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Spinal pattern generator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789381/wt1-expressing-interneurons-regulate-left-right-alternation-during-mammalian-locomotor-activity
#1
Farhia Haque, Vladimir Rancic, Wei Zhang, Robin Clugston, Klaus Ballanyi, Simon Gosgnach
The basic pattern of activity underlying stepping in mammals is generated by a neural network located in the caudal spinal cord. Within this network the specific circuitry coordinating left-right alternation has been shown to involve several groups of molecularly-defined interneurons. Here we characterize a population of spinal neurons that express the Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) gene and investigate their role during locomotor activity in mice of both sexes. We demonstrate that WT1-expressing cells are located in the ventromedial region of the spinal cord of mice and are also present in the human spinal cord...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780311/characteristics-of-rest-and-postural-tremors-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-analysis-of-motor-unit-firing-synchrony-and-patterns
#2
Orsalia M Agapaki, Constantinos N Christakos, Dimitrios Anastasopoulos
The neural mechanisms responsible for resting and postural tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been the object of considerable study, much of it focusing on supraspinal sites. Here, we adopted an alternative approach that emphasizes motor unit (MU) firing synchrony and patterns of discharge. To explore if these could account for known features of PD tremor, we recorded the instantaneous acceleration of the upper limb of 23 PD patients at rest or while they tried to hold a stable posture together with surface EMG and single MU discharges of upper limb muscles...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770521/nicotine-mediated-neuroprotection-of-rat-spinal-networks-against-excitotoxicity
#3
Jaspreet Kaur, Rossana Rauti, Andrea Nistri
Activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine is reported to protect brain neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. We inquired whether a similar phenomenon can occur in the rat isolated spinal cord (or spinal slice culture) challenged by a transient (1 h) application of kainate (a powerful glutamate receptor agonist) to induce excitotoxicity mimicking spinal injury in vitro. We recorded spinal reflexes and fictive locomotion generated by the locomotor central pattern generator before and 24 h after applying kainate...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761788/block-based-robust-control-of-stepping-using-intraspinal-microstimulation
#4
Ehsan Rouhani, Abbas Erfanian
OBJECTIVE: The problem of motor control using intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) can be approached at two levels of the motor system: individual muscles (motor pools) and motor primitives. The major challenges of direct ISMS at the level of individual muscle are the number of electrodes that are required to be implanted in order to recruit all muscles involving the motion and the muscle selectivity. One solution to cope with these problems is the control of movement generated by appropriate combination of the movement primitives...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733915/origin-and-circuitry-of-spinal-locomotor-interneurons-generating-different-speeds
#5
REVIEW
Henrik Boije, Klas Kullander
The spinal circuitry governing the undulatory movements of swimming vertebrates consist of excitatory and commissural inhibitory interneurons and motor neurons. This locomotor network generates the rhythmic output, coordinate left/right alternation, and permit communication across segments. Through evolution, more complex movement patterns have emerged, made possible by sub-specialization of neural populations within the spinal cord. Walking tetrapods use a similar basic circuitry, but have added layers of complexity for the coordination of intralimbic flexor and extensor muscles as well as interlimbic coordination between the body halves and fore/hindlimbs...
May 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700407/ineffectiveness-of-tactile-gating-shows-cortical-basis-of-nociceptive-signaling-in-the-thermal-grill-illusion
#6
E R Ferrè, G D Iannetti, J A van Dijk, P Haggard
Painful burning sensations can be elicited by a spatially-alternating pattern of warm and cold stimuli applied on the skin, the so called "Thermal Grill Illusion" (TGI). Here we investigated whether the TGI percept originates spinally or centrally. Since the inhibition of nociceptive input by concomitant non-nociceptive somatosensory input has a strong spinal component, we reasoned that, if the afferent input underlying the TGI originates at spinal level, then the TGI should be inhibited by a concomitant non-nociceptive somatosensory input...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680436/distal-muscle-activity-alterations-during-the-stance-phase-of-gait-in-restless-leg-syndrome-rls-patients
