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AVR-7 gene

Suvendu Mondal, Anand M Badigannavar
A consensus rust QTL was identified within a 1.25 cM map interval of A03 chromosome in cultivated peanut. This map interval contains a TIR-NB-LRR R gene and four pathogenesis-related genes. Disease resistance in plants is manifested due to the specific interaction between the R gene product and its cognate avirulence gene product (AVR) in the pathogen. Puccinia arachidis Speg. causes rust disease and inflicts economic damages to peanut. Till now, no experimental evidence is known for the action of R gene in peanut for rust resistance...
May 9, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Humira Sonah, Xuehua Zhang, Rupesh K Deshmukh, M Hossein Borhan, W G Dilantha Fernando, Richard R Bélanger
Leptosphaeria maculans is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes blackleg of canola (Brassica napus), one of the most devastating diseases of this crop. In the present study, transcriptome profiling of L. maculans was performed in an effort to understand and define the pathogenicity genes that govern both the biotrophic and the necrotrophic phase of the fungus, as well as those that separate a compatible from an incompatible interaction. For this purpose, comparative RNA-seq analyses were performed on L. maculans isolate D5 at four different time points following inoculation on susceptible cultivar Topas-DH16516 or resistant introgression line Topas-Rlm2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Andrew M Rezansoff, Roz Laing, John S Gilleard
Haemonchus contortus is the leading parasitic nematode species used to study anthelmintic drug resistance. A variety of candidate loci have been implicated as being associated with ivermectin resistance in this parasite but definitive evidence of their importance is still lacking. We have previously performed two independent serial backcross experiments to introgress ivermectin resistance loci from two H. contortus ivermectin-resistant strains - MHco4(WRS) and MHco10(CAVR) - into the genetic background of the ivermectin-susceptible genome reference strain MHco3(ISE)...
September 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Roz Laing, Kirsty Maitland, Lenka Lecová, Philip J Skuce, Andy Tait, Eileen Devaney
Sheep farmers in the UK rely on strategic anthelmintic use to treat and control gastrointestinal roundworms in their flocks. However, resistance to these drugs is now widespread and threatens the sustainability of sheep production. The mechanisms underlying resistance to the most commonly used class, the macrocyclic lactones, are not known and sensitive diagnostic tools based on molecular markers are not currently available. This prohibits accurate surveillance of resistance or assessment of strategies aimed at controlling its spread...
September 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Agata Bryk, Ewa Wypasek, Magdalena Awsiuk, Dorota Maj, Anetta Undas
INTRODUCTION: Warfarin, a racemic mixture of S- and R-enantiomers, is the cornerstone of therapy in patients following cardiac valve replacement. S-warfarin is metabolized to 7-S-hydroxywarfarin by the cytochrome P450 isoform 2C9 encoded by CYP2C9 gene. R-warfarin is metabolized by multiple cytochromes P450. We sought to assess the impact of clinical and genetic factors on circulating warfarin metabolites following valve implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 120 patients after 3 months since elective mitral and/or aortic valve replacement...
June 2015: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
H E Ahrens, B Petersen, D Herrmann, A Lucas-Hahn, P Hassel, M Ziegler, W A Kues, U Baulain, W Baars, R Schwinzer, J Denner, D Rataj, S Werwitzke, A Tiede, A K Bongoni, P S Garimella, A Despont, R Rieben, H Niemann
Acute vascular rejection (AVR), in particular microvascular thrombosis, is an important barrier to successful pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Here, we report the generation of pigs with decreased tissue factor (TF) levels induced by small interfering (si)RNA-mediated gene silencing. Porcine fibroblasts were transfected with TF-targeting small hairpin (sh)RNA and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Offspring were analyzed for siRNA, TF mRNA and TF protein level. Functionality of TF downregulation was investigated by a whole blood clotting test and a flow chamber assay...
May 2015: American Journal of Transplantation
J Gustav Smith, Kevin Luk, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, James C Engert, Ron Do, George Hindy, Gull Rukh, Line Dufresne, Peter Almgren, David S Owens, Tamara B Harris, Gina M Peloso, Kathleen F Kerr, Quenna Wong, Albert V Smith, Matthew J Budoff, Jerome I Rotter, L Adrienne Cupples, Stephen Rich, Sekar Kathiresan, Marju Orho-Melander, Vilmundur Gudnason, Christopher J O'Donnell, Wendy S Post, George Thanassoulis
IMPORTANCE: Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with aortic stenosis in observational studies; however, randomized trials with cholesterol-lowering therapies in individuals with established valve disease have failed to demonstrate reduced disease progression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether genetic data are consistent with an association between LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides (TG) and aortic valve disease...
