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Behavioral genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548579/genetic-variation-of-the-mu-opioid-receptor-oprm1-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-drd2-is-related-to-smoking-differences-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-but-not-bipolar-disorder
#1
Mika Hirasawa-Fujita, Michael J Bly, Vicki L Ellingrod, Gregory W Dalack, Edward F Domino
It is not known why mentally ill persons smoke excessively. Inasmuch as endogenous opioid and dopaminergic systems are involved in smoking reinforcement, it is important to study mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G (rs1799971), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) Taq1A (rs1800497) genotypes, and sex differences among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Smokers and nonsmokers with schizophrenia (n=177) and bipolar disorder (n=113) were recruited and genotyped. They were classified into three groups: current smoker, former smoker, and never smoker by tobacco smoking status self-report...
2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548230/molecular-basis-of-social-competence-in-medaka-fish
#2
REVIEW
Teruhiro Okuyama, Saori Yokoi, Hideaki Takeuchi
Oryzias latipes (Medaka) is an established vertebrate model for studying developmental genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology. The physiology, embryology, and genetics of this species have been extensively investigated for centuries. Medaka fish recently attracted attention in the field of social neuroscience. This review introduces recent advances in medaka behavioral studies, focusing on female mating preferences and male mate-guarding behaviors. The medaka female has the ability to discriminate male individuals and prefers to mate with socially familiar males (female mating preference)...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548194/-heritability-and-genetic-comorbidity-of-attention-deficit-disorder-with-hyperactivity
#3
Giannina Puddu, Paula Rothhammer, Ximena Carrasco, Francisco Aboitiz, Francisco Rothhammer
This review aims to summarize information about the genetic etiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), with particular reference to the contributions of our research group. We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A high genetic comorbidity was found between E and BD (46%), a moderate comorbidity between MDD and E, MDD and BD and MDD and ADHD (18%, 22% and 10% respectively) and a low comorbidity between E and ASD (2...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548128/genomic-profiling-of-breast-secretory-carcinomas-reveals-distinct-genetics-from-other-breast-cancers-and-similarity-to-mammary-analog-secretory-carcinomas
#4
Gregor Krings, Nancy M Joseph, Gregory R Bean, David Solomon, Courtney Onodera, Eric Talevich, Iwei Yeh, James P Grenert, Elizabeth Hosfield, Emily D Crawford, Richard C Jordan, Annemieke van Zante, Charles Zaloudek, Sandra J Shin, Yunn-Yi Chen
Secretory carcinomas of the breast are rare tumors with distinct histologic features, recurrent t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation resulting in ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion and indolent clinical behavior. Mammary analog secretory carcinomas arising in other sites are histopathologically similar to the breast tumors and also harbor ETV6-NTRK3 fusions. Breast secretory carcinomas are often triple (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) negative with a basal-like immunophenotype. However, genomic studies are lacking, and whether these tumors share genetic features with other basal and/or triple negative breast cancers is unknown...
May 26, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547663/pediatric-predispositional-genetic-risk-communication-potential-utility-for-prevention-and-control-of-melanoma-risk-as-an-exemplar
#5
Yelena P Wu, Darren Mays, Wendy Kohlmann, Kenneth P Tercyak
Predispositional genetic testing among minor children is intensely debated due to the potential benefits and harms of providing this type of genetic information to children and their families. Existing guidelines on pediatric genetic testing state that predispositional testing could be appropriate for minors if preventive services exist that mitigate children's risk for or severity of the health condition in question. We use the example of hereditary melanoma to illustrate the rationale for and potential application of genetic risk communication for an adult-onset cancer to a pediatric population where childhood behaviors may reduce risk of disease later in life...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547648/clinical-and-phenotypic-differences-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-among-arab-and-jewish-children-in-israel
#6
Firas Rinawi, Amit Assa, Husam Bashir, Sarit Peleg, Raanan Shamir
BACKGROUND: Data on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes among the Arab population in Israel or in the neighboring Arab countries is scarce. AIM: We aimed to assess differences in disease phenotype among Arab and Jewish children living in Israel. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric IBD cases, which were diagnosed at the Schneider Children's Medical Center and Ha'Emek Medical Center in Israel between 2000 and 2014...
