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Behavioral genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349527/genetic-test-reporting-and-counseling-for-melanoma-risk-in-minors-may-improve-sun-protection-without-inducing-distress
#1
Tammy K Stump, Lisa G Aspinwall, Wendy Kohlmann, Marjan Champine, Jamie Hauglid, Yelena P Wu, Emily Scott, Pamela Cassidy, Sancy A Leachman
Genetic testing of minors is advised only for conditions in which benefits of early intervention outweigh potential psychological harms. This study investigated whether genetic counseling and test reporting for the CDKN2A/p16 mutation, which confers highly elevated melanoma risk, improved sun protection without inducing distress. Eighteen minors (Mage = 12.4, SD = 1.9) from melanoma-prone families completed measures of protective behavior and distress at baseline, 1 week (distress only), 1 month, and 1 year following test disclosure...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347590/emergent-l%C3%A3-vy-behavior-in-single-cell-stochastic-gene-expression
#2
Chen Jia, Michael Q Zhang, Hong Qian
Single-cell gene expression is inherently stochastic; its emergent behavior can be defined in terms of the chemical master equation describing the evolution of the mRNA and protein copy numbers as the latter tends to infinity. We establish two types of "macroscopic limits": the Kurtz limit is consistent with the classical chemical kinetics, while the Lévy limit provides a theoretical foundation for an empirical equation proposed in N. Friedman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168302 (2006)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346618/evidence-of-adaptive-evolution-and-relaxed-constraints-in-sex-biased-genes-of-south-american-and-west-indies-fruit-flies-diptera-tephritidae
#3
Carlos Congrains, Emeline B Campanini, Felipe R Torres, Víctor B Rezende, Aline M Nakamura, Janaína L de Oliveira, André L A Lima, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Iderval S Sobrinho, Reinaldo A de Brito
Several studies have demonstrated that genes differentially expressed between sexes (sex-biased genes) tend to evolve faster than unbiased genes, particularly in males. The reason for this accelerated evolution is not clear, but several explanations have involved adaptive and non-adaptive mechanisms. Furthermore, the differences of sex-biased expression patterns of closely related species are also little explored out of Drosophila. To address the evolutionary processes involved with sex-biased expression in species with incipient differentiation, we analyzed male and female transcriptomes of Anastrepha fraterculus and A...
January 15, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346425/hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-support-recognition-memory-and-modulate-hippocampal-excitability
#4
Andrew Hooper, Patrick M Fuller, Jamie Maguire
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling in the hippocampus has been established to be important for mediating the effects of stress on learning and memory. Given our laboratory's recent characterization of a subset of hippocampal CRH neurons as a novel class of GABAergic interneurons, we hypothesized that these local GABAergic hippocampal CRH neurons may influence hippocampal function. Here we applied an array of molecular tools to selectively label and manipulate hippocampal CRH neurons in mice, in order to assess this interneuron population's impact on hippocampus-dependent behaviors and hippocampal network excitability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346276/comparison-of-the-response-of-male-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice-in-behavioral-tasks-to-evaluate-cognitive-function
#5
Yenela Garcia, Nashelly Esquivel
To evaluate several cognitive parameters during the execution of behavioral tasks assessing cognitive function in laboratory animals, the parameters are reported within a range. This situation entails that each laboratory must establish the conditions under which the behavioral task to evaluate the cognitive function can be carried out. C57BL/6 and BALB/c inbred strains are used more often in behavioral studies relating to anxiety, stress, fear and cognitive function. The aim of this work was to compare the behavioral response of mice of the strains BALB/c and C57BL/6 to evaluate memory and learning as cognitive functions...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346165/using-drosophila-to-understand-biochemical-and-behavioral-responses-to-exercise
#6
Alyson Sujkowski, Robert Wessells
The development of endurance exercise paradigms in Drosophila has facilitated study of genetic factors that control individual response to exercise. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that activation of octopaminergic neurons is alone sufficient to confer exercise adaptations to sedentary flies. These results suggest that adrenergic activity is both necessary and sufficient to promote endurance exercise adaptations.
January 15, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345614/output-variability-across-animals-and-levels-in-a-motor-system
#7
Angela Wenning, Brian J Norris, Cengiz Günay, Daniel Kueh, Ronald L Calabrese
Rhythmic behaviors vary across individuals. We investigated the sources of this output variability across a motor system, from the central pattern generator (CPG) to the motor plant. In the bilaterally symmetric leech heartbeat system, the CPG orchestrates two coordinations in the bilateral hearts with different intersegmental phase relations (Δϕ) and periodic side-to-side switches. Population variability is large. We show that the system is precise within a coordination, that differences in repetitions of a coordination contribute little to population output variability, but that differences between bilaterally homologous cells may contribute to some of this variability...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345597/pediatric-markers-of-adult-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Micah Olson, Melissa Chambers, Gabe Shaibi
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United States . Atherosclerotic CV events do not occur until adulthood, except in the context of rare genetic disorders such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. However, the atherogenic process that leads to CVD begins in childhood and progresses throughout the lifespan . The degree of atherosclerosis early in life is associated with established risk factors for CVD (e.g. family history, obesity, dyslipidemia), indicating that the development and progression of atherosclerosis in childhood is driven by genetic as well as environmental factors...
