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Spinal pattern generator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350907/excitatory-and-inhibitory-neuronal-circuits-in-the-spinal-cord-and-their-role-in-the-control-of-motor-neuron-function-and-degeneration
#1
Uri Nimrod Ramírez-Jarquín, Ricardo Tapia
The complex neuronal networks of the spinal cord coordinate a wide variety of motor functions, including walking, running and voluntary and involuntary movements. This is accomplished by different groups of neurons, called center pattern generators, which control left-right alternation and flexor-extensor patterns. These spinal circuits, located in the ventral horns, are formed by several neuronal types, and the specific function of most of them has been identified by means of studies in vivo and in the isolated spinal cord of mice harboring genetically induced ablation of specific neuronal populations...
January 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333223/development-of-practical-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-systems-based-on-an-electromyography-study-of-the-cybathlon-2016
#2
Jetsada Arnin, Traisak Yamsa-Ard, Preechapawan Triponyuwasin, Yodchanan Wongsawat
The purpose of this study was to develop a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system based on the motor driving concept for use by spinal cord injury patients participating in the FES Cycling competition at the Cybathlon 2016. The proposed FES system consists of a low-power control system, a precise processor unit, and a 4-channel stimulation unit. Self-adhesive carbon conductive electrodes were utilized for stimulation. A 26-year-old SCI patient was qualified to participate in the competition. The pilot patient underwent training for 16 months, which included experience with FES stimulation, performing FES cycling, and reducing spasticity, to practice using the FES system...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276476/critical-points-and-traveling-wave-in-locomotion-experimental-evidence-and-some-theoretical-considerations
#3
REVIEW
Philippe Saltiel, Andrea d'Avella, Matthew C Tresch, Kuno Wyler, Emilio Bizzi
The central pattern generator (CPG) architecture for rhythm generation remains partly elusive. We compare cat and frog locomotion results, where the component unrelated to pattern formation appears as a temporal grid, and traveling wave respectively. Frog spinal cord microstimulation with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA), a CPG activator, produced a limited set of force directions, sometimes tonic, but more often alternating between directions similar to the tonic forces. The tonic forces were topographically organized, and sites evoking rhythms with different force subsets were located close to the constituent tonic force regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243319/zebrafish-rfx4-controls-dorsal-and-ventral-midline-formation-in-the-neural-tube
#4
Irina Sedykh, Abigail N Keller, Baul Yoon, Laura Roberson, Oleg V Moskvin, Yevgenya Grinblat
BACKGROUND: Rfx winged-helix transcription factors, best known as key regulators of core ciliogenesis, also play ciliogenesis-independent roles during neural development. Mammalian Rfx4 controls neural tube morphogenesis via both mechanisms. RESULTS: We set out to identify conserved aspects of rfx4 gene function during vertebrate development and to establish a new genetic model in which to analyze these mechanisms further. To this end, we have generated frame-shift alleles in the zebrafish rfx4 locus using CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204381/a-fuzzy-controller-for-movement-stabilization-using-afferent-control-controller-synthesis-and-simulation
#5
Zahra Khodadadi, Hamid R Kobravi, Milad F Majd
Stimulation of spinal sensorimotor circuits can improve motor control in animal models and humans with spinal cord injury (SCI). More recent evidence suggests that the stimulation increases the level of excitability in the spinal circuits, activates central pattern generators, and it is also able to recruit distinctive afferent pathways connected to specific sensorimotor circuits. In addition, the stimulation generates well-defined responses in leg muscles after each pulse. The problem is that in most of the neuromodulation devices, electrical stimulation parameters are regulated manually and stay constant during movement...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187551/model-of-a-bilateral-brown-type-central-pattern-generator-for-symmetric-and-asymmetric-locomotion
#6
Anton Sobinov, Sergiy Yakovenko
The coordinated activity of muscles is produced in part by spinal rhythmogenic neural circuits, termed central pattern generators (CPGs). A classical CPG model is a system of coupled oscillators that transform locomotor drive into coordinated and gait-specific patterns of muscle recruitment. The network properties of this conceptual model can be simulated by a system of ordinary differential equations with a physiologically-inspired coupling locus of interactions capturing the timing relationship for bilateral coordination of limbs in locomotion...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180480/motor-module-activation-sequence-and-topography-in-the-spinal-cord-during-air-stepping-in-human-insights-into-the-traveling-wave-in-spinal-locomotor-circuits
#7
Hikaru Yokoyama, Kohtaroh Hagio, Tetsuya Ogawa, Kimitaka Nakazawa
Coordinated locomotor muscle activity is generated by the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs), which are modulated by peripheral and supraspinal inputs. The CPGs would consist of multiple motor modules generating basic muscle activity, which are distributed rostrocaudally along the spinal cord. To activate the motor modules in proper sequence, rostrocaudally traveling waves of activation in the spinal cord are important mechanisms in the CPGs. The traveling waves of activation have been observed in nonhuman vertebrates...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145838/mri-characteristics-for-phantom-scratching-in-canine-syringomyelia
#8
Zoe R Nalborczyk, Angus K McFadyen, Jelena Jovanovik, Anna Tauro, Colin J Driver, Noel Fitzpatrick, Susan P Knower, Clare Rusbridge
BACKGROUND: A classic sign of canine syringomyelia (SM) is scratching towards one shoulder. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we investigate the spinal cord lesion relating to this phenomenon which has characteristics similar to fictive scratch secondary to spinal cord transection. Medical records were searched for Cavalier King Charles spaniels with a clinical and MRI diagnosis of symptomatic SM associated with Chiari-like malformation (CM). The cohort was divided into SM with phantom scratching (19 dogs) and SM but no phantom scratching (18 dogs)...