#7
Chloe Dafkin, Andrew Green, Benita Olivier, Warrick McKinon, Samantha Kerr
OBJECTIVE: To assess if there is a circadian variation in electromyographical (EMG) muscle activity during gait in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients and healthy control participants. METHODS: Gait assessment was done in 14 RLS patients and 13 healthy control participants in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from the tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (GL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663708/the-postmigratory-alar-topography-of-visceral-cranial-nerve-efferents-challenges-the-classical-model-of-hindbrain-columns
#8
Luis Puelles, Petr Tvrdik, Margaret Martínez-de-la-Torre
The classic columnar model of cranial nerve central representation assumes that all motor and sensory hindbrain neurons develop within four radial migration domains, held to be separated by a sulcal alar-basal boundary (sulcus limitans). This essay reviews a number of developmental data that challenge these concepts. These results are interpreted within the framework of present day neuromeric conception of the brainstem (the prosomeric model). Advances in dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord and hindbrain now show that there exist up to eight alar microzones and five basal microzones (molecularly and histogenetically distinct longitudinal progenitor domains)...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649928/noninvasive-activation-of-cervical-spinal-networks-after-severe-paralysis
#9
Parag Gad, Sujin Lee, Nicholas Terrafranca, Hui Zhong, Amanda Turner, Yury Gerasimenko, Victor Reggie Edgerton
Paralysis of the upper extremities following cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) significantly impairs one's ability to live independently. While regaining hand function or grasping ability is considered one of the most desired functions in tetraplegics, limited therapeutic development in this direction has been demonstrated to date in humans with a high, severe cervical injury. The underlying hypothesis is after severe cervical SCI, nonfunctional sensory-motor networks within the cervical spinal cord can be transcutaneously neuromodulated to physiological states which enables and amplifies voluntary control of the hand...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622665/shock-attenuation-in-the-human-lumbar-spine-during-walking-and-running
#10
Eric R Castillo, Daniel E Lieberman
During locomotion, each step generates a shock wave that travels through the body toward the head. Without mechanisms for attenuation, repeated shocks can lead to pathology. Shock attenuation (SA) in the lower limb has been well studied, but little is known about how posture affects SA in the spine. To test the hypothesis that lumbar lordosis (LL) contributes to SA, 27 adults (14 male, 13 female) walked and ran on a treadmill. Two lightweight, tri-axial accelerometers were affixed to the skin overlying T12/L1 and L5/S1...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615562/moving-the-shh-source-over-time-what-impact-on-neural-cell-diversification-in-the-developing-spinal-cord
#11
REVIEW
Cathy Danesin, Cathy Soula
A substantial amount of data has highlighted the crucial influence of Shh signalling on the generation of diverse classes of neurons and glial cells throughout the developing central nervous system. A critical step leading to this diversity is the establishment of distinct neural progenitor cell domains during the process of pattern formation. The forming spinal cord, in particular, has served as an excellent model to unravel how progenitor cells respond to Shh to produce the appropriate pattern. In recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of important parameters that control the temporal and spatial interpretation of the morphogen signal at the level of Shh-receiving progenitor cells...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614958/the-skeletal-ontogeny-of-astatotilapia-burtoni-a-direct-developing-model-system-for-the-evolution-and-development-of-the-teleost-body-plan
#12
Joost M Woltering, Michaela Holzem, Ralf F Schneider, Vasilios Nanos, Axel Meyer
BACKGROUND: The experimental approach to the evolution and development of the vertebrate skeleton has to a large extent relied on "direct-developing" amniote model organisms, such as the mouse and the chicken. These organisms can however only be partially informative where it concerns secondarily lost features or anatomical novelties not present in their lineages. The widely used anamniotes Xenopus and zebrafish are "indirect-developing" organisms that proceed through an extended time as free-living larvae, before adopting many aspects of their adult morphology, complicating experiments at these stages, and increasing the risk for lethal pleiotropic effects using genetic strategies...
