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Spinal pattern generator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142293/neural-pathways-for-colorectal-control-relevance-to-spinal-cord-injury-and-treatment-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Brid Callaghan, John B Furness, Ruslan V Pustovit
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to review the organisation of the nerve pathways that control defecation and to relate this knowledge to the deficits in colorectal function after SCI. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify salient features of defecation control pathways and the functional consequences of damage to these pathways in SCI. RESULTS: The control pathways for defecation have separate pontine centres under cortical control that influence defecation...
November 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142093/developmental-changes-in-spinal-neuronal-properties-motor-network-configuration-and-neuromodulation-at-free-swimming-stages-of-xenopus-frog-tadpoles
#2
Stephen Paul Currie, Keith Thomas Sillar
We describe a novel preparation of the isolated brainstem and spinal cord from pro-metamorphic tadpole stages of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that permits whole cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Previous research on earlier stages of the same species has provided one of the most detailed understandings of the design and operation of a CPG circuit. Here we have addressed how development sculpts complexity from this more basic circuit. The preparation generates bouts of fictive swimming activity either spontaneously or in response to electrical stimulation of the optic tectum, allowing an investigation into how the neuronal properties, activity patterns and neuromodulation of locomotor rhythm generation change during development...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132416/distinct-functional-consequences-of-ecel1-dine-missense-mutations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-congenital-contracture-disorders
#3
Kenichi Nagata, Mika Takahashi, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroshi Kiyama, Takaomi C Saido
Endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1, also termed DINE in rodents), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, has been identified as a gene responsible for distal arthrogryposis (DA). ECEL1-mutated DA is generally characterized by ocular phenotypes in addition to the congenital limb contractures that are common to all DA subtypes. Until now, the consequences of the identified pathogenic mutations have remained incompletely understood because of a lack of detailed phenotypic analyses in relevant mouse models. In this study, we generated a new knock-in mouse strain that carries an ECEL1/DINE pathogenic G607S missense mutation, based on a previous study reporting atypical DA hindlimb phenotypes in two siblings with the mutation...
November 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122585/strong-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-the-mouse-ventral-spinal-cord-is-not-required-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-opc-generation-but-is-necessary-for-correct-timing-of-its-generation
#4
Hirokazu Hashimoto, Wen Jiang, Takeshi Yoshimura, Kyeong-Hye Moon, Jinwoong Bok, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In the mouse neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) secreted from the floor plate (FP) and the notochord (NC) regulates ventral patterning of the neural tube, and later is essential for the generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). During early development, the NC is adjacent to the neural tube and induces ventral domains in it, including the FP. In the later stage of development, during gliogenesis in the spinal cord, the pMN domain receives strong Shh signaling input. While this is considered to be essential for the generation of OPCs, the actual role of this strong input in OPC generation remains unclear...
November 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118212/delineating-the-diversity-of-spinal-interneurons-in-locomotor-circuits
#5
Simon Gosgnach, Jay B Bikoff, Kimberly J Dougherty, Abdeljabbar El Manira, Guillermo M Lanuza, Ying Zhang
Locomotion is common to all animals and is essential for survival. Neural circuits located in the spinal cord have been shown to be necessary and sufficient for the generation and control of the basic locomotor rhythm by activating muscles on either side of the body in a specific sequence. Activity in these neural circuits determines the speed, gait pattern, and direction of movement, so the specific locomotor pattern generated relies on the diversity of the neurons within spinal locomotor circuits. Here, we review findings demonstrating that developmental genetics can be used to identify populations of neurons that comprise these circuits and focus on recent work indicating that many of these populations can be further subdivided into distinct subtypes, with each likely to play complementary functions during locomotion...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093660/integration-of-descending-command-systems-for-the-generation-of-context-specific-locomotor-behaviors
#6
REVIEW
Linda H Kim, Sandeep Sharma, Simon A Sharples, Kyle A Mayr, Charlie H T Kwok, Patrick J Whelan
Over the past decade there has been a renaissance in our understanding of spinal cord circuits; new technologies are beginning to provide key insights into descending circuits which project onto spinal cord central pattern generators. By integrating work from both the locomotor and animal behavioral fields, we can now examine context-specific control of locomotion, with an emphasis on descending modulation arising from various regions of the brainstem. Here we examine approach and avoidance behaviors and the circuits that lead to the production and arrest of locomotion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093169/age-and-speed-dependent-modulation-of-locomotor-gaits-in-dscam-2j-mutant-mice
#7
Louise Thiry, Maxime Lemieux, Frederic Bretzner
