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Spinal pattern generator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447895/compensatory-function-of-the-diaphragm-following-high-cervical-hemisection-in-the-rat
#1
Kun-Ze Lee, Shih-Hui Hsu
Unilateral high cervical spinal hemisection (i.e., C2Hx) interrupts the respiratory bulbospinal pathway and results in paralysis of the hemidiaphragm. The ipsilateral diaphragmatic activity can partially recover over weeks to months; however, its contribution to the tidal volume generation is less than 20 %. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the contralateral diaphragm exert a compensatory function to maintain the essential ventilation following cervical spinal cord hemisection. The cardiorespiratory pattern and bilateral diaphragm electromyogram (EMG) were measured in urethane-anesthetized and spontaneously breathing adult rats at 1 day, 2 or 8 weeks post-C2Hx or C2 laminectomy...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438991/differentiation-of-v2a-interneurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Jessica C Butts, Dylan A McCreedy, Jorge Alexis Martinez-Vargas, Frederico N Mendoza-Camacho, Tracy A Hookway, Casey A Gifford, Praveen Taneja, Linda Noble-Haeusslein, Todd C McDevitt
The spinal cord consists of multiple neuronal cell types that are critical to motor control and arise from distinct progenitor domains in the developing neural tube. Excitatory V2a interneurons in particular are an integral component of central pattern generators that control respiration and locomotion; however, the lack of a robust source of human V2a interneurons limits the ability to molecularly profile these cells and examine their therapeutic potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we report the directed differentiation of CHX10(+) V2a interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409281/spinal-poly-ga-inclusions-in-a-c9orf72-mouse-model-trigger-motor-deficits-and-inflammation-without-neuron-loss
#3
Martin H Schludi, Lore Becker, Lillian Garrett, Tania F Gendron, Qihui Zhou, Franziska Schreiber, Bastian Popper, Leda Dimou, Tim M Strom, Juliane Winkelmann, Anne von Thaden, Kristin Rentzsch, Stephanie May, Meike Michaelsen, Benjamin M Schwenk, Jing Tan, Benedikt Schoser, Marianne Dieterich, Leonard Petrucelli, Sabine M Hölter, Wolfgang Wurst, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Thomas Klopstock, Thomas Arzberger, Dieter Edbauer
Translation of the expanded (ggggcc)n repeat in C9orf72 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) causes abundant poly-GA inclusions. To elucidate their role in pathogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing codon-modified (GA)149 conjugated with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). Transgenic mice progressively developed poly-GA inclusions predominantly in motoneurons and interneurons of the spinal cord and brain stem and in deep cerebellar nuclei. Poly-GA co-aggregated with p62, Rad23b and the newly identified Mlf2, in both mouse and patient samples...
April 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405011/plasticity-within-excitatory-and-inhibitory-pathways-of-the-vestibulo-spinal-circuitry-guides-changes-in-motor-performance
#4
Diana E Mitchell, Charles C Della Santina, Kathleen E Cullen
Investigations of behaviors with well-characterized circuitry are required to understand how the brain learns new motor skills and ensures existing behaviors remain appropriately calibrated over time. Accordingly, here we recorded from neurons within different sites of the vestibulo-spinal circuitry of behaving macaque monkeys during temporally precise activation of vestibular afferents. Behaviorally relevant patterns of vestibular nerve activation generated a rapid and substantial decrease in the monosynaptic responses recorded at the first central stage of processing from neurons receiving direct input from vestibular afferents within minutes, as well as a decrease in the compensatory reflex response that lasted up to 8 hours...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396410/spinal-motor-neuron-protein-supersaturation-patterns-are-associated-with-inclusion-body-formation-in-als
#5
Prajwal Ciryam, Isabella A Lambert-Smith, Daniel M Bean, Rosie Freer, Fernando Cid, Gian Gaetano Tartaglia, Darren N Saunders, Mark R Wilson, Stephen G Oliver, Richard I Morimoto, Christopher M Dobson, Michele Vendruscolo, Giorgio Favrin, Justin J Yerbury
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous degenerative motor neuron disease linked to numerous genetic mutations in apparently unrelated proteins. These proteins, including SOD1, TDP-43, and FUS, are highly aggregation-prone and form a variety of intracellular inclusion bodies that are characteristic of different neuropathological subtypes of the disease. Contained within these inclusions are a variety of proteins that do not share obvious characteristics other than coaggregation. However, recent evidence from other neurodegenerative disorders suggests that disease-affected biochemical pathways can be characterized by the presence of proteins that are supersaturated, with cellular concentrations significantly greater than their solubilities...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396282/serotonergic-projections-to-lumbar-levels-and-its-plasticity-following-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Yongzhi Xia, Dan Chen, Haijian Xia, Zhengbu Liao, Wenyuan Tang, Yi Yan
