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Spinal pattern generator

Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Laurence D Picton, Keith T Sillar
Dopamine plays important roles in the development and modulation of motor control circuits. Here we show that dopamine exerts potent effects on the central pattern generator circuit controlling locomotory swimming in post-embryonic Xenopus tadpoles. Dopamine (0.5-100 μM) reduced fictive swim bout occurrence and caused both spontaneous and evoked episodes to become shorter, slower and weaker. The D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole mimicked this repertoire of inhibitory effects on swimming, whilst the D4 receptor antagonist, L745,870, had the opposite effects...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katelyn N Benthall, Ryan A Hough, Andrew D McClellan
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Luis R Hernandez-Miranda, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier
Neurons of the dorsal hindbrain and spinal cord are central in receiving, processing and relaying sensory perception and participate in the coordination of sensory-motor output. Numerous cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal development in both regions of the nervous system are shared. We discuss here the mechanisms that generate neuronal diversity in the dorsal spinal cord and hindbrain, and emphasize similarities in patterning and neuronal specification. Insight into the developmental mechanisms has provided tools that can help to assign functions to small subpopulations of neurons...
October 11, 2016: Developmental Biology
Marc Possover
We report on unexpected findings in 18 spinal cord injured peoples who underwent a laparoscopic bilateral implantation of neuroprosthesis (LION procedure) to the sciatic/femoral nerves pelvic somatic nerves for functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted locomotor training and continuous low-frequency electrical stimulation. Fifteen patients were paraplegics, three low tetraplegics, all of them fully dependent on a wheelchair. After a training period of at least one year, all patients not only started with electrical-assisted standing/stepping using a walker or crutches, but also developed some progressive caudalward recovery of lumbosacral sensoric functions and of supraspinal control of voluntary movements below the lesions...
October 6, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Carolina Roza, Irene Mazo, Iván Rivera-Arconada, Elsa Cisneros, Ismel Alayón, José A López-García
The superficial dorsal horn contains large numbers of interneurons which process afferent and descending information to generate the spinal nociceptive message. Here, we set out to evaluate whether adjustments in patterns and/or temporal correlation of spontaneous discharges of these neurons are involved in the generation of central sensitization caused by peripheral nerve damage. Multielectrode arrays were used to record from discrete groups of such neurons in slices from control or nerve damaged mice. Whole-cell recordings of individual neurons were also obtained...
October 10, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Shahab Shahdoost, Randolph Nudo, Pedram Mohseni
Brain-machine-body interfaces (BMBIs) aim to create an artificial connection in the nervous system by converting neural activity recorded from one cortical region to electrical stimuli delivered to another cortical region, spinal cord, or muscles in real-time. In particular, conditioning-mode BMBIs utilize such activity-dependent stimulation strategies to induce functional re-organization in the nervous system and promote functional recovery after injury by exploiting mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity. This paper reports on reconfigurable, field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based implementation of a translation algorithm to extract multichannel stimulus trigger signals from intracortical neural spike activity...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Carlos B Mantilla
Breathing is a life-sustaining behavior that in mammals is accomplished by activation of dedicated muscles responsible for inspiratory and expiratory forces acting on the lung and chest wall. Motor control is exerted by specialized pools of motoneurons in the medulla and spinal cord innervated by projections from multiple centers primarily in the brainstem that act in concert to generate both the rhythm and pattern of ventilation. Perturbations that prevent the accomplishment of the full range of motor behaviors by respiratory muscles commonly result in significant morbidity and increased mortality...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Myka R Ababon, Bo I Li, Paul G Matteson, James H Millonig
Retinoic acid (RA) is an important developmental morphogen that coordinates anteroposterior and dorsoventral axis patterning, somitic differentiation, neurogenesis, patterning of the hindbrain and spinal cord, and the development of multiple organ systems. Due to its chemical nature as a small amphipathic lipid, direct detection and visualization of RA histologically remains technically impossible. Currently, methods used to infer the presence and localization of RA make use of reporter systems that detect the biological activity of RA...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alejandro Pinzon-Olejua, Cornelia Welte, Avinash Chekuru, Viktoria Bosak, Michael Brand, Stefan Hans, Claudia A O Stuermer
BACKGROUND: The conditional Cre/lox system has recently emerged as a valuable tool for studies on both embryonic and adult Zebrafish. Temporal control and site-specific recombination are achieved by using the ligand-inducible CreER(T2) and administration of the drug tamoxifen (TAM) or its active metabolite, 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). RESULTS: Here we report the generation of a transgenic Zebrafish line, which expresses an mCherry-tagged variant of CreER(T2) under the control of the myelin basic protein a (mbpa) promoter...
September 26, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Gaurav Sharma, David A Friedenberg, Nicholas Annetta, Bradley Glenn, Marcie Bockbrader, Connor Majstorovic, Stephanie Domas, W Jerry Mysiw, Ali Rezai, Chad Bouton
Neuroprosthetic technology has been used to restore cortical control of discrete (non-rhythmic) hand movements in a paralyzed person. However, cortical control of rhythmic movements which originate in the brain but are coordinated by Central Pattern Generator (CPG) neural networks in the spinal cord has not been demonstrated previously. Here we show a demonstration of an artificial neural bypass technology that decodes cortical activity and emulates spinal cord CPG function allowing volitional rhythmic hand movement...
