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Spinal pattern generator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199003/applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technologies-in-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
Numerous basic research studies have suggested the potential efficacy of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, in most such studies the origin of the cells used was mainly fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, both of which carry potential ethical concerns with respect to clinical use. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened a new path toward regenerative medicine for SCI. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by induction of transcription factors, and induced to differentiate into NPCs with characteristics of cells of the central nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195039/speed-and-segmentation-control-mechanisms-characterized-in-rhythmically-active-circuits-created-from-spinal-neurons-produced-from-genetically-tagged-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Matthew J Sternfeld, Christopher A Hinckley, Niall J Moore, Matthew T Pankratz, Kathryn L Hilde, Shawn P Driscoll, Marito Hayashi, Neal D Amin, Dario Bonanomi, Wesley D Gifford, Kamal Sharma, Martyn Goulding, Samuel L Pfaff
Flexible neural networks, such as the interconnected spinal neurons that control distinct motor actions, can switch their activity to produce different behaviors. Both excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) spinal neurons are necessary for motor behavior, but the influence of recruiting different ratios of E-to-I cells remains unclear. We constructed synthetic microphysical neural networks, called circuitoids, using precise combinations of spinal neuron subtypes derived from mouse stem cells. Circuitoids of purified excitatory interneurons were sufficient to generate oscillatory bursts with properties similar to in vivo central pattern generators...
February 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192080/evo-engineering-and-the-cellular-and-molecular-origins-of-the-vertebrate-spinal-cord
#3
REVIEW
Ben Steventon, Alfonso Martinez Arias
The formation of the spinal cord during early embryonic development in vertebrate embryos is a continuous process that begins at gastrulation and continues through to the completion of somitogenesis. Despite the conserved usage of patterning mechanisms and gene regulatory networks that act to generate specific spinal cord progenitors, there now exists two seemingly disparate models to account for their action. In the first, a posteriorly localized signalling source transforms previously anterior-specified neural plate into the spinal cord...
February 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153036/biomechanical-comparison-of-multilevel-lateral-interbody-fusion-with-and-without-supplementary-instrumentation-a-three-dimensional-finite-element-study
#4
Xilin Liu, Jun Ma, Paul Park, Xiaodong Huang, Ning Xie, Xiaojian Ye
BACKGROUND: Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a popular, minimally invasive technique that is used to address challenging multilevel degenerative spinal diseases. It remains controversial whether supplemental instrumentation should be added for multilevel LLIF. In this study, we compared the kinematic stability afforded by stand-alone lateral cages with those supplemented by bilateral pedicle screws and rods (PSR), unilateral PSR, or lateral plate (LP) fixation using a finite-element (FE) model of a multi-level LLIF construct with simulated osteoporosis...
February 2, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148646/microcircuit-formation-following-transplantation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neurons-into-peripheral-nerve
#5
Philippe Magown, Victor F Rafuse, Robert M Brownstone
Motoneurons derived from embryonic stem cells can be transplanted into the tibial nerve, where they extend axons to functionally innervate target muscle. Here, we studied spontaneous muscle contractions in these grafts three months following transplantation. One-half of the transplanted grafts generated rhythmic muscle contractions of variable patterns, either spontaneously or in response to brief electrical stimulation. Activity generated by transplanted embryonic stem cell-derived neurons was driven by glutamate and was modulated by muscarinic and GABAergic/glycinergic transmission...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128321/spinal-hb9-cre-derived-excitatory-interneurons-contribute-to-rhythm-generation-in-the-mouse
#6
Vanessa Caldeira, Kimberly J Dougherty, Lotta Borgius, Ole Kiehn
Rhythm generating neurons are thought to be ipsilaterally-projecting excitatory neurons in the thoracolumbar mammalian spinal cord. Recently, a subset of Shox2 interneurons (Shox2 non-V2a INs) was found to fulfill these criteria and make up a fraction of the rhythm-generating population. Here we use Hb9::Cre mice to genetically manipulate Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons (INs) in order to determine the role of these INs in rhythm generation. We demonstrate that this line captures a consistent population of spinal INs which is mixed with respect to neurotransmitter phenotype and progenitor domain, but does not overlap with the Shox2 non-V2a population...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128063/tonic-and-rhythmic-spinal-activity-underlying-locomotion
#7
Yury P Ivanenko, Victor S Gurfinkel, Victor A Selionov, Irina A Solopova, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Pierre A Guertin, Francesco Lacquaniti
In recent years, many researches put significant efforts into understanding and assessing the functional state of the spinal locomotor circuits in humans. Various techniques have been developed to stimulate the spinal cord circuitries, which may include both diffuse and quite specific tuning effects. Overall, the findings indicate that tonic and rhythmic spinal activity control are not separate phenomena but are closely integrated to properly initiate and sustain stepping. The spinal cord does not simply transmit information to and from the brain...
