A decrease in biodiversity and depletion of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes has been reported, among others. Changes in microbial composition also result in changes in the metabolites generated in the gut from microbial activity that may involve the amount of butyrate and other metabolites such as H2 S being produced...
October 5, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Yoshihiro Hirata, Sozaburo Ihara, Kazuhiko Koike
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory intestinal disorder that includes two distinct disease categories: ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Epidemiological, genetic, and experimental studies have revealed many important aspects of IBD. Genetic susceptibility, inappropriate immune responses, environmental changes, and intestinal microbiota are all associated with the development of IBD. However, the exact mechanisms of the disease and the interactions among these pathogenic factors are largely unknown...
October 1, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Marianthi Chatzikonstantinou, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Spyros Stergiopoulos, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Christos Verikokos, Despina Perrea, Dimitris Dimitroulis
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal disorders caused by a number of factors, including external influences, intestinal microbiota and genetics. The two major clinically defined types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, each of which is characterized by relapses in the clinical course, thus patients must be under constant observation via regular endoscopies. As endoscopy, which has been used for direct evaluation and diagnosis of IBD, requires uncomfortable and expensive bowel preparation, a non-invasive test was required to reduce the number of patients undergoing unnecessary endoscopy...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Hui-Lu Zhang, Wen-Shuai Li, Dian-Nan Xu, Wan-Wei Zheng, Yi Liu, Jian Chen, Zhi-Bing Qiu, Robert G Dorfman, Jun Zhang, Jie Liu
Gut microbiota composition of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is markedly altered compared with healthy individuals. There is mounting evidence that probiotic therapy alleviates disease severity in animal models and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Bacillus subtilisis, as a probiotic, has also demonstrated a protective effect in IBD. However, the therapeutic mechanism of its action has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, a dextrose sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mouse model was used to investigate the role of B...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Krzysztof Siczek, Hubert Zatorski, Anna Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Magdalena Śmiech, Radzisław Kordek, Leszek Tymczyna, Marcin Banach, Jakub Fichna
The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of newly developed silver nanoparticle aqueous suspensions NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 in the mouse models mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 were synthesized in aqueous medium with the involvement of tannic acid. To elucidate their anti-inflammatory activity, semi-chronic mouse models of inflammation induced by DSS addition to drinking water and intracolonic (i.c.) administration of TNBS were used. NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 (0...
October 3, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Robert Häsler, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Anupam Sinha, Matthias Barann, Ateequr Rehman, Daniela Esser, Konrad Aden, Carolin Knecht, Berenice Brandt, Susanna Nikolaus, Sascha Schäuble, Christoph Kaleta, Andre Franke, Christoph Fretter, Werner Müller, Marc-Thorsten Hütt, Michael Krawczak, Stefan Schreiber, Philip Rosenstiel
OBJECTIVE: An inadequate host response to the intestinal microbiota likely contributes to the manifestation and progression of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, molecular approaches to unravelling the nature of the defective crosstalk and its consequences for intestinal metabolic and immunological networks are lacking. We assessed the mucosal transcript levels, splicing architecture and mucosa-attached microbial communities of patients with IBD to obtain a comprehensive view of the underlying, hitherto poorly characterised interactions, and how these are altered in IBD...
September 30, 2016: Gut
Michelle Prosberg, Flemming Bendtsen, Ida Vind, Andreas M Petersen, Lise L Gluud
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based on a published protocol. Included patients had ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) classified as active or in remission. We selected bacteria assessed in at least three studies identified through electronic and manual searches (November 2015)...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Ishfaq Ahmed, Badal C Roy, Salman A Khan, Seth Septer, Shahid Umar
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder that conceptually occurs as a result of altered immune responses to commensal and/or pathogenic gut microbes in individuals most susceptible to the disease. During Crohn's Disease (CD) or Ulcerative Colitis (UC), two components of the human IBD, distinct stages define the disease onset, severity, progression and remission. Epigenetic, environmental (microbiome, metabolome) and nutritional factors are important in IBD pathogenesis. While the dysbiotic microbiota has been proposed to play a role in disease pathogenesis, the data on IBD and diet are still less convincing...
June 15, 2016: Microorganisms
Ronaldo Lira-Junior, Carlos Marcelo Figueredo
Periodontal disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases. Their pathogenesis is mediated by a complex interplay between a dysbiotic microbiota and the host immune-inflammatory response, and both are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. This review aimed to provide an overview of the evidence dealing with a possible pathogenic interaction between periodontal disease and IBD. There seems to be an increased prevalence of periodontal disease in patients with IBD when compared to healthy controls, probably due to changes in the oral microbiota and a higher inflammatory response...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jason W Harper, Timothy L Zisman
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology that is thought to result from a combination of genetic, immunologic and environmental factors. The incidence of IBD has been increasing in recent decades, especially in developing and developed nations, and this is hypothesized to be in part related to the change in dietary and lifestyle factors associated with modernization. The prevalence of obesity has risen in parallel with the rise in IBD, suggesting a possible shared environmental link between these two conditions...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Robin Spiller, Giles Major
The acute phase of IBD with inflamed gut and often ulcerated mucosa is clearly different from the apparently normal mucosa characteristic of IBS. However, more detailed assessment has detected immune activation, increased gut permeability, increased mucosal serotonin availability, abnormalities of enteric nerve structure and function, and dysbiosis in gut microbiota in IBS - all features seen in IBD. Furthermore, as treatments for inflammation in IBD have become more effective it is now apparent that ∼1 in 3 patients with IBD in remission from inflammation still have persistent abnormalities of sensation, motility and gut microbiota, which might cause IBS-like symptoms...
September 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Asser Mathiassen Oppfeldt, Jens F Dahlerup, Lisbet A Christensen, Christian L Hvas
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used to treat refractory and recurring Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Although FMT appears to be safe and highly effective in patients with a preserved colon and immunocompetence, its use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are on immunomodulating therapies is controversial. In particular, patients who have undergone colectomy may have different treatment responses to FMT. In this case report, we describe the successful use of FMT in a female patient aged 19 years with Crohn's disease who underwent ileorectal anastomosis following colectomy...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"