April 3, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582526/whole-exome-sequencing-reveals-a-novel-missense-mutation-in-the-mars-gene-related-to-a-rare-charcot-marie-tooth-neuropathy-type-2u
#13
Lena Sagi-Dain, Lilach Shemer, Nathanel Zelnik, Yusri Zoabi, Orit Sadeh, Vardit Adir, Aharon Schif, Amir Peleg
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is a heterogeneous group of progressive disorders, characterized by chronic motor and sensory polyneuropathy. This hereditary disorder is related to numerous genes and varying inheritance patterns. Thus, many patients do not reach a final genetic diagnosis. PATIENT: We describe a 13-years old girl presenting with progressive bilateral leg weakness and gait instability. Extensive laboratory studies and spinal Magnetic resonance imaging scan were normal...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569573/chronic-softening-spinal-cord-stimulation-arrays
#14
Aldo Garcia Sandoval, Ajay Pal, Asht Mishra, Sydney Sherman, Ankit Rajen Parikh, Alexandra Joshi-Imre, Gerardo Gutierrez, Adriana Carolina Duran Martinez, Jordan Adam Nathan, David Arreaga-Salas, Seyed Mahmoud Hosseini, Jason Carmel, Walter Voit
OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a cervical spinal cord stimulator for the rat that is durable, stable, and does not perturb the underlying spinal cord. APPROACH: We created a softening spinal cord stimulation (SCS) array made from shape memory polymer (SMP)-based flexible electronics. We developed a new photolithographic process to pattern high surface area titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes onto gold (Au) interconnects. The thiol-ene acrylate polymers are stiff at room temperature and soften following implantation into the body...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537920/sherlock-holmes-and-the-curious-case-of-the-human-locomotor-central-pattern-generator
#15
Taryn Klarner, E Paul Zehr
Evidence first described in reduced animal models over 100 years ago led to deductions about the control of locomotion through spinal locomotor central pattern generating (CPG) networks. These discoveries in nature were contemporaneous with another form of deductive reasoning found in popular culture-that of Arthur Conan Doyle's detective "Sherlock Holmes". Since the invasive methods used in reduced non-human animal preparations are not amenable to study in humans, we are left instead with deducing from other measures and observations...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526856/a-wearable-resistive-robot-facilitates-locomotor-adaptations-during-gait
#16
Edward P Washabaugh, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Robotic-resisted treadmill walking is a form of task-specific training that has been used to improve gait function in individuals with neurological injury, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsy. Traditionally, these devices use active elements (e.g., motors or actuators) to provide resistance during walking, making them bulky, expensive, and less suitable for overground or in-home rehabilitation. We recently developed a low-cost, wearable robotic brace that generates resistive torques across the knee joint using a simple magnetic brake...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522692/modulation-of-motoneurone-excitability-during-rhythmic-motor-outputs
#17
Kevin E Power, Evan James Lockyer, Davis A Forman, Duane Calvin Button
In quadrupeds, special circuity located within the spinal cord, referred to as central pattern generators (CPGs), is capable of producing complex patterns of activity such as locomotion in the absence of descending input. During these motor outputs, the electrical properties of spinal motoneurones are modulated such that the motoneurone is more easily activated. Indirect evidence suggests that like quadrupeds, humans also have spinally located CPGs capable of producing locomotor outputs, albeit descending input is considered to be of greater importance...
March 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513569/cre-dependent-aav-vectors-for-highly-targeted-expression-of-disease-related-proteins-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-substantia-nigra
#18
Mychal S Grames, Robert D Dayton, Kasey L Jackson, Adam D Richard, Xiaohong Lu, Ronald L Klein
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a popular genetic approach in neuroscience because they confer such efficient transgene expression in the brain and spinal cord. A number of studies have used AAV to express pathological disease-related proteins in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra in situ ( e.g., α-synuclein to model aspects of Parkinson's disease). The neuropathology and neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease occur in a circumscribed pattern in the brain, and one of the most important goals of any gene transfer study is accurate, pinpoint targeting...
March 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509660/overexpression-of-map2-and-nf-h-associated-with-dendritic-pathology-in-the-spinal-cord-of-mice-infected-with-rabies-virus
#19
Jeison Monroy-Gómez, Gerardo Santamaría, Orlando Torres-Fernández
Rabies is a viral infection that targets the nervous system, specifically neurons. The clinical manifestations of the disease are dramatic and their outcome fatal; paradoxically, conventional histopathological descriptions reveal only subtle changes in the affected nervous tissue. Some researchers have considered that the pathophysiology of rabies is based more on biochemical changes than on structural alterations, as is the case with some psychiatric diseases. However, we believe that it has been necessary to resort to other methods that allow us to analyze the effect of the infection on neurons...
March 6, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508544/generation-and-characterization-of-lhx3-gfp-reporter-knockin-and-lhx3-loxp-conditional-knockout-mice
#20
Mei Xu, Xiaoling Xie, Xuhui Dong, Guoqing Liang, Lin Gan
LHX3, a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, is broadly expressed in the developing pituitary, spinal cord, medulla, retina and inner ear, and plays essential roles during embryonic development. Mice with homozygous Lhx3 null mutation exhibit failure in the formation of pituitary gland and die perinatally. To facilitate the functional study of Lhx3 in mice, we engineered and characterized two novel Lhx3 mouse strains: Lhx3GFP reporter knock-in and Lhx3loxP conditional knockout mice. Coimmunolabeling of LHX3 and GFP shows that the expression pattern of the knock-in GFP reporter recapitulates that of endogenous LHX3 in cochlea, vestibule, retina, and spinal cord...
April 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
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