January 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126336/modular-neuromuscular-control-of-human-locomotion-by-central-pattern-generator
#8
Seyyed Arash Haghpanah, Farzam Farahmand, Hassan Zohoor
The central pattern generators (CPG) in the spinal cord are thought to be responsible for producing the rhythmic motor patterns during rhythmic activities. For locomotor tasks, this involves much complexity, due to a redundant system of muscle actuators with a large number of highly nonlinear muscles. This study proposes a reduced neural control strategy for the CPG, based on modular organization of the co-active muscles, i.e., muscle synergies. Four synergies were extracted from the EMG data of the major leg muscles of two subjects, during two gait trials each, using non-negative matrix factorization algorithm...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120724/neuromodulation-of-spinal-locomotor-networks-in-rodents
#9
Manuel Díaz-Ríos, Pierre A Guertin, Marla Rivera-Oliver
BACKGROUND: The basic motor patterns driving rhythmic limb movements during walking are generated by networks of neurons called central pattern generators (CPGs). Within motor control systems, neuromodulators are necessary for proper and efficient CPG function because they induce or regulate essential components of spinal network activity, including firing parameters of CPG neurons and network synaptic strength, allowing the network to change/adapt and sometimes to even become functional...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117782/a-model-for-perineural-invasion-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Phillip Huyett, Mark Gilbert, Lijun Liu, Robert L Ferris, Seungwon Kim
Perineural invasion (PNI) is found in approximately 40% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Despite multimodal treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, locoregional recurrences and distant metastases occur at higher rates, and overall survival is decreased by 40% compared to HNSCC without PNI. In vitro studies of the pathways involved in HNSCC PNI have historically been challenging given the lack of a consistent, reproducible assay. Described here is the adaptation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) assay for the examination of PNI in HNSCC...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115070/longitudinal-investigation-of-rehospitalization-patterns-in-spinal-cord-and-traumatic-brain-injury-among-medicare-beneficiaries
#11
Christopher R Pretz, James E Graham, Addie Middleton, Amol M Karmarkar, Kenneth J Ottenbacher
OBJECTIVE: To model 12-month rehospitalization risk among Medicare beneficiaries receiving inpatient rehabilitation for SCI or TBI and to create two (SCI- and TBI-specific) interactive tools enabling users to generate monthly projected probabilities for rehospitalization based on an individual patient's clinical profile at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis. SETTING: More than 1,100 inpatient rehabilitation facilities across the US...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113512/generation-of-stimulus-triggering-from-intracortical-spike-activity-for-brain-machine-body-interfaces-bmbis
#12
Shahab Shahdoost, Randolph Nudo, Pedram Mohseni
Brain-machine-body interfaces (BMBIs) aim to create an artificial connection in the nervous system by converting neural activity recorded from one cortical region to electrical stimuli delivered to another cortical region, spinal cord, or muscles in real-time. In particular, conditioning-mode BMBIs utilize such activity-dependent stimulation strategies to induce functional re-organization in the nervous system and promote functional recovery after injury by exploiting mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity. This paper reports on reconfigurable, field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based implementation of a translation algorithm to extract multichannel stimulus trigger signals from intracortical neural spike activity...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111148/a-gradient-in-synaptic-strength-and-plasticity-among-motoneurons-provides-a-peripheral-mechanism-for-locomotor-control
#13
Wei-Chun Wang, Paul Brehm
The recruitment of motoneurons during force generation follows a general pattern that has been confirmed across diverse species [1-3]. Motoneurons are recruited systematically according to synaptic inputs and intrinsic cellular properties and corresponding to movements of different intensities. However, much less is known about the output properties of individual motoneurons and how they affect the translation of motoneuron recruitment to the strength of muscle contractions. In larval zebrafish, spinal motoneurons are recruited in a topographic gradient according to their input resistance (Rin) at different swimming strengths and speeds...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#14
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062927/a-sensory-driven-controller-for-quadruped-locomotion
#15
César Ferreira, Cristina P Santos
Locomotion of quadruped robots has not yet achieved the harmony, flexibility, efficiency and robustness of its biological counterparts. Biological research showed that spinal reflexes are crucial for a successful locomotion in the most varied terrains. In this context, the development of bio-inspired controllers seems to be a good way to move toward an efficient and robust robotic locomotion, by mimicking their biological counterparts. This contribution presents a sensory-driven controller designed for the simulated Oncilla quadruped robot...
