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Behavioral genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448626/genetic-background-dependent-effects-of-murine-micro-rnas-on-circadian-clock-function
#1
Silke Kiessling, Ahmet Ucar, Kamal Chowdhury, Henrik Oster, Gregor Eichele
MicroRNAs (miRs) are important regulators of a wide range of biological processes. Antagomir studies suggest an implication of miR-132 in the functionality of the mammalian circadian clock. miR-212 and miR-132 are tandemly processed from the same transcript and share the same seed region. We found the clock modulator miR-132 and miR-212 to be expressed rhythmically in the central circadian clock. Consequently, mRNAs implicated in circadian functions may likely be targeted by both miRs. To further characterize the circadian role we generated mice with stable deletion of the miR-132/212 locus and compared the circadian behavior of mutant and wild-type control animals on two genetic backgrounds frequently used in chronobiological research, C57BL/6N and 129/Sv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448442/rai1-haploinsufficiency-is-associated-with-social-abnormalities-in-mice
#2
Nalini R Rao, Clemer Abad, Irene C Perez, Anand K Srivastava, Juan I Young, Katherina Walz
Background: Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors; with different degrees of severity in each of the core areas. Haploinsufficiency and point mutations of RAI1 are associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a genetic condition that scores within the autism spectrum range for social responsiveness and communication, and is characterized by neurobehavioral abnormalities, intellectual disability, developmental delay, sleep disturbance, and self-injurious behaviors...
April 27, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448039/surgical-ablation-assay-for-studying-eye-regeneration-in-planarians
#3
Jacob M Morton, Marwa A Saad, Wendy S Beane
In the study of adult stem cells and regenerative mechanisms, planarian flatworms are a staple in vivo model system. This is due in large part to their abundant pluripotent stem cell population and ability to regenerate all cell and tissue types after injuries that would be catastrophic for most animals. Recently, planarians have gained popularity as a model for eye regeneration. Their ability to regenerate the entire eye (comprised of two tissue types: pigment cells and photoreceptors) allows for the dissection of the mechanisms regulating visual system regeneration...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448025/novel-assay-for-cold-nociception-in-drosophila-larvae
#4
Heather N Turner, Christian Landry, Michael J Galko
How organisms sense and respond to noxious temperatures is still poorly understood. Further, the mechanisms underlying sensitization of the sensory machinery, such as in patients experiencing peripheral neuropathy or injury-induced sensitization, are not well characterized. The genetically tractable Drosophila model has been used to study the cells and genes required for noxious heat detection, which has yielded multiple conserved genes of interest. Little is known however about the cells and receptors important for noxious cold sensing...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447410/2016-who-classification-update-what-s-new-in-lymphoid-neoplasms
#5
REVIEW
E D Hsi
In the 8 years since the publication of the 4th edition of the WHO Classification of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tumours in 2008, there has been rapid accumulation of knowledge in the molecular genetics, biology, clinical behavior of many hematologic malignancies. Concepts and models have advanced to the point at which updates were deemed necessary prior to the formal WHO process of publication of a 5th edition as part of the WHO "blue book" series. This overview will focus on lymphoid tumors and highlight important changes and updates to these neoplasms...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445878/differential-allelic-expression-of-htr1b-in-suicide-victims-genetic-and-epigenetic-effect-of-the-cis-acting-variants
#6
Ali Bani-Fatemi, Aaron Howe, Clement Zai, James L Kennedy, John Vincent, John Strauss, Albert Wong, Vincenzo De Luca
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we tested the allelic imbalance of the C861G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HTR1B in the frontal cortex of suicide victims. METHODS: The study was conducted using 3 sets of samples. First, C861G allele-specific mRNA levels in the frontal cortex were compared between suicide (n = 13) and nonsuicide controls (n = 13) from the Stanley Medical Research postmortem brain collection. Second, we tested common variants in the HTR1B promoter for linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the C861G variant in an unrelated sample of suicide attempters (SA; n = 38) and non-SA (NSA; n = 42)...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445587/cb1-receptors-downregulate-a-camp-epac2-plc-pathway-to-silence-the-nerve-terminals-of-cerebellar-granule-cells
#7
Beatris Alonso, David Bartolomé-Martín, José Javier Ferrero, Jorge Ramírez-Franco, Magdalena Torres, José Sánchez-Prieto
Cannabinoid receptors mediate short-term retrograde inhibition of neurotransmitter release, as well as long-term depression of synaptic transmission at excitatory synapses. The responses of individual nerve terminals in VGLUT1-pHluorin transfected cerebellar granule cells to cannabinoids have shown that prolonged activation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) silences a subpopulation of previously active synaptic boutons. Adopting a combined pharmacological and genetic approach to study the molecular mechanisms of CB1R-induced silencing, we found that adenylyl cyclase inhibition decreases cAMP levels while it increases the number of silent synaptic boutons and occludes the induction of further silencing by the cannabinoid agonist HU-210...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444878/what-do-farmers-weed-control-decisions-imply-about-glyphosate-resistance-evidence-from-surveys-of-u-s-corn-fields
#8
Seth J Wechsler, Jonathan R McFadden, David J Smith
BACKGROUND: The first case of glyphosate-resistant weeds in the United States was documented in 1998, two years after the commercialization of genetically-engineered herbicide-resistant (HR) corn and soybeans. Currently, over 15 glyphosate-resistant weed species affect U.S. crop production areas. These weeds have the potential to reduce yields, increase costs, and lower farm profitability. The objective of our study is to develop a behavioral model of farmers' weed management decisions and use it to analyze weed resistance to glyphosate in U...