January 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345055/npas4-deficiency-interacts-with-adolescent-stress-to-disrupt-prefrontal-gabaergic-maturation-and-adult-cognitive-flexibility
#9
Chloe Page, Jonathan Alexander, Ryan Shepard, Laurence Coutellier
Healthy cognitive and emotional functioning relies on a balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex. This balance is largely established during early postnatal and adolescent developmental periods by maturation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, including increased density of parvalbumin cells and perineuronal nets. Genetic and/or environmental factors during adolescence can disrupt GABAergic maturation and lead to behavioral dysfunction in adulthood. The present study examined the interaction between chronic mild stress during adolescence and genetic deficiency of neuronal PAS domain 4 (Npas4), a brain-specific transcription factor that regulates inhibitory neurotransmission and that contributes to adolescent prefrontal GABAergic maturation...
January 18, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344662/dengue-virus-1-ns5-genetic-variant-associated-with-a-severe-clinical-infection-possible-reduction-of-the-innate-immune-response-by-inhibition-of-interferon-type-1-and-the-janus-kinase-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-signaling-pathway
#10
Iván Delgado-Enciso, Uriel A López-Lemus, Jose A Valcarcel-Gamiño, Iram P Rodriguez-Sanchez, Salvador Valle-Reyes, Margarita L Martinez-Fierro, Valery Melnikov, José Guzmán-Esquivel, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Laura L Valdez-Velazquez, Luz M Baltazar-Rodriguez, Alejandro D Soriano-Hernandez, Brenda Paz-Michel, Francisco Espinoza-Gómez
Dengue virus (DENV) is currently considered as one of the most important mosquito-borne viral pathogens affecting humans. Genetic variations in viruses are likely to be a condition for more effective evasion of the immune system and resulting in severe clinical consequences. The DENV‑1 NS5 gene was sequenced to establish whether during an epidemic burst there were genetic variations of the virus and whether any variant was associated (through a case‑control design) with severe clinical behavior. A total of 31 patients positive for DENV‑1 were enrolled...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344342/frontotemporal-dementia-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#11
REVIEW
Juan Joseph Young, Mallika Lavakumar, Deena Tampi, Silpa Balachandran, Rajesh R Tampi
Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) describes a cluster of neurocognitive syndromes that present with impairment of executive functioning, changes in behavior, and a decrease in language proficiency. FTD is the second most common form of dementia in those younger than 65 years and is expected to increase in prevalence as the population ages. This goal in our review is to describe advances in the understanding of neurobiological pathology, classification, assessment, and treatment of FTD syndromes...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343848/a-novel-protein-encoded-by-the-circular-form-of-the-shprh-gene-suppresses-glioma-tumorigenesis
#12
Maolei Zhang, Nunu Huang, Xuesong Yang, Jingyan Luo, Sheng Yan, Feizhe Xiao, Wenping Chen, Xinya Gao, Kun Zhao, Huangkai Zhou, Ziqiang Li, Liu Ming, Bo Xie, Nu Zhang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are recognized as functional non-coding transcripts in eukaryotic cells. Recent evidence has indicated that even though circRNAs are generally expressed at low levels, they may be involved in many physiological or pathological processes, such as gene regulation, tissue development and carcinogenesis. Although the 'microRNA sponge' function is well characterized, most circRNAs do not contain perfect trapping sites for microRNAs, which suggests the possibility that circRNAs have functions that have not yet been defined...
January 18, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343822/the-micals-are-a-family-of-f-actin-dismantling-oxidoreductases-conserved-from-drosophila-to-humans
#13
Heng Wu, Hunkar Gizem Yesilyurt, Jimok Yoon, Jonathan R Terman
Cellular form and function - and thus normal development and physiology - are specified via proteins that control the organization and dynamic properties of the actin cytoskeleton. Using the Drosophila model, we have recently identified an unusual actin regulatory enzyme, Mical, which is directly activated by F-actin to selectively post-translationally oxidize and destabilize filaments - regulating numerous cellular behaviors. Mical proteins are also present in mammals, but their actin regulatory properties, including comparisons among different family members, remain poorly defined...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343740/modifiable-lifestyle-behaviors-but-not-a-genetic-risk-score-associate-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-evening-chronotypes
#14
Beatriz Vera, Hassan S Dashti, Purificación Gómez-Abellán, Antonio M Hernández-Martínez, Alberto Esteban, Frank A J L Scheer, Richa Saxena, Marta Garaulet
Evening chronotype associates with health complications possibly via lifestyle factors, while the contribution of genetics is unknown. The aim was to study the relative contributions of genetics, lifestyle, and circadian-related physiological characteristics in metabolic risk of evening chronotype. In order to capture a biological contribution to chronotype, a genetic-risk-score (GRS), comprised of 15 chronotype-related variants, was tested. Moreover, a wide range of behavioral and emotional eating factors was studied within the same population...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342277/finding-nemo-hybrid-assembly-with-oxford-nanopore-and-illumina-reads-greatly-improves-the-clownfish-amphiprion-ocellaris-genome-assembly
#15
Mun Hua Tan, Christopher M Austin, Michael P Hammer, Yin Peng Lee, Laurence J Croft, Han Ming Gan
Background: Some of the most widely recognised coral-reef fishes are clownfish or anemonefishes, members of the family Pomacentridae (subfamily: Amphiprioninae). They are popular aquarium species due to their bright colours, adaptability to captivity and fascinating behavior. Their breeding biology (sequential hermaphrodites) and symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones have attracted much scientific interest. Moreover, there are some curious geographic-based phenotypes which warrant investigation...