November 5, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Yuki Satoh, Shinsuke Miki, Toyoyuki Ose, Azusa Oikawa, Katsumi Maenaka, Ryouhei Terauchi, Kozo Asano, Teruo Sone
The avirulence gene AVR-Pia of Magnaporthe oryzae, which induces a hypersensitive reaction in rice cultivars containing the resistance gene Pia, was expressed in Escherichia coli. AVR-Pia protein was collected as inclusion bodies, denatured, and refolded. Finally, recombinant AVR-Pia (rAVR-Pia) protein was purified by column chromatography. Infiltration of rAVR-Pia triggered cell browning in the leaves of rice cultivar Aichiasahi (Pia), with accumulation of H2O2 and induction of PR1a expression in rice. On the other hand, these reactions were not observed in Shin-2 (pia) leaves after the same treatment...
2014: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
S Kleiboeker, J Nutt, B Schindel, J Dannehl, J Hester
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are a major cause of disease among immunocompromised patients. Prolonged antiviral therapy is often necessary to prevent or treat CMV disease, and may lead to development of antiviral resistance (AVR). Timely identification of viral mutations conferring resistance is essential for effective patient management. METHODS: Amplification by polymerase chain reaction followed by bi-directional nucleotide sequencing was performed for relevant regions of the CMV UL97 and UL54 genes...
August 2014: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Jinbin Li, Lin Lu, Yulin Jia, Chengyun Li
Rice blast is one of the most damaging diseases of rice worldwide. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequence variation of avirulence (AVR) genes of AVR-Pita1 in field isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae in order to understand the effectiveness of the resistance gene Pi-ta in China. Genomic DNA of 366 isolates of M. oryzae collected from Yunnan province of China were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to examine the existence of AVR-Pita1 using gene-specific PCR markers. Results of PCR products revealed that 218 isolates of M...
July 2014: Phytopathology
A Rollin, F Sacher, J B Gourraud, J L Pasquié, F Raczka, A Duparc, P Mondoly, C Cardin, M Delay, S Chatel, N Derval, A Denis, M Sadron, J M Davy, M Hocini, P Jaïs, L Jesel, M Haïssaguerre, V Probst, P Maury
BACKGROUND: Despite isolated reports of Brugada syndrome (BrS) in the inferior or lateral leads, the prevalence and prognostic value of ST elevation in the peripheral electrocardiographic (ECG) leads in patients with BrS remain poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence, characteristics, and prognostic value of type 1 ST elevation and ST depression in the peripheral ECG leads in a large cohort of patients with BrS. METHODS: ECGs from 323 patients with BrS (age 47 ± 13 years; 257 men) with spontaneous (n = 141) or drug-induced (n = 182) type 1 ECG were retrospectively reviewed...
July 2013: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Bernadette F Ardelli, Roger K Prichard
In vertebrates, the function of P-glycoprotein (PGP) is to protect against toxic compounds through active efflux of the toxin from target tissues. In clinical oncology, the overexpression of PGP confers drug resistance. The function(s) of PGP in nematode physiology or in conferring drug resistance is less understood. The objective of this study was to determine the role of PGP in drug resistance in nematodes using Caenorhabditis elegans and ivermectin (IVM) as the model system. The IVM sensitive wild-type Bristol N2 strain, seven PGP deletion strains and a triple IVM receptor (avr-14/avr-15/glc-1) knock-out strain showing synthetic resistance to IVM (IVM-R) were used to (1) compare the gene expression signatures of 15 PGPs in the wild-type and resistant strains following treatment; (2) measure motility and pharyngeal pumping phenotypes in the wild-type, IVM-R and PGP deletion strains before and after treatment; and (3) quantify the phenotypic responses of the wild-type and IVM-R strains to IVM or IVM co-administered with 12 chemosensitizers that interfere with PGP function...
January 31, 2013: Veterinary Parasitology
Izumi Chuma, Chihiro Isobe, Yuma Hotta, Kana Ibaragi, Natsuru Futamata, Motoaki Kusaba, Kentaro Yoshida, Ryohei Terauchi, Yoshikatsu Fujita, Hitoshi Nakayashiki, Barbara Valent, Yukio Tosa
Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, a devastating problem worldwide. This fungus has caused breakdown of resistance conferred by newly developed commercial cultivars. To address how the rice blast fungus adapts itself to new resistance genes so quickly, we examined chromosomal locations of AVR-Pita, a subtelomeric gene family corresponding to the Pita resistance gene, in various isolates of M. oryzae (including wheat and millet pathogens) and its related species. We found that AVR-Pita (AVR-Pita1 and AVR-Pita2) is highly variable in its genome location, occurring in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and supernumerary chromosomes, particularly in rice-infecting isolates...
