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Behavioral genetics

Kazuo Kobayashi, Yu Kanesaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
Bacteria have developed various motility mechanisms to adapt to a variety of solid surfaces. A rhizosphere isolate, Paenibacillus sp. NAIST15-1, exhibited unusual motility behavior. When spotted onto 1.5% agar media, Paenibacillus sp. formed many colonies, each of which moved around actively at a speed of 3.6 μm/sec. As their density increased, each moving colony began to spiral, finally forming a static round colony. Despite its unusual motility behavior, draft genome sequencing revealed that both the composition and organization of flagellar genes in Paenibacillus sp...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Gillian W Hooker, Kendall L Umstead, Katie L Lewis, Laura K Koehly, Leslie G Biesecker, Barbara B Biesecker
PURPOSE: As clinical genome sequencing expand its reach, understanding how individuals engage with this process are of critical importance. In this study, we aimed to describe internal engagement and its correlates among a ClinSeq cohort of adults consented to genome sequencing and receipt of results. METHODS: This study was framed using the precaution adoption process model (PAPM), in which knowledge predicts engagement and engagement predicts subsequent behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Lina Zeldovich
Improvements to RFID technology are making it an increasingly flexible tool for tracking genetically modified rodents, characterizing their natural behaviors, and improving data integrity.
October 20, 2016: Lab Animal
Karol Cichewicz, Emma J Garren, Chika Adiele, Yoshinori Aso, Zhang Wang, Martin Wu, Serge Birman, Gerald M Rubin, Jay Hirsh
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with conserved behavioral roles between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In addition to its neural functions, in insects DA is a critical substrate for cuticle pigmentation and hardening. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is the rate limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis. Viable brain DA deficient flies were previously generated using tissue selective GAL4-UAS binary expression rescue of a DTH null mutation and these flies show specific behavioral impairments. To circumvent the limitations of rescue via binary expression, here we achieve rescue utilizing genomically integrated mutant DTH...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Natalya M Gashnikova, Darya P Zyryanova, Ekaterina M Astakhova, Vladimir V Ivlev, Maria P Gashnikova, Natalya V Moskaleva, Sergey S Aikin, Tatyana N Bulatova, Sergey V Pustylnikov, Evgeny F Bocharov, Aleksey V Totmenin
Kemerovo Oblast (KO) has had the highest rate of HIV spread in Russia since 2011. The aim of this work was to study the genetic variation of HIV-1 in Kemerovo Oblast. Blood was sampled from a total of 91 HIV-positive antiretroviral-therapy-naïve individuals in 2013 (38) and 2015 (53). HIV-1 subtypes, pol gene drug resistance mutations, and viral tropism were analyzed. In 2013-2015, the prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A decreased in KO from 60.5 to 7.5 %. The samples collected in 2015 from the patients with newly diagnosed HIV demonstrate the current dominance of HIV-1 CRF63_02A1 (71...
October 19, 2016: Archives of Virology
Amy R Reed
This article analyzes narrative illustrations in genetic counseling textbooks as a way of understanding professional habitus--the dispositions that motivate professional behavior. In particular, this analysis shows that there are significant differences in how the textbooks' expository and narrative portions represent Down syndrome, genetic counseling practice, and patient behaviors. While the narrative portions of the text position the genetic counseling profession as working in service to the values of genetic medicine, the expository portions represent genetic counselors as neutral parties...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
Wenjing Wu, Zhiqiang Li, Shijun Zhang, Yunling Ke, Yahui Hou
BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. METHODS: To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0...
2016: PeerJ
Yiqin Jiang, Elise Pitmon, Jack Berry, Fred W Wolf, Zach McKenzie, Tim J Lebestky
Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb) to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilize DopR in daytime sleep regulation...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Peter A Bos
Variation in the quality of parental care has a tremendous impact on a child's social-emotional development. Research investigating the predictors of this variability in human caregiving behavior has mostly focused on learning mechanisms. Evidence is currently accumulating for the complementary underlying role of steroid hormones and neuropeptides. An overview is provided of the hormones and neuropeptides relevant for human caregiving behavior. Then the developmental factors are described that stimulate variability in sensitivity to these hormones and neuropeptides, which may result in variability in the behavioral repertoire of caregiving...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Roxann Diez Gross, Ronit Gisser, Gregory Cherpes, Katie Hartman, Rishi Maheshwary
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is caused by a genetic imprinting abnormality resulting from the lack of expression of the paternal genes at 15q11-q13. Intellectual disability, low muscle tone, and life-threatening hyperphagia are hallmarks of the phenotype. The need for the Heimlich maneuver, death from choking, and pulmonary infection occur in a disproportionally high number of persons with PWS. The widely held belief is that eating behaviors are responsible for choking and aspiration; yet, no investigation had sought to determine if swallowing impairments were present in persons with PWS...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Karol Kumpfer, Catia Magalhães, Jing Xie
Family evidence-based interventions (FEBIs) are effective in creating lasting improvements and preventing children's behavioral health problems, even in genetically at-risk children. Most FEBIs, however, were designed for English-speaking families. Consequently, providers have difficulty engaging non-English-speaking populations in their own country or in other countries where the content, language, and recruitment methods of the FEBIs do not reflect their culture. The practical solution has been to culturally adapt existing FEBIs...
