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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635989/sinonasal-tumor-pathology-what-s-new
#1
A Franchi
The sinonasal tract is an anatomical region affected by a wide variety of tumors with different clinical behavior, histologic and molecular features. Substantial advances have been made in the field of sinonasal tumor pathology in recent years, including improvement in the diagnosis, treatment and genetic characterization. In this article, a review of the histological features of new distinctive pathologic entities as well as newly described molecular alterations of these rare tumors is presented.
March 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#2
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#3
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634108/disturbances-of-novel-object-exploration-and-recognition-in-a-chronic-ketamine-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#4
Maria Jelena Hauser, Dirk Isbrandt, Jochen Roeper
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating disease with an overall lifetime risk of 1%. While positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are reduced by antipsychotic medication based on the inhibition of type 2 dopaminergic receptors (D2R), negative symptoms (e.g. reduced motivation) and cognitive symptoms (e.g. impaired working memory) of schizophrenia are not effectively treated by current medication. This dichotomy might arise in part because of our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633953/reversal-learning-and-resurgence-of-operant-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#5
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani, Carlos R X Cançado, Christopher A Podlesnik
Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor)...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633759/martini-coarse-grained-force-field-extension-to-rna
#6
Jaakko J Uusitalo, Helgi I Ingólfsson, Siewert J Marrink, Ignacio Faustino
RNA has an important role not only as the messenger of genetic information but also as a regulator of gene expression. Given its central role in cell biology, there is significant interest in studying the structural and dynamic behavior of RNA in relation to other biomolecules. Coarse-grain molecular dynamics simulations are a key tool to that end. Here, we have extended the coarse-grain Martini force field to include RNA after our recent extension to DNA. In the same way DNA was modeled, the tertiary structure of RNA is constrained using an elastic network...
June 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633563/mammalian-synthetic-biology-engineering-biological-systems
#7
Joshua B Black, Pablo Perez-Pinera, Charles A Gersbach
The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633291/p2x7-receptors-drive-spine-synapse-plasticity-in-the-learned-helplessness-model-of-depression
#8
L Otrokocsi, Á Kittel, B Sperlágh
Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments, however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632874/screening-for-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#9
David C Grossman, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Susan J Curry, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance)...
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631995/monitoring-the-effect-of-pathogenic-nematodes-on-locomotion-of-drosophila-larvae
#10
Martin Kunc, Badrul Arefin, Pavel Hyrsl, Ulrich Theopold
One of the key factors that determine the interaction between hosts and their parasites is the frequency of their interactions, which depends on the locomotory behavior of both parts. To address host behavior we used natural infections involving insect pathogenic nematodes and Drosophila melanogaster larvae as hosts. Using a modified version of a recently described method (FIMTrack) to assess several parameters in larger sets of animals, we initially detected specific differences in larval food searching when comparing Drosophila strains...
February 21, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631721/disc1-in-astrocytes-influences-adult-neurogenesis-and-hippocampus-dependent-behaviors-in-mice
#11
Chantelle E Terrillion, Bagrat Abazyan, Zhongxi Yang, Joshua Crawford, Alexey V Shevelkin, Yan Jouroukhin, Ki Hyun Yoo, Chang Hoon Cho, Robin Roychaudhuri, Solomon H Snyder, Mi-Hyeon Jang, Mikhail V Pletnikov
The functional role of genetic variants in glia in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders remains poorly studied. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a genetic risk factor implicated in major mental disorders, has been implicated in regulation of astrocyte functions. As both astrocytes and DISC1 influence adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, we hypothesized that selective expression of dominant-negative C-terminus truncated human DISC1 (mutant DISC1) in astrocytes would affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent behaviors...
June 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631230/sequence-analysis-of-chromosome-1-revealed-different-selection-patterns-between-chinese-wild-mice-and-laboratory-strains
#12
Fuyi Xu, Shixian Hu, Tianzhu Chao, Maochun Wang, Kai Li, Yuxun Zhou, Hongyan Xu, Junhua Xiao
Both natural and artificial selection play a critical role in animals' adaptation to the environment. Detection of the signature of selection in genomic regions can provide insights for understanding the function of specific phenotypes. It is generally assumed that laboratory mice may experience intense artificial selection while wild mice more natural selection. However, the differences of selection signature in the mouse genome and underlying genes between wild and laboratory mice remain unclear. In this study, we used two mouse populations: chromosome 1 (Chr 1) substitution lines (C1SLs) derived from Chinese wild mice and mouse genome project (MGP) sequenced inbred strains and two selection detection statistics: Fst and Tajima's D to identify the signature of selection footprint on Chr 1...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631094/post-translational-remodeling-of-ryanodine-receptor-induces-calcium-leak-leading-to-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathologies-and-cognitive-deficits
#13
Alain Lacampagne, Xiaoping Liu, Steven Reiken, Renaud Bussiere, Albano C Meli, Inger Lauritzen, Andrew F Teich, Ran Zalk, Nathalie Saint, Ottavio Arancio, Charlotte Bauer, Fabrice Duprat, Clark A Briggs, Shreaya Chakroborty, Grace E Stutzmann, Michael L Shelanski, Frederic Checler, Mounia Chami, Andrew R Marks
The mechanisms underlying ryanodine receptor (RyR) dysfunction associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) are still not well understood. Here, we show that neuronal RyR2 channels undergo post-translational remodeling (PKA phosphorylation, oxidation, and nitrosylation) in brains of AD patients, and in two murine models of AD (3 × Tg-AD, APP (+/-) /PS1 (+/-)). RyR2 is depleted of calstabin2 (KFBP12.6) in the channel complex, resulting in endoplasmic reticular (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) leak. RyR-mediated ER Ca(2+) leak activates Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways, contributing to AD pathogenesis...