November 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142293/neural-pathways-for-colorectal-control-relevance-to-spinal-cord-injury-and-treatment-a-narrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Brid Callaghan, John B Furness, Ruslan V Pustovit
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to review the organisation of the nerve pathways that control defecation and to relate this knowledge to the deficits in colorectal function after SCI. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify salient features of defecation control pathways and the functional consequences of damage to these pathways in SCI. RESULTS: The control pathways for defecation have separate pontine centres under cortical control that influence defecation...
November 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142093/developmental-changes-in-spinal-neuronal-properties-motor-network-configuration-and-neuromodulation-at-free-swimming-stages-of-xenopus-frog-tadpoles
#10
Stephen Paul Currie, Keith Thomas Sillar
We describe a novel preparation of the isolated brainstem and spinal cord from pro-metamorphic tadpole stages of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that permits whole cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Previous research on earlier stages of the same species has provided one of the most detailed understandings of the design and operation of a CPG circuit. Here we have addressed how development sculpts complexity from this more basic circuit. The preparation generates bouts of fictive swimming activity either spontaneously or in response to electrical stimulation of the optic tectum, allowing an investigation into how the neuronal properties, activity patterns and neuromodulation of locomotor rhythm generation change during development...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132416/distinct-functional-consequences-of-ecel1-dine-missense-mutations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-congenital-contracture-disorders
#11
Kenichi Nagata, Mika Takahashi, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroshi Kiyama, Takaomi C Saido
Endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1, also termed DINE in rodents), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, has been identified as a gene responsible for distal arthrogryposis (DA). ECEL1-mutated DA is generally characterized by ocular phenotypes in addition to the congenital limb contractures that are common to all DA subtypes. Until now, the consequences of the identified pathogenic mutations have remained incompletely understood because of a lack of detailed phenotypic analyses in relevant mouse models. In this study, we generated a new knock-in mouse strain that carries an ECEL1/DINE pathogenic G607S missense mutation, based on a previous study reporting atypical DA hindlimb phenotypes in two siblings with the mutation...
November 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122585/strong-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-the-mouse-ventral-spinal-cord-is-not-required-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-opc-generation-but-is-necessary-for-correct-timing-of-its-generation
#12
Hirokazu Hashimoto, Wen Jiang, Takeshi Yoshimura, Kyeong-Hye Moon, Jinwoong Bok, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In the mouse neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) secreted from the floor plate (FP) and the notochord (NC) regulates ventral patterning of the neural tube, and later is essential for the generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). During early development, the NC is adjacent to the neural tube and induces ventral domains in it, including the FP. In the later stage of development, during gliogenesis in the spinal cord, the pMN domain receives strong Shh signaling input. While this is considered to be essential for the generation of OPCs, the actual role of this strong input in OPC generation remains unclear...