October 18, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Ronald M Nelson, Svetlana V Temnykh, Jennifer L Johnson, Anastasiya V Kharlamova, Anastasiya V Vladimirova, Rimma G Gulevich, Darya V Shepeleva, Irina N Oskina, Gregory M Acland, Lars Rönnegård, Lyudmila N Trut, Örjan Carlborg, Anna V Kukekova
Individuals involved in a social interaction exhibit different behavioral traits that, in combination, form the individual's behavioral responses. Selectively bred strains of silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) demonstrate markedly different behaviors in their response to humans. To identify the genetic basis of these behavioral differences we constructed a large F2 population including 537 individuals by cross-breeding tame and aggressive fox strains. 98 fox behavioral traits were recorded during social interaction with a human experimenter in a standard four-step test...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Genetics
J David Sweatt, Carol A Tamminga
This review concerns epigenetic mechanisms and their roles in conferring interindividual differences, especially as related to experientially acquired and genetically driven changes in central nervous system (CNS) function. In addition, the review contains commentary regarding the possible ways in which epigenomic changes may contribute to neuropsychiatric conditions and disorders and ways in which epigenotyping might be cross-correlated with clinical phenotyping in the context of precision medicine. The review begins with a basic description of epigenetic marking in the CNS and how these changes are powerful regulators of gene readout...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Sharron L Docherty, Allison Vorderstrasse, Debra Brandon, Constance Johnson
Nursing scientists have long been interested in complex, context-dependent questions addressing individual- and population-level challenges in health and illness. These critical questions require multilevel data (e.g., genetic, physiologic, biologic, behavioral, affective, and social). Advances in data-gathering methods have resulted in the collection of large sets of complex, multifaceted, and often non-comparable data. Scientific visualization is a powerful methodological tool for facilitating understanding of these multidimensional data sets...
October 18, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Natalie J Loxton, Renée J Tipman
Sensitivity to the rewarding properties of appetitive substances has long been implicated in excessive consumption of palatable foods and drugs of abuse. Previous research focusing on individual differences in reward responsiveness has found heightened trait reward sensitivity to be associated with binge-eating, hazardous drinking, and illicit substance use. Food addiction has been proposed as an extreme form of compulsive-overeating and has been associated with genetic markers of heightened reward responsiveness...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Eunjoo Cho, Euna Lee, Eun Young Kim
The circadian clock system enables organisms to anticipate the rhythmic environmental changes and to manifest behavior and physiology at advantageous times of day. Transcriptional/translational feedback loop (TTFL) is the basic feature of eukaryotic circadian clock and is based on the rhythmic association of circadian transcriptional activator and repressor. In Drosophila, repression of dCLOCK/CYCLE (dCLK/CYC) mediated transcription by PERIOD (PER) is critical for inducing circadian rhythms of gene expression...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
Evelyn Andersson, Christian Rück, Catharina Lavebratt, Erik Hedman, Martin Schalling, Nils Lindefors, Elias Eriksson, Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson, Tomas Furmark
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079015.].
2016: PloS One
Cecilia Olguin Perglione, Marcelo D Golemba, Carolina Torres, Maria Barrandeguy
Equine influenza virus (EIV) is considered the most important respiratory pathogen of horses as outbreaks of the disease lead to substantial economic losses. The H3N8 EIV has caused respiratory disease in horses across the world, including South American countries. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the complete haemagglutinin gene of the H3N8 EIV detected in South America since 1963 were analyzed. Phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent analyses were carried out to study the origin, the time of the most recent common ancestors (tMRCA), the demographic and the phylogeographic patterns of the H3N8 EIV...
October 16, 2016: Pathogens
Yasin Panahi, Fahimeh Salasar Moghaddam, Zahra Ghasemi, Mandana Hadi Jafari, Reza Shervin Badv, Mohamad Reza Eskandari, Mehrdad Pedram
Childhood autism is a severe form of complex genetically heterogeneous and behaviorally defined set of neurodevelopmental diseases, collectively termed as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive technique for transcriptome analysis, and it has been frequently used in ASD gene expression studies. However, normalization to stably expressed reference gene(s) is necessary to validate any alteration reported at the mRNA level for target genes...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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