April 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444691/maldi-ms-profiling-of-serum-o-and-n-glycosylation-in-cog5-cdg
#9
Angelo Palmigiano, Rosaria Ornella Bua, Rita Barone, Daisy Rymen, Luc Régal, Nicolas Deconinck, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Cheuk-Wing Fung, Domenico Garozzo, Jaak Jaeken, Luisa Sturiale
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are due to defective glycosylation of glycoconjugates. COG-CDG are genetic diseases due to defects of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex subunits 1-8 causing N- and O-glycan processing abnormalities. In COG-CDG, IEF separation of undersialylated glycoforms of serum transferrin and apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) allows to detect N- and O-glycosylation defects respectively. COG5-CDG (COG5 subunit deficiency) is a multisystem disease with dysmorphic features, intellectual disability of variable degree, seizures, acquired microcephaly, sensory defects and autistic behavior...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444302/draft-genome-of-the-lined-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus
#10
Qiang Lin, Ying Qiu, Ruobo Gu, Meng Xu, Jia Li, Chao Bian, Huixian Zhang, Geng Qin, Yanhong Zhang, Wei Luo, Jieming Chen, Xinxin You, Mingjun Fan, Min Sun, Pao Xu, Byrappa Venkatesh, Junming Xu, Hongtuo Fu, Qiong Shi
Background: The lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus , is an Atlantic species and mainly inhabits shallow sea-beds or coral reefs. It has become very popular in China for its wide use in traditional Chinese medicine. In order to improve the aquaculture yield of this valuable fish species, we are trying to develop genomic resources for assistant selection in genetic breeding. Here, we provide whole genome sequencing, assembly and gene annotation of the lined seahorse, which can enrich genome resource and further application for its molecular breeding...
April 22, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444137/effects-of-serotonin-transporter-gene-variation-on-impulsivity-mediated-by-default-mode-network-a-family-study-of-depression
#11
Jiook Cha, Guia Guffanti, Jay Gingrich, Ardesheer Talati, Priya Wickramaratne, Myrna Weissman, Jonathan Posner
Serotonergic neurotransmission, potentially through effects on the brain's default mode network (DMN), may regulate aspects of attention including impulse control. Indeed, genetic variants of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) have been implicated in impulsivity and related psychopathology. Yet it remains unclear the mechanism by which the 5-HTT genetic variants contribute to individual variability in impulse control. Here, we tested whether DMN connectivity mediates an association between the 5-HTT genetic variants and impulsivity...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444135/prevalence-and-correlates-of-olfactory-dysfunction-in-old-age-a-population-based-study
#12
Janina Seubert, Erika J Laukka, Debora Rizzuto, Thomas Hummel, Laura Fratiglioni, Lars Bäckman, Maria Larsson
Background: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) in old age is associated with poor health outcomes. Interrelationships among different correlates of OD can offer insights into the underlying mechanisms, but to date remain understudied. Methods: Odor identification performance and self-reported olfactory functioning were studied in 2,234 people aged 60-90 years, who were free of neurodegenerative disease and enrolled in the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) study, Stockholm, Sweden...
