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Microbiota and IBD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626231/the-resilience-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-influences-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Felix Sommer, Jacqueline Moltzau Anderson, Richa Bharti, Jeroen Raes, Philip Rosenstiel
The composition of the intestinal microbiota varies among individuals and throughout development, and is dependent on host and environmental factors. However, although the microbiota is constantly exposed to environmental challenges, its composition and function in an individual are stable against perturbations, as microbial communities are resilient and resistant to change. The maintenance of a beneficial microbiota requires a homeostatic equilibrium within microbial communities, and also between the microorganisms and the intestinal interface of the host...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611513/brain-changes-detected-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Kun Lv, Yi-Hong Fan, Li Xu, Mao-Sheng Xu
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, non-specific granulomatous inflammatory disorder that commonly affects the small intestine and is a phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is prone to relapse, and its incidence displays a persistent increase in developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, with some studies emphasizing the link between CD and the intestinal microbiota. Specifically, studies point to the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis as a key player in the occurrence and development of CD...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609252/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-metabolic-syndrome-history-present-and-future
#3
P F de Groot, M N Frissen, N C de Clercq, M Nieuwdorp
The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609251/intestinal-microbiota-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Alexa R Weingarden, Byron P Vaughn
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex set of diseases that lead to chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the etiology of IBD is not fully understood, it is well-known that the intestinal microbiota is associated with the development and maintenance of IBD. Manipulation of the gut microbiota, therefore, may represent a target for IBD therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), where fecal microbiota from a healthy donor is transplanted into a patient's GI tract, is already a successful therapy for Clostridium difficile infection...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606969/faecal-microbiota-study-reveals-specific-dysbiosis-in-spondyloarthritis
#5
Maxime Breban, Julien Tap, Ariane Leboime, Roula Said-Nahal, Philippe Langella, Gilles Chiocchia, Jean-Pierre Furet, Harry Sokol
OBJECTIVE: Altered microbiota composition or dysbiosis is suspected to be implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as spondyloarthritis (SpA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on faecal DNA isolated from stool samples in two consecutive cross-sectional cohorts, each comprising three groups of adult volunteers: SpA, RA and healthy controls (HCs). In the second study, HCs comprised a majority of aged-matched siblings of patients with known HLA-B27 status...
June 12, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588430/gut-microbial-diversity-in-health-and-disease-experience-of-healthy-indian-subjects-and-colon-carcinoma-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#6
V Deepak Bamola, Arnab Ghosh, Raj Kishor Kapardar, Banwari Lal, Simrita Cheema, Priyangshu Sarma, Rama Chaudhry
Background: The intestinal microbiota, through complex interactions with the gut mucosa, play a key role in the pathogenesis of colon carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The disease condition and dietary habits both influence gut microbial diversity. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the gut microbial profile of healthy subjects and patients with colon carcinoma and IBD. Healthy subjects included 'Indian vegetarians/lactovegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, and 'Indian non-vegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, certain meats and fish, and the eggs of certain birds and fish...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572754/functional-amplification-and-preservation-of-human-gut-microbiota
#7
Nadia Gaci, Prem Prashant Chaudhary, William Tottey, Monique Alric, Jean-François Brugère
Background: The availability of fresh stool samples is a prerequisite in most gut microbiota functional studies. Objective: Strategies for amplification and long-term gut microbiota preservation from fecal samples would favor sample sharing, help comparisons and reproducibility over time and between laboratories, and improve the safety and ethical issues surrounding fecal microbiota transplantations. Design: Taking advantage of in vitro gut-simulating systems, we amplified the microbial repertoire of a fresh fecal sample and assessed the viability and resuscitation of microbes after preservation with some common intracellular and extracellular acting cryoprotective agents (CPAs), alone and in different combinations...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571818/association-between-oxidative-status-and-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#8
Marianna Gyuraszova, Alexandra Kovalcikova, Roman Gardlik
Studies have shown that the microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role when it comes to the maintenance of its proper functions. Many studies exist that have analyzed the composition of the bacterial community in the different regions of the GIT of humans and model animals. Microbial imbalance leads to several systemic disorders, including cardiovascular and renal disease. The imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidants leads to oxidative stress...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560287/mend-your-fences-the-epithelial-barrier-and-its-relationship-with-mucosal-immunity-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
Eva Martini, Susanne M Krug, Britta Siegmund, Markus F Neurath, Christoph Becker
The intestinal epithelium can be easily disrupted during gut inflammation as seen in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. For a long time, research into the pathophysiology of IBD has been focused on immune cell-mediated mechanisms. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the intestinal epithelium might play a major role in the development and perpetuation of IBD. It is now clear that IBD can be triggered by disturbances in epithelial barrier integrity via dysfunctions in intestinal epithelial cell-intrinsic molecular circuits that control the homeostasis, renewal, and repair of intestinal epithelial cells...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553262/differing-complex-microbiota-alter-disease-severity-of-the-il-10-mouse-model-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Marcia L Hart, Aaron C Ericsson, Craig L Franklin
It is estimated that 1.4 million people in the United States suffer from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), with an overall annual health care cost of more than $1.7 billion. Although the exact etiology of this disease remains unknown, research suggests that it is a multifactorial disease associated with aberrant gastrointestinal microbial populations (dysbiosis). The C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJBir mouse strains with targeted mutations in the IL-10 gene are commonly used models to study IBD. However, anecdotally, disease phenotype can vary in severity from lab to lab...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551707/nutritional-therapy-in-very-early-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-case-report
#11
Talya L Miller, Dale Lee, Mathew Giefer, Ghassan Wahbeh, David L Suskind
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by a dysregulated immune response to the fecal microbiota. Very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) refers to a subgroup of pediatric patients with IBD diagnosed before 6 years of age. This subgroup is often characterized by increased severity, aggressive progression, strong family history of IBD, and often poor response to conventional treatments. Nutritional therapies have been utilized to treat IBD, but their role in VEO-IBD is unclear...