The descending serotonergic pathway, which originates in various populations of brainstem neurons, plays an important role in generating the rhythmic motor pattern associated with locomotor movement. Although the development of its innervation has been studied in rodent spinal cord, it has not been clearly identified how the projection of serotonergic pathway is related to its function. Here, we evaluated the pattern of serotonergic innervation on the lumbar spinal cord from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) to adulthood...
April 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356457/speed-dependency-in-%C3%AE-motoneuron-activity-and-locomotor-modules-in-human-locomotion-indirect-evidence-for-phylogenetically-conserved-spinal-circuits
#7
Hikaru Yokoyama, Tetsuya Ogawa, Masahiro Shinya, Noritaka Kawashima, Kimitaka Nakazawa
Coordinated locomotor muscle activity is generated by the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). Vertebrate studies have demonstrated the following two characteristics of the speed control mechanisms of the spinal CPGs: (i) rostral segment activation is indispensable for achieving high-speed locomotion; and (ii) specific combinations between spinal interneuronal modules and motoneuron (MN) pools are sequentially activated with increasing speed. Here, to investigate whether similar control mechanisms exist in humans, we examined spinal neural activity during varied-speed locomotion by mapping the distribution of MN activity in the spinal cord and extracting locomotor modules, which generate basic MN activation patterns...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351197/the-human-central-pattern-generator-for-locomotion
#8
Karen Minassian, Ursula S Hofstoetter, Florin Dzeladini, Pierre A Guertin, Auke Ijspeert
The ability of dedicated spinal circuits, referred to as central pattern generators (CPGs), to produce the basic rhythm and neural activation patterns underlying locomotion can be demonstrated under specific experimental conditions in reduced animal preparations. The existence of CPGs in humans is a matter of debate. Equally elusive is the contribution of CPGs to normal bipedal locomotion. To address these points, we focus on human studies that utilized spinal cord stimulation or pharmacological neuromodulation to generate rhythmic activity in individuals with spinal cord injury, and on neuromechanical modeling of human locomotion...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330471/robot-assisted-gait-training-lokomat-improves-walking-function-and-activity-in-people-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Ki Yeun Nam, Hyun Jung Kim, Bum Sun Kwon, Jin-Woo Park, Ho Jun Lee, Aeri Yoo
Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) after spinal cord injury (SCI) induces several different neurophysiological mechanisms to restore walking ability, including the activation of central pattern generators, task-specific stepping practice and massed exercise. However, there is no clear evidence for the optimal timing and efficacy of RAGT in people with SCI. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of RAGT on improvement in walking-related functional outcomes in patients with incomplete SCI compared with other rehabilitation modalities according to time elapsed since injury...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292829/non-linear-modulation-of-cutaneous-reflexes-with-increasing-speed-of-locomotion-in-spinal-cats
#10
Marie-France Hurteau, Yann Thibaudier, Charline Dambreville, Anass Chraibi, Etienne Desrochers, Alessandro Telonio, Alain Frigon
Cutaneous reflexes are important for rapidly responding to perturbations, correcting limb trajectory and strengthening support. During locomotion, they are modulated by phase to generate functionally appropriate responses. The goal of the present study was to determine if cutaneous reflexes and their phase-dependent modulation are altered with increasing speed and whether this is accomplished at a spinal level. Four adult cats that recovered stable hindlimb locomotion following spinal transection were implanted with electrodes to chronically record hindlimb muscle activity and to electrically stimulate the superficial peroneal nerve to evoke cutaneous reflexes...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271912/provider-identified-barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementing-a-supported-employment-program-in-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Bridget A Cotner, Lisa Ottomanelli, Danielle R O'Connor, John K Trainor
PURPOSE: In a 5-year study, individual placement and support (IPS) significantly increased employment rate of United States Veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI), a historically underemployed population. In a follow-up study, data on barriers and facilitators to IPS implementation were identified. METHODS: Over 24 months of implementation, 82 key medical and vocational staff underwent semi-structured interviews (n = 130). Interviews were digitally recorded and qualitatively analyzed (ATLAS...