June 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631035/brief-report-the-negev-hospital-university-based-hub-autism-database
#14
Gal Meiri, Ilan Dinstein, Analya Michaelowski, Hagit Flusser, Michal Ilan, Michal Faroy, Asif Bar-Sinai, Liora Manelis, Dana Stolowicz, Lili Lea Yosef, Nadav Davidovitch, Hava Golan, Shosh Arbelle, Idan Menashe
Elucidating the heterogeneous etiologies of autism will require investment in comprehensive longitudinal data acquisition from large community based cohorts. With this in mind, we have established a hospital-university-based (HUB) database of autism which incorporates prospective and retrospective data from a large and ethnically diverse population. The collected data includes social-demographic characteristics, standardized behavioral testing, detailed clinical history from electronic patient records, genetic samples, and various neurological measures...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630875/contribution-of-the-microenvironmental-niche-to-glioblastoma-heterogeneity
#15
REVIEW
Ivy A W Ho, Winston S N Shim
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive cancer of the brain. The dismal prognosis is largely attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the tumor, which in addition to intrinsic molecular and genetic changes is also influenced by the microenvironmental niche in which the glioma cells reside. The cancer stem cells (CSCs) hypothesis suggests that all cancers arise from CSCs that possess the ability to self-renew and initiate tumor formation. CSCs reside in specialized niches where interaction with the microenvironment regulates their stem cell behavior...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630658/evidence-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-biochemical-links-genetic-based-associations-and-non-energy-related-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Keren K Griffiths, Richard J Levy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States, represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive behavior. The underlying cause of autism is unknown and therapy is currently limited to targeting behavioral abnormalities. Emerging studies suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and ASD. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating this potential connection...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629963/environmental-enrichment-reduces-innate-anxiety-with-no-effect-on-depression-like-behaviour-in-mice-lacking-the-serotonin-transporter
#17
Jake Rogers, Shanshan Li, Laurence Lanfumey, Anthony J Hannan, Thibault Renoir
Along with being the main target of many antidepressant medications, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. In line with this, mice with varying 5-HTT genotypes are invaluable tools to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviours as well as the mechanisms mediating potential therapeutics. There is clear evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. In that regard, housing paradigms which seek to enhance cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629594/the-discovery-of-benzoxazine-sulfonamide-inhibitors-of-nav1-7-tools-that-bridge-efficacy-and-target-engagement
#18
Daniel S La, Emily A Peterson, Christiane Bode, Alessandro A Boezio, Howard Bregman, Margaret Y Chu-Moyer, James Coats, Erin F DiMauro, Thomas A Dineen, Bingfan Du, Hua Gao, Russell Graceffa, Hakan Gunaydin, Angel Guzman-Perez, Robert Fremeau, Xin Huang, Christopher Ilch, Thomas J Kornecook, Charles Kreiman, Joseph Ligutti, Min-Hwa Jasmine Lin, Jeff S McDermott, Isaac Marx, David J Matson, Stefan I McDonough, Bryan D Moyer, Hanh Nho Nguyen, Kristin Taborn, Violeta Yu, Matthew M Weiss
The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 has received much attention from the scientific community due to compelling human genetic data linking gain- and loss-of-function mutations to pain phenotypes. Despite this genetic validation of NaV1.7 as a target for pain, high quality pharmacological tools facilitate further understanding of target biology, establishment of target coverage requirements and subsequent progression into the clinic. Within the sulfonamide class of inhibitors, reduced potency on rat NaV1...
June 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627812/genetics-of-alcohol-consumption-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Sophia Fochler, Tatiana V Morozova, Morgan R Davis, Alexander W Gearhart, Wen Huang, Trudy F C Mackay, Robert R H Anholt
Individual variation in alcohol consumption in human populations is determined by genetic, environmental, social and cultural factors. In contrast to humans, genetic contributions to complex behavioral phenotypes can be readily dissected in Drosophila, where both the genetic background and environment can be controlled and behaviors quantified through simple high-throughput assays. Here, we measured voluntary consumption of ethanol in ~3,000 individuals of each sex from an advanced intercross population derived from 37 lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel...
June 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627749/determining-the-impact-of-cell-mixing-on-signaling-during-development
#20
REVIEW
Koichiro Uriu, Luis G Morelli
Cell movement and intercellular signaling occur simultaneously to organize morphogenesis during embryonic development. Cell movement can cause relative positional changes between neighboring cells. When intercellular signals are local such cell mixing may affect signaling, changing the flow of information in developing tissues. Little is known about the effect of cell mixing on intercellular signaling in collective cellular behaviors and methods to quantify its impact are lacking. Here we discuss how to determine the impact of cell mixing on cell signaling drawing an example from vertebrate embryogenesis: the segmentation clock, a collective rhythm of interacting genetic oscillators...
June 19, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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