May 25, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547032/car8-dorsal-root-ganglion-expression-and-genetic-regulation-of-analgesic-responses-are-associated-with-a-cis-eqtl-in-mice
#7
Roy C Levitt, Gerald Y Zhuang, Yuan Kang, Diana M Erasso, Udita Upadhyay, Mehtap Ozdemir, Eugene S Fu, Konstantinos D Sarantopoulos, Shad B Smith, William Maixner, Luda Diatchenko, Eden R Martin, Tim Wiltshire
Carbonic anhydrase-8 (Car8 mouse gene symbol) is devoid of enzymatic activity, but instead functions as an allosteric inhibitor of inositol trisphosphate receptor-1 (ITPR1) to regulate this intracellular calcium release channel important in synaptic functions and neuronal excitability. Causative mutations in ITPR1 and carbonic anhydrase-8 in mice and humans are associated with certain subtypes of spinal cerebellar ataxia (SCA). SCA mice are genetically deficient in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) Car8 expression and display mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity and susceptibility to subacute and chronic inflammatory pain behaviors...
May 25, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546509/behavioral-color-vision-in-a-cichlid-fish-metriaclima-benetos
#8
Daniel Escobar-Camacho, Justin Marshall, Karen L Carleton
Color vision is the capacity of discriminating color regardless of brightness. It is essential for many fish species as they rely on color discrimination for numerous ecological tasks. The study of color vision is important because it can unveil the mechanisms that shape coloration patterns, visual system sensitivities and hence, visual signals. In order to understand better the mechanisms underlying color vision an integrative approach is necessary. This usually requires combining behavioral, physiological, and genetic experiments with quantitative modeling, resulting in a distinctive characterization of the visual system...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545524/an-unsupervised-learning-approach-for-tracking-mice-in-an-enclosed-area
#9
Jakob Unger, Mike Mansour, Marcin Kopaczka, Nina Gronloh, Marc Spehr, Dorit Merhof
BACKGROUND: In neuroscience research, mouse models are valuable tools to understand the genetic mechanisms that advance evidence-based discovery. In this context, large-scale studies emphasize the need for automated high-throughput systems providing a reproducible behavioral assessment of mutant mice with only a minimum level of manual intervention. Basic element of such systems is a robust tracking algorithm. However, common tracking algorithms are either limited by too specific model assumptions or have to be trained in an elaborate preprocessing step, which drastically limits their applicability for behavioral analysis...
May 25, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#10
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545069/behavioral-alterations-are-associated-with-vitamin-b12-deficiency-in-the-transcobalamin-receptor-cd320-ko-mouse
#11
Kaveri Arora, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Alejandro I Hernández, Juan M Alarcon, Edward V Quadros
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is prevalent worldwide and causes megaloblastic anemia and neurologic deficits. While the anemia can be treated, the neurologic deficits can become refractive to treatment as the disease progresses. Therefore, timely intervention is critical for a favorable outcome. Moreover, the metabolic basis for the neuro-pathologic changes and the role of cobalamin deficiency in the pathology still remains unexplained. Using a transcobalamin receptor / CD320 knockout mouse that lacks the receptor for cellular uptake of transcobalamin bound cobalamin, we aimed to determine whether cobalamin deficiency in the central nervous system produced functional neurologic deficits in the mouse that would parallel those observed in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545008/psychiatric-disorders-in-a-cohort-of-individuals-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#12
L Shriki-Tal, H Avrahamy, Y Pollak, V Gross-Tsur, L Genstil, H J Hirsch, F Benarroch
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric manifestations in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are common and often are the most debilitating problem in these individuals. We present an epidemiological nation-wide survey of psychiatric diagnoses in the PWS population, based on full-range psychiatric interviews. METHODS: We studied the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses (as opposed to a symptom-based approach) in the Israel national cohort of adolescents and adults with PWS. There was a total of 53 (32 males) ages 12 years and older...