July 2011: PLoS Pathogens
Giovanni A L Broggini, Vincent G M Bus, Gabriella Parravicini, Satish Kumar, Remmelt Groenwold, Cesare Gessler
Durable resistance to apple scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke) Wint; anamorph Spilocaea pomi Fries) is one of the major goals of apple (Malus) breeding programs. Since current scab resistance breeding is heavily reliant on genes with gene-for-gene relationships, a good understanding of the genetic basis of host-pathogen interactions needs to be developed for this strategy to be successful. While the genomic organization of apple scab resistance genes has been studied extensively, little is known about the avirulence genes in the pathogen...
February 2011: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Johannes Lagethon Bjørnstad, Ivar Sjaastad, Ståle Nygård, Almira Hasic, Mohammad Shakil Ahmed, Håvard Attramadal, Alexandra Vanessa Finsen, Geir Christensen, Theis Tønnessen
AIMS: Aortic stenosis induces pressure overload and myocardial remodelling with concentric hypertrophy and alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM). Aortic valve replacement leads to reverse remodelling, a process of which knowledge is scarce. The aims of the present study were to examine alterations in myocardial gene expression and subsequently identify molecular alterations important for the early phase of reverse remodelling. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 4 weeks of ascending aortic banding, mice were subjected to a debanding operation (DB) and followed for 3, 7, or 14 days...
January 2011: European Heart Journal
Wei Hong, You-Ping Xu, Zhong Zheng, Jia-Shu Cao, Xin-Zhong Cai
Tomato Cf genes confer resistance to the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. Although the Cf-4 and Cf-9 proteins are very similar, the Cf-4- and Cf-9-dependent hypersensitive responses (HRs) are distinct in cell death pattern, intensity and sensitivity to environmental conditions. To investigate the mechanism leading to these differences, comparative transcript profiling of Avr4/Cf-4- and Avr9/Cf-9-dependent defence gene expression was performed. To do this, cDNA-AFLP analysis was conducted on Avr/Cf tomato seedlings undergoing early HR...
July 2007: Molecular Plant Pathology
Joanna Natorska, Grzegorz Marek, Marta Hlawaty, Dorota Sobczyk, Jerzy Sadowski, Wiesława Tracz, Anetta Undas
INTRODUCTION: The role of blood coagulation in the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis (AS) is unknown. Recently, tissue factor (TF) expression in stenotic aortic valves has been reported in animal model. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate TF expression in valve leaflets obtained from AS patients and to determine its associations with circulating coagulation markers and echocardiographic variables. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 20 patients (10 men, 10 women) with dominant AS (age 62...
October 2009: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
Suomeng Dong, Dinah Qutob, Jennifer Tedman-Jones, Kuflom Kuflu, Yuanchao Wang, Brett M Tyler, Mark Gijzen
Root and stem rot disease of soybean is caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. The avirulence (Avr) genes of P. sojae control race-cultivar compatibility. In this study, we identify the P. sojae Avr3c gene and show that it encodes a predicted RXLR effector protein of 220 amino acids. Sequence and transcriptional data were compared for predicted RXLR effectors occurring in the vicinity of Avr4/6, as genetic linkage of Avr3c and Avr4/6 was previously suggested. Mapping of DNA markers in a F(2) population was performed to determine whether selected RXLR effector genes co-segregate with the Avr3c phenotype...
2009: PloS One
G Bénaouf, L Parisi
ABSTRACT Resistance to scab originating from Malus floribunda clone 821 is the most widely form of resistance used in apple breeding programs. A dominant gene, named Vf, was introgressed from this clone into recent cultivars, although the genetic determinants of the resistance of M. floribunda 821 are apparently more complex than a single gene. The appearance of new races overcoming the resistance of cultivars with the Vf gene, the parental clone, or both made it possible to undertake a genetic analysis of host-pathogen interactions...
March 2000: Phytopathology
Chao-Xi Luo, Liang-Fen Yin, Satomi Koyanagi, Mark L Farman, Motoaki Kusaba, Hiroshi Yaegashi
ABSTRACT A genetic map including three avirulence (Avr) genes, AvrPik, AvrPiz, and AvrPiz-t, was constructed in a genetic cross of two rice field isolates, 84R-62B and Y93-245c-2. The chromosomal locations of the Avr genes were determined by using selected markers to probe Southern blots of the parental chromosomes that had been separated by contour-clamped homogenous electric fields electrophoresis. Electrophoretic karyotyping showed that both parental isolates 84R-62B and Y93-245c-2 contained seven chromosomes greater than 3...
June 2005: Phytopathology
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