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prostate cancer progression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145267/osteoblastic-bone-metastases-from-neuroendocrine-tumor-net-of-unknown-origin-detected-by-18fluorocholine-pet-ct-and-its-comparison-with-68gallium-dotatoc-pet-ct-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Alberto Bongiovanni, Federica Recine, Monica Celli, Giulia Marcantognini, Flavia Foca, Chiara Liverani, Valentina Fausti, Alessandro De Vita, Giacomo Miserocchi, Laura Mercatali, Dino Amadori, Toni Ibrahim
RATIONALE: Choline (CH) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with fluorine 18 (F) CH is increasingly used not only to evaluate patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer but also to assess metastatic lesions that are difficult or impossible to identify using more conventional modalities. Our experience with CH PET/CT has shown that it can also be used for many other malignancies. PRESENTING CONCERNS: A 71-year-old male with a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of unknown origin showed osteoblastic bone metastases positive to F-CH PET...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143255/pcb-exposure-and-potential-future-cancer-incidence-in-slovak-children-an-assessment-from-molecular-finger-printing-by-ingenuity-pathway-analysis-ipa%C3%A2-derived-from-experimental-and-epidemiological-investigations
#2
Somiranjan Ghosh, Christopher A Loffredo, Partha S Mitra, Tomas Trnovec, Lubica Palkovicova Murinova, Eva Sovcikova, Eric P Hoffman, Kepher H Makambi, Sisir K Dutta
The risk of cancer due to PCB exposure in humans is highly debated. In eastern Slovakia, high exposure of the population to organochlorines (especially PCBs) was associated with various disease and disorder pathways, viz., endocrine disruption, metabolic disorder & diabetes, and cancer, thereby disturbing several cellular processes, including protein synthesis, stress response, and apoptosis. We have evaluated a Slovak cohort (45-month children, at lower and higher levels of PCB exposure from the environment) for disease and disorder development to develop early disease cancer biomarkers that could shed new light on possible mechanisms for the genesis of cancers under such chemical exposures, and identify potential avenues for prevention...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141848/myc-overexpression-at-the-protein-and-mrna-level-and-cancer-outcomes-among-men-treated-with-radical-prostatectomy-for-prostate-cancer
#3
Andreas Pettersson, Travis Gerke, Kathryn L Penney, Rosina T Lis, Edward C Stack, Nelma Pértega-Gomes, Giorgia Zadra, Svitlana Tyekucheva, Edward L Giovannucci, Lorelei A Mucci, Massimo Loda
BACKGROUND: The proto-oncogene MYC is implicated in prostate cancer progression. Whether MYC tumor expression at the protein or mRNA level is associated with poorer prognosis has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study including 634 men from the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in 1983-2004 and followed-up for a median of 13.7 years. MYC protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, and we used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of its association with lethal prostate cancer (distant metastases/prostate cancer death)...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141691/involvement-of-aberrantly-activated-hotair-ezh2-mir-193a-feedback-loop-in-progression-of-prostate-cancer
#4
Zhixin Ling, Xiaoyan Wang, Tao Tao, Lei Zhang, Han Guan, Zonghao You, Kai Lu, Guangyuan Zhang, Shuqiu Chen, Jianping Wu, Jinke Qian, Hui Liu, Bin Xu, Ming Chen
BACKGROUND: Though androgen deprivation therapy is the standard treatment for prostate cancer (PCa), most patients would inevitably progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) which is the main cause of PCa death. Therefore, the identification of novel molecular mechanism regulating cancer progression and achievement of new insight into target therapy would be necessary for improving the benefits of PCa patients. This study aims to study the function and regulatory mechanism of HOTAIR/EZH2/miR-193a feedback loop in PCa progression...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141018/evaluation-of-the-proliferation-marker-ki-67-in-a-large-prostatectomy-cohort
#5
Elin Richardsen, Sigve Andersen, Samer Al-Saad, Mehrdad Rakaee, Yngve Nordby, Mona Irene Pedersen, Nora Ness, Thea Grindstad, Ingeborg Movik, Tom Dønnem, Roy Bremnes, Lill-Tove Busund