May 27, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546791/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-from-clostridium-difficile-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved from a case report in the medical literature to the basis of major innovations in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and, potentially, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the clinical setting, FMT was noted to significantly lower the risk of recurrent CDI, likely by increasing microbial diversity and altering the metabolic environment in the intestinal tract of recipients. In parallel, advances in the ability to quantify and characterize microbial communities in fecal samples led to the association of IBD with a state of intestinal dysbiosis...
April 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536562/use-of-wild-type-or-recombinant-lactic-acid-bacteria-as-an-alternative-treatment-for-gastrointestinal-inflammatory-diseases-a-focus-on-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-mucositis
#13
REVIEW
Rodrigo D De Oliveira Carvalho, Fillipe L R do Carmo, Alberto de Oliveira Junior, Philippe Langella, Jean-Marc Chatel, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Vasco Azevedo, Marcela S de Azevedo
The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is highly colonized by bacterial communities, which live in a symbiotic relationship with the host in normal conditions. It has been shown that a dysfunctional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the host immune system, known as dysbiosis, is a very important factor responsible for the development of different inflammatory conditions of the GIT, such as the idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a complex and multifactorial disorder of the GIT. Dysbiosis has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other GIT inflammatory diseases such as mucositis usually caused as an adverse effect of chemotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534191/tgf-%C3%AE-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-key-regulator-of-immune-cells-epithelium-and-the-intestinal-microbiota
#14
REVIEW
Sozaburo Ihara, Yoshihiro Hirata, Kazuhiko Koike
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is defined as chronic intestinal inflammation, and includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, and the condition is characterized by aberrant mucosal immune reactions to intestinal microbes in genetically susceptible hosts. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is an immune-suppressive cytokine produced by many cell types and activated by integrins. Active TGF-β binds to its receptor and regulates mucosal immune reactions through the TGF-β signaling pathway...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522956/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-refractory-crohn-s-disease
#15
Seon Ho Bak, Hyun Ho Choi, Jinhee Lee, Mi Hee Kim, Youn Hee Lee, Jin Su Kim, Young-Seok Cho
Approximately one-third of patients with Crohn's disease do not respond to conventional treatments, and some experience significant adverse effects, such as serious infections and lymphoma, and many patients require surgery due to complications. Increasing evidence suggests that specific changes in the composition of gut microbiota, termed as dysbiosis, are a common feature in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dysbiosis can lead to activation of the mucosal immune system, resulting in chronic inflammation and the development of mucosal lesions...
April 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515725/application-of-zebrafish-models-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
REVIEW
Li Hanyang, Liu Xuanzhe, Chen Xuyang, Qiu Yujia, Fu Jiarong, Shen Jun, Ran Zhihua
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, recurrent, and remitting inflammatory disease with unclear etiology. As a clinically frequent disease, it can affect individuals throughout their lives, with multiple complications. Unfortunately, traditional murine models are not efficient for the further study of IBD. Thus, effective and convenient animal models are needed. Zebrafish have been used as model organisms to investigate IBD because of their suggested highly genetic similarity to humans and their superiority as laboratory models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506317/changes-in-microbial-ecology-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-c-difficile-infection-affected-by-underlying-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Sahil Khanna, Yoshiki Vazquez-Baeza, Antonio González, Sophie Weiss, Bradley Schmidt, David A Muñiz-Pedrogo, John F Rainey, Patricia Kammer, Heidi Nelson, Michael Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Stefan L Farrugia, Rob Knight, Darrell S Pardi, Purna C Kashyap
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota play a key role in maintaining homeostasis in the human gut. Alterations in the gut microbial ecosystem predispose to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and gut inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor can restore gut microbial diversity and pathogen colonization resistance; consequently, it is now being investigated for its ability to improve inflammatory gut conditions such as IBD...
May 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498157/compositional-changes-in-the-gut-mucus-microbiota-precede-the-onset-of-colitis-induced-inflammation
#19
Maria Glymenaki, Gurdeep Singh, Andrew Brass, Geoffrey Warhurst, Andrew J McBain, Kathryn J Else, Sheena M Cruickshank
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an inappropriate immune response to the gut microbiota. Notably, patients with IBD reportedly have alterations in fecal microbiota. However, the colonic microbiota occupies both the gut lumen and the mucus covering the epithelium. Thus, information about mucus-resident microbiota fails to be conveyed in the routine microbiota analyses of stool samples. Further, studies analyzing microbiota in IBD have mainly focused on stool samples taken after onset of inflammation...
May 11, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486648/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Sudarshan Paramsothy, Ramesh Paramsothy, David T Rubin, Michael A Kamm, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Hazel M Mitchell, Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been investigated as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We thus performed a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the effectiveness and safety of FMT in IBD. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted until Jan 2017. Studies were excluded if patients had co-infection or data was pooled across disease subtypes (ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), pouchitis). Clinical remission was established as the primary outcome...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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