January 12, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341070/personality-changes-during-the-transition-from-cognitive-health-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Richard J Caselli, Blake T Langlais, Amylou C Dueck, Bruce R Henslin, Travis A Johnson, Bryan K Woodruff, Charlene Hoffman-Snyder, Dona E C Locke
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Behavioral problems in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) impose major management challenges. Current prevention strategies are anchored to cognitive outcomes, but behavioral outcomes may provide another, clinically relevant opportunity for preemptive therapy. We sought to determine whether personality changes that predispose to behavioral disorders arise during the transition from preclinical AD to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339745/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-asian-honeybee-apis-cerana-provides-novel-insights-into-honeybee-biology
#17
Qingyun Diao, Liangxian Sun, Huajun Zheng, Zhijiang Zeng, Shengyue Wang, Shufa Xu, Huoqing Zheng, Yanping Chen, Yuanyuan Shi, Yuezhu Wang, Fei Meng, Qingliang Sang, Lianfei Cao, Fang Liu, Yongqiang Zhu, Wenfeng Li, Zhiguo Li, Congjie Dai, Minjun Yang, Shenglu Chen, Runsheng Chen, Shaowu Zhang, Jay D Evans, Qiang Huang, Jie Liu, Fuliang Hu, Songkun Su, Jie Wu
The Asian honeybee Apis cerana is one of two bee species that have been commercially kept with immense economic value. Here we present the analysis of genomic sequence and transcriptomic exploration for A. cerana as well as the comparative genomic analysis of the Asian honeybee and the European honeybee A. mellifera. The genome and RNA-seq data yield new insights into the behavioral and physiological resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa the evolution of antimicrobial peptides, and the genetic basis for labor division in A...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339533/learning-dependent-chromatin-remodeling-highlights-noncoding-regulatory-regions-linked-to-autism
#18
John N Koberstein, Shane G Poplawski, Mathieu E Wimmer, Giulia Porcari, Charlly Kao, Bruce Gomes, Davide Risso, Hakon Hakonarson, Nancy R Zhang, Robert T Schultz, Ted Abel, Lucia Peixoto
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with genetic risk factors. Most human disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are not located in genes but rather are in regulatory regions that control gene expression. The function of regulatory regions is determined through epigenetic mechanisms. Parallels between the cellular basis of development and the formation of long-term memory have long been recognized, particularly the role of epigenetic mechanisms in both processes...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339457/curcumin-acts-as-a-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-reverses-nociception-in-mouse-models-of-inflammatory-pain
#19
Eslam Gaber El Nebrisi, Deniz Bagdas, Wisam Toma, Halima Al Samri, Anna Brodzik, Yasmin Alkhlaif, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank C Howarth, Imad M Damaj, Murat Oz
Effects of curcumin, a major ingredient of turmeric, were tested on the function of α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes and on nociception in mouse models of tonic and visceral pain. Curcumin caused a significant potentiation of ACh (100 μM)-induced currents with an EC50 value of 0.2 µM. The effect of curcumin was not dependent on the activation of G-proteins and protein kinases and did not involve Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels expressed endogenously in oocytes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339091/an-energetic-view-of-stress-focus-on-mitochondria
#20
REVIEW
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen, Elissa Epel, Carmen Sandi
Energy is required to sustain life and enable stress adaptation. At the cellular level, energy is largely derived from mitochondria - unique multifunctional organelles with their own genome. Four main elements connect mitochondria to stress: 1) Energy is required at the molecular, (epi)genetic, cellular, organ, and systemic levels to sustain components of stress responses; 2) Glucocorticoids and other steroid hormones are produced and metabolized by mitochondria; 3) Reciprocally, mitochondria functionally respond to neuroendocrine and metabolic stress mediators; and 4) Experimentally manipulating mitochondrial functions alters physiological and behavioral responses to psychological stress...
January 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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