April 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444119/spatial-variability-in-adhd-related-behaviors-among-children-born-to-mothers-residing-near-the-new-bedford-harbor-superfund-site
#13
Verónica M Vieira, M Patricia Fabian, Thomas F Webster, Jonathan I Levy, Susan A Korrick
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has an uncertain etiology, with potential contributions from different risk factors such as prenatal environmental exposure to organochlorines and metals, social risk factors, and genetics. The degree to which geographic variability in ADHD is independent of, or explained by, risk factors may provide etiological insight. We investigated determinants of geographic variation in ADHD-related behaviors among children living near the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated New Bedford Harbor (NBH) Superfund site in Massachusetts...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443101/characterization-of-soybean-genetically-modified-for-drought-tolerance-in-field-conditions
#14
Renata Fuganti-Pagliarini, Leonardo C Ferreira, Fabiana A Rodrigues, Hugo B C Molinari, Silvana R R Marin, Mayla D C Molinari, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Liliane M Mertz-Henning, José R B Farias, Maria C N de Oliveira, Norman Neumaier, Norihito Kanamori, Yasunari Fujita, Junya Mizoi, Kazuo Nakashima, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Alexandre L Nepomuceno
Drought is one of the most stressful environmental factor causing yield and economic losses in many soybean-producing regions. In the last decades, transcription factors (TFs) are being used to develop genetically modified plants more tolerant to abiotic stresses. Dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) and ABA-responsive element-binding (AREB) TFs were introduced in soybean showing improved drought tolerance, under controlled conditions. However, these results may not be representative of the way in which plants behave over the entire season in the real field situation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443016/genetics-of-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#15
Walter J Lukiw, Evgeny I Rogaev
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a terminal, age-related neurological syndrome exhibiting progressive cognitive and memory decline, however AD patients in addition exhibit ancillary neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) and these include aggression. In this communication we provide recent evidence for the mis-regulation of a small family of genes expressed in the human hippocampus that appear to be significantly involved in expression patterns common to both AD and aggression. DNA array- and mRNA transcriptome-based gene expression analysis and candidate gene association and/or genome-wide association studies (CGAS, GWAS) of aggressive attributes in humans have revealed a surprisingly small subset of six brain genes that are also strongly associated with altered gene expression patterns in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442992/genetic-deletion-of-akt3-induces-an-endophenotype-reminiscent-of-psychiatric-manifestations-in-mice
#16
Yan Bergeron, Geneviève Bureau, Marie-Élaine Laurier-Laurin, Eric Asselin, Guy Massicotte, Michel Cyr
The protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), found in three distinctive isoforms (PKBα/Akt1, PKBβ/Akt2, PKBγ/Akt3), is implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as cell development, growth and survival. Although Akt3 is the most expressed isoform in the brain, its role in cerebral functions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral, electrophysiological and biochemical consequences of Akt3 deletion in mice. Motor abilities, spatial navigation, recognition memory and LTP are intact in the Akt3 knockout (KO) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442501/chlorokb-a-web-application-for-the-integration-of-knowledge-related-to-chloroplast-metabolic-network
#17
Pauline Gloaguen, Sylvain Bournais, Claude Alban, Stephane Ravanel, Daphne Seigneurin-Berny, Michel Matringe, Marianne Tardif, Marcel Kuntz, Myriam Ferro, Christophe Bruley, Norbert Rolland, Yves Vandenbrouck, Gilles Curien
CONTEXT: Higher plants, as autotrophic organisms, are effective sources of molecules. They hold great promise for metabolic engineering, but the behavior of plant metabolism at the network level is still incompletely described. Although structural models (stoichiometry matrices) and pathway databases are extremely useful, they cannot describe the complexity of the metabolic context and new tools are required to visually represent integrated biocurated knowledge for use by both humans and computers...
April 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442450/implementing-an-internet-delivered-skin-cancer-genetic-testing-intervention-to-improve-sun-protection-behavior-in-a-diverse-population-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Jennifer L Hay, Marianne Berwick, Kate Zielaskowski, Kirsten Am White, Vivian M Rodríguez, Erika Robers, Dolores D Guest, Andrew Sussman, Yvonne Talamantes, Matthew R Schwartz, Jennie Greb, Jessica Bigney, Kimberly A Kaphingst, Keith Hunley, David B Buller
BACKGROUND: Limited translational genomic research currently exists to guide the availability, comprehension, and appropriate use of personalized genomics in diverse general population subgroups. Melanoma skin cancers are preventable, curable, common in the general population, and disproportionately increasing in Hispanics. OBJECTIVE: Variants in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene are present in approximately 50% of the population, are major factors in determining sun sensitivity, and confer a 2-to-3-fold increase in melanoma risk in the general population, even in populations with darker skin...
April 25, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441915/early-life-adversity-induced-long-term-epigenetic-programming-associated-with-early-onset-of-chronic-physical-aggression-studies-in-humans-and-animals
#19
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Vladimir P Chekhonin
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. METHODS: Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. RESULTS: Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression...
April 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#20
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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