November 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118212/delineating-the-diversity-of-spinal-interneurons-in-locomotor-circuits
#13
Simon Gosgnach, Jay B Bikoff, Kimberly J Dougherty, Abdeljabbar El Manira, Guillermo M Lanuza, Ying Zhang
Locomotion is common to all animals and is essential for survival. Neural circuits located in the spinal cord have been shown to be necessary and sufficient for the generation and control of the basic locomotor rhythm by activating muscles on either side of the body in a specific sequence. Activity in these neural circuits determines the speed, gait pattern, and direction of movement, so the specific locomotor pattern generated relies on the diversity of the neurons within spinal locomotor circuits. Here, we review findings demonstrating that developmental genetics can be used to identify populations of neurons that comprise these circuits and focus on recent work indicating that many of these populations can be further subdivided into distinct subtypes, with each likely to play complementary functions during locomotion...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093660/integration-of-descending-command-systems-for-the-generation-of-context-specific-locomotor-behaviors
#14
REVIEW
Linda H Kim, Sandeep Sharma, Simon A Sharples, Kyle A Mayr, Charlie H T Kwok, Patrick J Whelan
Over the past decade there has been a renaissance in our understanding of spinal cord circuits; new technologies are beginning to provide key insights into descending circuits which project onto spinal cord central pattern generators. By integrating work from both the locomotor and animal behavioral fields, we can now examine context-specific control of locomotion, with an emphasis on descending modulation arising from various regions of the brainstem. Here we examine approach and avoidance behaviors and the circuits that lead to the production and arrest of locomotion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093169/age-and-speed-dependent-modulation-of-locomotor-gaits-in-dscam-2j-mutant-mice
#15
Louise Thiry, Maxime Lemieux, Frederic Bretzner
Locomotor gaits depend on the interplay between distributed spinal neural networks termed central pattern generators generating rhythmic and coordinated movements, primary afferents and descending supraspinal inputs. Recent studies demonstrated that the mouse display a rich repertoire of locomotor gaits. Changes in locomotor gaits occur in mutant mice lacking particular neurons or molecular signaling pathways implicated in the normal establishment of these neural networks Given the role of the Down Syndrome Cell Adherence Molecule (DSCAM) to the formation and maintenance of spinal interneuronal circuits and sensorimotor integration, we have investigated its functional contribution to locomotor gaits over a wide range of locomotor speeds using freely walking mice...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074997/motor-recovery-after-activity-based-training-with-spinal-cord-epidural-stimulation-in-a-chronic-motor-complete-paraplegic
#16
Enrico Rejc, Claudia A Angeli, Darryn Atkinson, Susan J Harkema
The prognosis for recovery of motor function in motor complete spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals is poor. Our research team has demonstrated that lumbosacral spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES) and activity-based training can progressively promote the recovery of volitional leg movements and standing in individuals with chronic clinically complete SCI. However, scES was required to perform these motor tasks. Herein, we show the progressive recovery of voluntary leg movement and standing without scES in an individual with chronic, motor complete SCI throughout 3...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070633/central-pattern-generators-in-the-turtle-spinal-cord-selection-among-the-forms-of-motor-behaviors
#17
Paul S G Stein
Neuronal networks in the turtle spinal cord have considerable computational complexity even in the absence of connections with supraspinal structures. These networks contain Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) for each of several behaviors, including three forms of scratch, two forms of swim, and flexion reflex. Each behavior is activated by a specific set of cutaneous or electrical stimuli. The process of selection among behaviors within the spinal cord has multisecond memories of specific motor patterns. Some spinal cord interneurons are partially shared among several CPGs while other interneurons are active during only one type of behavior...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060807/design-of-anisotropic-pneumatic-artificial-muscles-and-their-applications-to-soft-wearable-devices-for-text-neck-symptoms
#18
Hojoong Kim, Hyuntai Park, Jongwoo Kim, Kyu-Jin Cho, Yong-Lae Park
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are frequently used actuators in soft robotics due to their structural flexibility. They are generally characterized by the tensile force due to the axial contraction and the radial force with volume expansion. To date, most applications of P AMs have utilized axial contractions. In contrast, we propose a novel way to control radial expansions of particular P AMs using anisotropic behaviors. P AMs generally consist of a cylindrical rubber bladder that expands with injection of air and multiple flexible but inextensible strings or mesh that surround the bladder to generate axial contraction force...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046427/different-contributions-of-primary-motor-cortex-reticular-formation-and-spinal-cord-to-fractionated-muscle-activation
#19
Boubker Zaaimi, Lauren R Dean, Stuart N Baker
Coordinated movement requires patterned activation of muscles. In this study we examined differences in selective activation of primate upper limb muscles by cortical and sub-cortical regions. Five macaque monkeys were trained to perform a reach and grasp task, and electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from 10-24 muscles while weak single-pulse stimuli were delivered through microelectrodes inserted in the motor cortex (M1), reticular formation (RF) or cervical spinal cord (SC). Stimulus intensity was adjusted to a level just above threshold...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044773/integrated-analysis-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profiles-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-under-inflammatory-pain-conditions
#20
Chien Cheng Liu, Jiin Tsuey Cheng, Tien Yui Li, Ping Heng Tan
Recent studies using microarray-based approaches have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in pain processing pathways. However, a significant proportion of computational predictions of miRNA targets are false-positive interactions. To increase the chance of identifying biologically relevant targets, we performed an integrated analysis of both miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the rat spinal cord during complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. We generated miRNA and mRNA arrays from the same corresponding samples on Days 5 and 14 after CFA injection...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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