Locomotor gaits depend on the interplay between distributed spinal neural networks termed central pattern generators generating rhythmic and coordinated movements, primary afferents and descending supraspinal inputs. Recent studies demonstrated that the mouse display a rich repertoire of locomotor gaits. Changes in locomotor gaits occur in mutant mice lacking particular neurons or molecular signaling pathways implicated in the normal establishment of these neural networks Given the role of the Down Syndrome Cell Adherence Molecule (DSCAM) to the formation and maintenance of spinal interneuronal circuits and sensorimotor integration, we have investigated its functional contribution to locomotor gaits over a wide range of locomotor speeds using freely walking mice...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074997/motor-recovery-after-activity-based-training-with-spinal-cord-epidural-stimulation-in-a-chronic-motor-complete-paraplegic
#8
Enrico Rejc, Claudia A Angeli, Darryn Atkinson, Susan J Harkema
The prognosis for recovery of motor function in motor complete spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals is poor. Our research team has demonstrated that lumbosacral spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES) and activity-based training can progressively promote the recovery of volitional leg movements and standing in individuals with chronic clinically complete SCI. However, scES was required to perform these motor tasks. Herein, we show the progressive recovery of voluntary leg movement and standing without scES in an individual with chronic, motor complete SCI throughout 3...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070633/central-pattern-generators-in-the-turtle-spinal-cord-selection-among-the-forms-of-motor-behaviors
#9
Paul S G Stein
Neuronal networks in the turtle spinal cord have considerable computational complexity even in the absence of connections with supraspinal structures. These networks contain Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) for each of several behaviors, including three forms of scratch, two forms of swim, and flexion reflex. Each behavior is activated by a specific set of cutaneous or electrical stimuli. The process of selection among behaviors within the spinal cord has multisecond memories of specific motor patterns. Some spinal cord interneurons are partially shared among several CPGs while other interneurons are active during only one type of behavior...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060807/design-of-anisotropic-pneumatic-artificial-muscles-and-their-applications-to-soft-wearable-devices-for-text-neck-symptoms
#10
Hojoong Kim, Hyuntai Park, Jongwoo Kim, Kyu-Jin Cho, Yong-Lae Park
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are frequently used actuators in soft robotics due to their structural flexibility. They are generally characterized by the tensile force due to the axial contraction and the radial force with volume expansion. To date, most applications of P AMs have utilized axial contractions. In contrast, we propose a novel way to control radial expansions of particular P AMs using anisotropic behaviors. P AMs generally consist of a cylindrical rubber bladder that expands with injection of air and multiple flexible but inextensible strings or mesh that surround the bladder to generate axial contraction force...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046427/different-contributions-of-primary-motor-cortex-reticular-formation-and-spinal-cord-to-fractionated-muscle-activation
#11
Boubker Zaaimi, Lauren R Dean, Stuart N Baker
Coordinated movement requires patterned activation of muscles. In this study we examined differences in selective activation of primate upper limb muscles by cortical and sub-cortical regions. Five macaque monkeys were trained to perform a reach and grasp task, and electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from 10-24 muscles while weak single-pulse stimuli were delivered through microelectrodes inserted in the motor cortex (M1), reticular formation (RF) or cervical spinal cord (SC). Stimulus intensity was adjusted to a level just above threshold...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044773/integrated-analysis-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profiles-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-under-inflammatory-pain-conditions
#12
Chien Cheng Liu, Jiin Tsuey Cheng, Tien Yui Li, Ping Heng Tan
Recent studies using microarray-based approaches have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in pain processing pathways. However, a significant proportion of computational predictions of miRNA targets are false-positive interactions. To increase the chance of identifying biologically relevant targets, we performed an integrated analysis of both miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the rat spinal cord during complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. We generated miRNA and mRNA arrays from the same corresponding samples on Days 5 and 14 after CFA injection...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021393/phrenic-motoneurons-output-elements-of-a-highly-organized-intraspinal-network
#13
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The pontomedullary respiratory network generates the respiratory pattern and relays it to bulbar and spinal respiratory motor outputs. The phrenic motor system controlling diaphragm contraction receives and processes descending commands to produce orderly, synchronous, and cycle-to-cycle-reproducible spatiotemporal firing. Multiple investigators have studied PhMNs in an attempt to shed light on local mechanisms underlying phrenic pattern formation. We recorded PhMNs in unanesthetized, decerebrate rats and related their activity to simultaneous phrenic nerve (PhN) activity by creating a time-frequency representation of PhMN-PhN power and coherence...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991505/modulation-of-sk-channels-regulates-locomotor-alternating-bursting-activity-in-the-functionally-mature-spinal-cord
#14
Amr A Mahrous, Sherif M Elbasiouny
The spinal cord contains specialized groups of cells called pattern generators, which are capable of orchestrating rhythmic firing activity in an isolated preparation. Different patterns of activity could be generated in vitro including right-left alternating bursting and bursting in which both sides are synchronized. The cellular and network mechanisms that enable these behaviors are not fully understood. We have recently shown that Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK channels) control the initiation and amplitude of synchronized bursting in the spinal cord...