The tumor proliferation index marker Ki-67 is strongly associated with tumor cell proliferation, growth and progression, and is widely used in routine clinicopathological investigation. Prostate cancer is a complex multifaceted and biologically heterogeneous disease, and overtreatment of localized, low volume indolent tumors, is evident. Here, we aimed to assess Ki-67 expression and related outcomes of 535 patients treated with radical prostatectomy. The percentage of tumor epithelial cells expressing Ki-67 was determined by immunohistochemical assay, both digital image analysis and visual scoring by light microscope were used for quantification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138842/placenta-specific-protein-1-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Li Yang, Tian-Qi Zha, Xiang He, Liang Chen, Quan Zhu, Wei-Bing Wu, Feng-Qi Nie, Qian Wang, Chong-Shuang Zang, Mei-Ling Zhang, Jing He, Wei Li, Wen Jiang, Kai-Hua Lu
Pulmonary carcinoma-associated proteins have emerged as crucial players in governing fundamental biological processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis in human cancers. Placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1) is a cancer-related protein, which is activated and upregulated in a variety of malignant tissues, including prostate cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal, epithelial ovarian and breast cancer. However, its biological role and clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development and progression are still unknown...
November 9, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138500/circulating-androgen-receptor-combined-with-18f-fluorocholine-pet-ct-metabolic-activity-and-outcome-to-androgen-receptor-signalling-directed-therapies-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#7
V Conteduca, E Scarpi, P Caroli, S Salvi, C Lolli, S L Burgio, C Menna, G Schepisi, S Testoni, G Gurioli, G Paganelli, V Casadio, F Matteucci, U De Giorgi
The association between choline uptake and androgen receptor (AR) expression is suggested by the upregulation of choline kinase-alpha in prostate cancer. Recently, detection of AR aberration in cell-free DNA as well as early 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT) were associated with outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with abiraterone and enzalutamide. We aimed to make a direct comparison between circulating AR copy number (CN) and choline uptake at FCH-PET/CT...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137948/analysis-of-tumor-biology-to-advance-cancer-health-disparity-research
#8
REVIEW
Cheryl Jacobs Smith, Tsion Zewdu Minas, Stefan Ambs
Cancer mortality rates in the US continue to decline. Reductions in tobacco use, uptake of preventive measures, adoption of early detection methods, and better treatments have resulted in improved cancer outcomes for men and women. Despite this progress, some population groups continue to experience an excessive cancer burden when compared with other population groups. One of the most prominent cancer health disparities exists in prostate cancer. Prostate cancer mortality rates are highest among men of African ancestry when compared with other men, both in the US and globally...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137633/bi-directional-exosome-driven-intercommunication-between-the-hepatic-niche-and-cancer-cells
#9
Nikolina Dioufa, Amanda M Clark, Bo Ma, Colin H Beckwitt, Alan Wells
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the multiple roles exosomes play during tumor progression is still very poor and the contribution of the normal tissue derived exosomes in distant seeding and tumor outgrowth has also not been widely appreciated. METHODS: Using our all-human liver microphysiological system (MPS) platform as a model to closely recapitulate the early metastatic events, we isolated exosomes from both tumor cells and liver microenvironment. RESULTS: We observed that while priming of the hepatic niche (HepN) with MDA-231 breast cancer derived exosomes facilitated seeding of the cancer cells in the liver, subsequent tumor outgrowth was diminished; this was consistent with increased entry into dormancy...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137489/androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-a-focus-on-pharmacokinetics
#10
Charles F Polotti, Christopher J Kim, Nadiya Chuchvara, Alyssa B Polotti, Eric A Singer, Sammy Elsamra
Medical therapy has undergone many changes as our understanding of prostate cancer cell biology has improved. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the mainstay of therapy for metastatic disease. Metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an important concern since we are unable to stop progression with currently available agents. Areas covered: Pharmacologic ADT is the most commonly used treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. Multiple agents are available for both first-line and second-line use: antiandrogens, estrogens, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists/antagonists, and CYP17 inhibitors...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137428/pten-loss-is-associated-with-prostate-cancer-recurrence-and-alterations-in-tumor-dna-methylation-profiles