2016: Scientific Reports
Franck Le Navéaux, A Noelle Larson, Hubert Labelle, Xiaoyu Wang, Carl-Éric Aubin
BACKGROUND: Optimal implant densities and configurations for thoracic spine instrumentation to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis remain unknown. The objective was to computationally assess the biomechanical effects of implant distribution on 3D curve correction and bone-implant forces. METHODS: 3D patient-specific biomechanical spine models based on a multibody dynamic approach were created for 9 Lenke 1 patients who underwent posterior instrumentation (main thoracic Cobb: 43°-70°)...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Shuang Wang, Zhuowen Liang, Yuzhe Gong, Yaning Yin, Kaige Wang, Qingli He, Zhe Wang, Jintao Bai
Confocal Raman microspectral imaging (CRMI) provides a versatile tool to illustrate the biochemical nature and structure of biological tissue without introducing any external labels. In this work, a precise correlation was established between the biochemical profile and histological architecture of ex vivo human spinal cord tissue by using CRMI with 633nm excitation. After precisely linking the spectral features to the chemical constituents, much information about the molecular composition of both gray and white matter were revealed...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
J H Coote, R A Chauhan
Autonomic control of the heart has a significant influence over development of life threatening arrhythmias that can lead to sudden cardiac death. Sympathetic activity is known to be upregulated during these conditions and hence the sympathetic nerves present a target for treatment. However, a better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of cardiac sympathetic nerves is required for the progression of clinical interventions. This review explores the organization of the cardiac sympathetic nerves, from the preganglionic origin to the postganglionic innervations, and provides an overview of literature surrounding anti-arrhythmic therapies including thoracic sympathectomy and dorsal spinal cord stimulation...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Shing-Hong Lin, Martin Steinhoff, Akihiko Ikoma, Yen-Ching Chang, Yuan-Ren Cheng, Ravi Chandra Kopparaju, Satoshi Ishii, Wei-Hsin Sun, Chih-Cheng Chen
Itch and pain are closely related but are distinct sensations. Intradermal injection of acid generates pain in both rodents and humans; however, few studies have addressed the intriguing question of whether acid (protons) can evoke itch like other algogens by spatial contrast activation of single nociceptors. Here, we report that (i) citric acid (0.2 mol/L) pH-dependently induced a scratching response in mice when applied intradermally to nape or cheek skin, (ii) acidified buffer elevated intracellular calcium levels in dorsal root ganglion pruriceptors, and (iii) injection of intradermal citric acid (pH 3...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Enrico Rejc, Claudia A Angeli, Nicole Bryant, Susan J Harkema
Individuals affected by motor complete spinal cord injury are unable to stand, walk, or move their lower limbs voluntarily; this diagnosis normally implies severe limitations for functional recovery. We have recently shown that the appropriate selection of epidural stimulation parameters was critical to promoting full-body, weight-bearing standing with independent knee extension in four individuals with chronic clinically complete paralysis. In the current study, we examined the effects of stand training and subsequent step training with epidural stimulation on motor function for standing in the same four individuals...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Chris S Versteeg, Lena H Ting, Jessica L Allen
Although standing balance is important in many daily activities, there has been little effort in developing detailed musculoskeletal models and simulations of balance control compared to other whole-body motor activities. Our objective was to develop a musculoskeletal model of human balance that can be used to predict movement patterns in reactive balance control. Similar to prior studies using torque-driven models, we investigated how movement patterns during a reactive balance response are affected by high-level task goals (e...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Syoichi Tashiro, Soraya Nishimura, Hiroki Iwai, Keiko Sugai, Liang Zhang, Munehisa Shinozaki, Akio Iwanami, Yoshiaki Toyama, Meigen Liu, Hideyuki Okano, Masaya Nakamura
Most studies targeting chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have concluded that neural stem/progenitor cell (NS/PC) transplantation exerts only a subclinical recovery; this in contrast to its remarkable effect on acute and subacute SCI. To determine whether the addition of rehabilitative intervention enhances the effect of NS/PC transplantation for chronic SCI, we used thoracic SCI mouse models to compare manifestations secondary to both transplantation and treadmill training, and the two therapies combined, with a control group...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kathryn L Hilde, Ariel J Levine, Christopher A Hinckley, Marito Hayashi, Jessica M Montgomery, Miriam Gullo, Shawn P Driscoll, Rudolf Grosschedl, Yoshinori Kohwi, Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu, Samuel L Pfaff
Motor behaviors such as walking or withdrawing the limb from a painful stimulus rely upon integrative multimodal sensory circuitry to generate appropriate muscle activation patterns. Both the cellular components and the molecular mechanisms that instruct the assembly of the spinal sensorimotor system are poorly understood. Here we characterize the connectivity pattern of a sub-population of lamina V inhibitory sensory relay neurons marked during development by the nuclear matrix and DNA binding factor Satb2 (ISR(Satb2))...
August 17, 2016: Neuron
Krista J Spiller, Claudia J Cheung, Clark R Restrepo, Linda K Kwong, Anna M Stieber, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee
UNLABELLED: Motor neurons (MNs) are the neuronal class that is principally affected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it is widely known that individual motor pools do not succumb to degeneration simultaneously. Because >90% of ALS patients have an accumulation of cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates in postmortem brain and spinal cord (SC), it has been suggested that these inclusions in a given population may trigger its death. We investigated seven MN pools in our new inducible rNLS8 transgenic (Tg) mouse model of TDP-43 proteinopathy and found striking differences in MN responses to TDP-43 pathology...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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