October 9, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985337/dars2-protects-against-neuroinflammation-and-apoptotic-neuronal-loss-but-is-dispensable-for-myelin-producing-cells
#15
Marijana Aradjanski, Sukru Anil Dogan, Stephan Lotter, Shuaiyu Wang, Steffen Hermans, Rolf Wibom, Elena Rugarli, Aleksandra Trifunovic
Although mitochondria are ubiquitous, each mitochondrial disease has surprisingly distinctly different pattern of tissue and organ involvement. Congruently, mutations in genes encoding for different mitochondrial tRNA synthetases result in the development of a very flamboyant group of diseases. Mutations in some of these genes, including aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DARS2), lead to the onset of a white matter disease-leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement, and lactate elevation (LBSL) characterized by progressive spastic ataxia and characteristic leukoencephalopathy signature with multiple long-tract involvements...
November 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978767/state-dependent-rhythmogenesis-and-frequency-control-in-a-half-center-locomotor-cpg
#16
Jessica Ausborn, Abigail C Snyder, Natalia A Shevtsova, Ilya A Rybak, Jonathan E Rubin
The spinal locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) generates rhythmic activity with alternating flexion and extension phases. This rhythmic pattern is likely to result from inhibitory interactions between neural populations representing flexor and extensor half-centers. However, it is unclear whether the flexor-extensor CPG has a quasi-symmetric organization with both half-centers critically involved in rhythm generation, features an asymmetric organization with flexor-driven rhythmogenesis, or comprises a pair of intrinsically rhythmic half-centers...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974044/magnetic-force-driven-graphene-patterns-to-direct-synaptogenesis-of-human-neuronal-cells
#17
Kyung-Joon Min, Tae-Hyung Kim, Jeong-Woo Choi
Precise control of axonal growth and synaptic junction formation are incredibly important to repair and/or to mimic human neuronal network. Here, we report a graphene oxide (GO)-based hybrid patterns that were proven to be excellent for guiding axonal growth and its consequent synapse formation of human neural cells. Unlike the previous method that utilized micro-contacting printing technique to generate GO patterns, here, GO-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles were first synthesized and utilized as core materials wherein the external magnetic force facilitated the transfer of GO film to the desired substrate...
October 2, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963128/hind-limb-motoneurons-activity-during-fictive-locomotion-or-scratching-induced-by-pinna-stimulation-serotonin-or-glutamic-acid-in-brain-cortex-ablated-cats
#18
Sergio H Duenas-Jimenez, Luis Castillo Hernandez, Braniff de la Torre Valdovinos, Gerardo Mendizabal Ruiz, Judith M Duenas Jimenez, Viviana Ramirez Abundis, Irene Guadalupe Aguilar Garcia
In brain cortex-ablated cats (BCAC), hind limb motoneurons activity patterns were studied during fictive locomotion (FL) or fictive scratching (FS) induced by pinna stimulation. In order to study motoneurons excitability: heteronymous monosynaptic reflex (HeMR), intracellular recording, and individual Ia afferent fiber antidromic activity (AA) were analyzed. The intraspinal cord microinjections of serotonin or glutamic acid effects were made to study their influence in FL or FS During FS, HeMR amplitude in extensor and bifunctional motoneurons increased prior to or during the respective electroneurogram (ENG)...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961351/intrathecal-therapeutics-device-design-access-methods-and-complication-mitigation
#19
REVIEW
Sean J Nagel, Chandan G Reddy, Leonardo A Frizon, Marshall T Holland, Andre G Machado, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard
INTRODUCTION: The intrathecal space remains underutilized for diagnostic testing, invasive monitoring or as a pipeline for the delivery of neurological therapeutic agents and devices. The latter including drug infusions, implants for electrical modulation, and a means for maintaining the physiologic pressure column. The reasons for this are many but include unfamiliarity with the central nervous system and the historical risks that continue to overshadow the low complication rates in modern clinical series...
September 29, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954893/gliotransmission-and-adenosinergic-modulation-insights-from-mammalian-spinal-motor-networks
#20
David Acton, Gareth Brian Miles
Astrocytes are proposed to converse with neurons at tripartite synapses, detecting neurotransmitter release and responding with release of gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. However, a paucity of evidence from behavioral studies calls into question the importance of gliotransmission for the operation of the nervous system in healthy animals. Central pattern generator (CPG) networks in the spinal cord and brainstem coordinate the activation of muscles during stereotyped activities such as locomotion, inspiration and mastication, and may therefore provide tractable models in which to assess the contribution of gliotransmission to behaviorally relevant neural activity...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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