#11
Milan S Geybels, Min Fang, Jonathan L Wright, Xiaoyu Qu, Marina Bibikova, Brandy Klotzle, Jian-Bing Fan, Ziding Feng, Elaine A Ostrander, Peter S Nelson, Janet L Stanford
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) with loss of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN has an unfavorable prognosis. DNA methylation profiles associated with PTEN loss may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying these more aggressive, clinically relevant tumors. Methods: The cohort included patients with clinically localized PCa. Samples taken from the primary tumor were used to determine PTEN genomic deletions using FISH, and to analyze epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiles...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137367/glycolytic-reprogramming-through-pck2-regulates-tumor-initiation-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#12
Jiangsha Zhao, Jieran Li, Teresa W M Fan, Steven X Hou
Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Identifying the factors regulating TICs may open new avenues in cancer therapy. Here, we show that TIC-enriched prostate cancer cell clones use more glucose and secrete more lactate than TIC-low clones. We determined that elevated levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase isoform 2 (PCK2) are critical for the metabolic switch and the maintenance of TICs in prostate cancer. Information from prostate cancer patient databases revealed that higher PCK2 levels correlated with more aggressive tumors and lower survival rates...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137361/downregulation-of-mir-199a-5p-promotes-prostate-adeno-carcinoma-progression-through-loss-of-its-inhibition-of-hif-1%C3%AE
#13
Jinjing Zhong, Rui Huang, Zhengzheng Su, Mengni Zhang, Miao Xu, Jing Gong, Ni Chen, Hao Zeng, Xueqin Chen, Qiao Zhou
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) plays key roles in cell survival under both hypoxia and normoxia conditions. Regulation of HIF-1α is complex and involves numerous molecules and pathways, including post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Although upregulation of HIF-1α has been shown to promote prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) progression, the mechanism by which miRNAs modulate HIF-1α in prostate cancer has not been clarified. Here, we show that miR-199a-5p is underexpressed in prostate adenocarcinoma...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137286/fibroblast-growth-factor-modulates-mast-cell-recruitment-in-a-murine-model-of-prostate-cancer
#14
Roberto Ronca, Roberto Tamma, Daniela Coltrini, Simona Ruggieri, Marco Presta, Domenico Ribatti
Mast cells are important modifiers of prostate tumor microenvironment. The fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF/FGFR) system plays a non-redundant autocrine/paracrine role in the growth, vascularization and progression of prostate tumors. Accordingly, the FGF antagonist long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) and the PTX3-derived small molecule FGF-trap NSC12 have been shown to inhibit the growth and vascularization of different FGF-dependent tumor types, including prostate cancer. In this study, we show that recombinant FGF2 is able to cause mast cell recruitment in vivo in the Matrigel plug assay...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137265/c-met-creb1-and-egfr-are-involved-in-mir-493-5p-inhibition-of-emt-via-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-snail-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Song Wang, Xiao Wang, Jiangfeng Li, Shuai Meng, Zhen Liang, Xin Xu, Yi Zhu, Shiqi Li, Jian Wu, Mingjie Xu, Alin Ji, Yiwei Lin, Ben Liu, Xiangyi Zheng, Bo Xie, Liping Xie
miR-493-5p downregulation has emerged as a critical player in cancer progression yet, the underlying mechanisms of miR-493-5p expression pattern and its function in prostate cancer remains to be elucidated. Here, we illustrate that miR-493-5p is frequently downregulated in prostate cancer, at least partially due to altered DNA methylation. miR-493-5p functions as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer cells. c-Met, CREB1 and EGFR are downstream target genes of miR-493-5p. miR-493-5p inhibits EMT via AKT/GSK-3β/Snail signaling in prostate cancer...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137259/iron-responsive-element-binding-protein-2-plays-an-essential-role-in-regulating-prostate-cancer-cell-growth