April 5, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544613/qtl-and-systems-genetics-analysis-of-mouse-grooming-and-behavioral-responses-to-novelty-in-an-open-field
#13
Anna Delprato, Marie-Paule Algéo, Brice Bonheur, Jason A Bubier, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams, Elissa J Chesler, Wim E Crusio
The open field is a classic test used to assess exploratory behavior, anxiety, and locomotor activity in rodents. Here we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors displayed in an open field, using a panel of 53 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains with deep replication (10 per strain and sex). The use of these strains permits the integration and comparison of data obtained in different laboratories, and also offers the possibility to study trait covariance by exploiting powerful bioinformatics tools and resources...
May 24, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544556/electrophysiological-analysis-of-synaptic-transmission-in-drosophila
#14
REVIEW
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544318/neurologic-clinical-signs-in-cattle-with-astrovirus-associated-encephalitis
#16
R Deiss, S Selimovic-Hamza, T Seuberlich, M Meylan
BACKGROUND: Evidence of neurotropic astroviruses has been established using novel genetic methods in cattle suffering from viral encephalitis of previously unknown origin. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical signs observed in cattle with astrovirus-associated encephalitis. ANIMALS: Eight cattle (4 cows, 3 heifers, and 1 bull of 4 different breeds) admitted to the Clinic for Ruminants for neurologic disease and 1 cow investigated in the field...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544218/genome-wide-mediation-analysis-of-psychiatric-and-cognitive-traits-through-imaging-phenotypes
#17
Xuan Bi, Liuqing Yang, Tengfei Li, Baisong Wang, Hongtu Zhu, Heping Zhang
Heritability is well documented for psychiatric disorders and cognitive abilities which are, however, complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Hence, it remains challenging to discover which and how genetic variations contribute to such complex traits. In this article, they propose to use mediation analysis to bridge this gap, where neuroimaging phenotypes were utilized as intermediate variables. The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort was investigated using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and mediation analyses...
May 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544122/pupal-emergence-pattern-in-cactophilic-drosophila-and-the-effect-of-host-plants
#18
Eduardo M Soto, Julián Padró, Pablo Milla Carmona, Diego T Tuero, Valeria P Carreira, Ignacio M Soto
Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species. The former breeds primarily on prickly pears (genus Opuntia) whereas the latter breeds on columnar cacti of the genera Cereus and Trichocereus, although with certain degree of niche overlapping. We examined the interspecific differences in diurnal temporal patterns of adult emergence from puparia and evaluated whether this behavior is affected by rearing in the different cactus hosts available in nature. We detected important host-dependent genetic variation for this trait differentially affecting the emergence schedule of these species...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543077/homotypic-and-heterotypic-continuity-of-symptoms-of-psychiatric-disorders-from-age-4-to-10%C3%A2-years-a-dynamic-panel-model
#19
Lars Wichstrøm, Jay Belsky, Silje Steinsbekk
BACKGROUND: Childhood psychiatric disorders and their symptoms evince both within-disorder (homotypic) and between-disorder (heterotypic) continuities. These continuities may be due to earlier symptoms causing later symptoms or, alternatively, that the same (unknown) causes (e.g., genetics) are operating across time. Applying a novel data analytic approach, we disentangle these two explanations. METHODS: Participants in a Norwegian community study were assessed biennially from 4 to 10 years of age with clinical interviews (n = 1,042)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542485/a-link-between-thrifty-phenotype-and-maternal-care-across-two-generations-of-intercrossed-mice
#20
Bruno Sauce, Carolina P Goes, Isabela Forti, Bruno Gabriel O do Monte, Isabela M Watanabe, Joao Cunha, Andrea C Peripato
Maternal effects are causal influences from mother to offspring beyond genetic information, and have lifelong consequences for multiple traits. Previously, we reported that mice whose mothers did not nurse properly had low birth weight followed by rapid fat accumulation and disturbed development of some organs. That pattern resembles metabolic syndromes known collectively as the thrifty phenotype, which is believed to be an adaptation to a stressful environment which prepares offspring for reduced nutrient supply...
2017: PloS One
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