January 7, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048532/su-f-t-396-impact-of-shoulder-deformation-for-head-and-neck-vmat
#16
Y Uchida, H Tachibana
PURPOSE: For head and neck VMAT (HN-VMAT), variations of position and deformation of patient's shoulders is a concern to affect inaccuracy of dose distribution. It has been reported that the setup error of the shoulders was variable from 5 mm - 1 cm. The beams of the HN-VMAT pass through the shoulders. We assessed the impact of shoulder deformation to dose distribution for HN-VMAT. METHODS: One HN-VMAT plan was generated using a patient's CT. The patient's CT was deformed using ImSimQA (Oncology Systems Limited, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK) to generate several patterns of the shoulders' deformations when the right and left humeral heads were shifted with 3, 6, and 15 mm in the superior and inferior directions (SI), 3, 5, and 15 mm in the anterior and posterior directions (AP), and 5 and 15 mm in the right or left direction (LR)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031401/segmental-specificity-in-belly-dance-mimics-primal-trunk-locomotor-patterns
#17
Marilee Margaret Nugent, Theodore E Milner
Belly dance was used to investigate control of rhythmic undulating trunk movements in humans. Activation patterns in lumbar erector spinae muscles were recorded using surface electromyography at four segmental levels spanning T10 to L4. Muscle activation patterns for movement tempos of 2 Hz, 3 Hz and as fast as possible (up to 6 Hz) were compared to test the hypothesis that frequency modulates muscle timing, causing pattern changes analogous to gait transitions. Groups of trained and untrained female subjects were compared to test the hypothesis that experience modifies muscle coordination patterns and the capacity for selective motion of spinal segments...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025254/shaping-the-output-of-lumbar-flexor-motoneurons-by-sacral-neuronal-networks
#18
Meir Cherniak, Lili Anglister, Aharon Lev-Tov
: The ability to improve motor function in spinal cord injury patients by reactivating spinal central pattern generators (CPGs) requires the elucidation of neurons and pathways involved in activation and modulation of spinal networks in accessible experimental models. Previously we reported on adrenoceptor-dependent sacral control of lumbar-flexor motoneuron firing in newborn rats. The current work focuses on clarification of the circuitry and connectivity involved in this unique modulation and its potential use...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009049/zebrafish-adult-pigment-stem-cells-are-multipotent-and-form-pigment-cells-by-a-progressive-fate-restriction-process-clonal-analysis-identifies-shared-origin-of-all-pigment-cell-types
#19
Robert N Kelsh, Karen C Sosa, Jennifer P Owen, Christian A Yates
Skin pigment pattern formation is a paradigmatic example of pattern formation. In zebrafish, the adult body stripes are generated by coordinated rearrangement of three distinct pigment cell-types, black melanocytes, shiny iridophores and yellow xanthophores. A stem cell origin of melanocytes and iridophores has been proposed although the potency of those stem cells has remained unclear. Xanthophores, however, seemed to originate predominantly from proliferation of embryonic xanthophores. Now, data from Singh et al...
December 23, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997694/spatial-patterning-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neuropil-territories-during-spinal-circuit-development
#20
Qing Yan, Lu Zhai, Bo Zhang, Julia E Dallman
To generate rhythmic motor behaviors, both single neurons and neural circuits require a balance between excitatory inputs that trigger action potentials and inhibitory inputs that promote a stable resting potential (E/I balance). Previous studies have focused on individual neurons and have shown that, over a short spatial scale, excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synapses tend to form structured territories with inhibitory inputs enriched on cell bodies and proximal dendrites and excitatory inputs on distal dendrites...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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