#16
Zhiyong Deng, David H Manz, Suzy V Torti, Frank M Torti
Iron-responsive element-binding proteins (IRPs) are master regulators of cellular iron homeostasis. Our previous work demonstrated that iron homeostasis is altered in prostate cancer and contributes to prostate cancer progression. Here we report that prostate cancer cells overexpress IRP2 and that overexpression of IRP2 drives the altered iron phenotype of prostate cancer cells. IRP2 knockdown in prostate cancer cell lines reduces intracellular iron and causes cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis demonstrates that IRP2-depleted prostate cancer cells accumulate in G0/G1 due to induction of p15, p21, and p27...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136770/magnesium-valproate-ameliorates-type-1-diabetes-and-cardiomyopathy-in-diabetic-rats-through-estrogen-receptors
#17
Samir Rabadiya, Shradhha Bhadada, Ashvin Dudhrejiya, Devendra Vaishnav, Bhoomika Patel
Estrogen is known to exhibit cardioprotective and antihyperlipidemic action. Valproic acid has been shown to upregulate estrogen receptors (ERs) in breast and prostate cancer tissues. No pharmacological evaluations for magnesium valproate (MgV) so far have been done for diabetic cadio-lipidemic complications. Based on the above context, current study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of MgV in cardiac complications associated with type-1 diabetes mellitus in rats wherein diabetes was induced by single tail vein injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45mg/kg, IV) in female Sprague Dawley rats and treatment of MgV (210mg/kg, PO) was given for eight weeks to diabetic animals, after which, various biochemical and cardiac biomarkers, hypertrophic, hemodynamic and histological parameters along with immunohistochemistry of ERs in the left ventricle (LV) were estimated...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136407/phospholipase-d-inhibitors-reduce-human-prostate-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-colony-formation
#18
Amanda R Noble, Norman J Maitland, Daniel M Berney, Martin G Rumsby
BACKGROUND: Phospholipases D1 and D2 (PLD1/2) hydrolyse cell membrane glycerophospholipids to generate phosphatidic acid, a signalling lipid, which regulates cell growth and cancer progression through effects on mTOR and PKB/Akt. PLD expression and/or activity is raised in breast, colorectal, gastric, kidney and thyroid carcinomas but its role in prostate cancer (PCa), the major cancer of men in the western world, is unclear. METHODS: PLD1 protein expression in cultured PNT2C2, PNT1A, P4E6, LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, VCaP, 22RV1 cell lines and patient-derived PCa cells was analysed by western blotting...
November 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134684/enhanced-radiosensitization-of-enzalutamide-via-schedule-dependent-administration-to-androgen-sensitive-prostate-cancer-cells
#19
Maryam Ghashghaei, Miltiadis Paliouras, Mitra Heravi, Hamed Bekerat, Mark Trifiro, Tamim M Niazi, Thierry Muanza
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a progressive disease and the most diagnosed cancer in men. The current standard of care for high-risk localized PCa is a combination of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radiation (XRT). The majority of these patients however become resistant due to incomplete responses to ADT as a result of selective cells maintaining androgen receptor (AR) activity. Improvement can be made if increasing radiosensitivity is realized. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of the next-generation PCa drug Enzalutamide (ENZA), as a radiosensitizer in XRT therapy...
November 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134654/pten-loss-and-activation-of-k-ras-and-%C3%AE-catenin-cooperate-to-accelerate-prostate-tumourigenesis
#20
Matthew T Jefferies, Adam C Cox, Boris Y Shorning, Valerie Meniel, David Griffiths, Howard G Kynaston, Matthew J Smalley, Alan R Clarke
Aberrant phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and WNT signalling are emerging as key events in the multistep nature of prostate tumourigenesis and progression. Here, we report a compound prostate cancer murine model in which these signalling pathways cooperate to produce a more aggressive prostate cancer phenotype. Using Cre-LoxP technology and the probasin promoter, we combined the loss of Pten (Pten(fl/fl) ), to activate the PI3K signalling pathway, with either dominant stabilized β-catenin [Catnb(+/lox(ex3)) ] or activated K-RAS (K-Ras(+/V12) ) to aberrantly activate WNT and MAPK signalling, respectively...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pathology
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