March 8, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271408/moving-or-being-moved-that-makes-a-difference
#12
Hans Straka, Boris P Chagnaud
During head/body movements, gaze stability is ensured by transformation of motion-related sensory signals into respective motor commands. Passively induced motion in all vertebrates including amphibians evokes a robust vestibulo-ocular reflex, suggesting an equally important role of this motor reaction during actively induced motion. However, during self-induced movements including locomotion, motor efference copies offer a convenient additional substrate for counteracting retinal image displacements. During such locomotor activity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, spinal central pattern generator-derived efference copies elicit spatio-temporally specific eye movements, which are functionally appropriate to offset swimming-related retinal image displacements...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269706/a-stimulation-driven-exoskeleton-for-walking-after-paraplegia
#13
Sarah R Chang, Mark J Nandor, Lu Li, Kevin M Foglyano, John R Schnellenberger, Rudi Kobetic, Roger D Quinn, Ronald J Triolo
An untethered version of a stimulation-driven exoskeleton was evaluated for its ability to restore walking after paralysis from spinal cord injury. The hybrid neuroprosthesis (HNP) combined a passive variable-constraint exoskeleton for stability and support with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) to contract the paralyzed muscles to drive limb movement. This self-contained HNP was operated by an onboard controller that sampled sensor signals, generated appropriate commands to both the exoskeletal constraints and integrated stimulator, and transmitted data wirelessly via Bluetooth to an off-board computer for real-time monitoring and recording for offline analysis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268375/directing-the-spatial-patterning-of-motor-neuron-differentiation-in-engineered-microenvironments
#14
Christopher J Demers, Greg Cox, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith
Embryonic development of the spinal cord proceeds through a carefully orchestrated temporal and spatial sequence of chemical cues to provide precise patterning of adult cell types. Recreating this complex microenvironment in a standard cell culture dish is difficult, if not impossible. In this paper, a microfluidic device is used to recapitulate, in vitro, the graded patterning events which occur during early spinal cord development. The microdevice design is developed using COMSOL modeling, with which the spatiotemporal profiles of multiple, diffusible morphogens are simulated...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268271/a-model-based-exploration-of-the-role-of-pattern-generating-circuits-during-locomotor-adaptation
#15
Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley
In this study, we used a model-based approach to explore the potential contributions of central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) during adaptation to external perturbations during locomotion. We constructed a neuromechanical modeled of locomotion using a reduced-phase CPG controller and an inverted pendulum mechanical model. Two different forms of locomotor adaptation were examined in this study: split-belt treadmill adaptation and adaptation to a unilateral, elastic force field. For each simulation, we first examined the effects of phase resetting and varying the model's initial conditions on the resulting adaptation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254104/effect-of-laser-acupuncture-on-heart-rate-variability-of-nonpatients-and-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Yiu Ming Wong
Sensory loss in a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) can be described as an injury that removes the ability of the brain to receive electrical afferent signals generated below the site of the injury. The sensory nervous system appears to be the same as the meridians in the concept of Oriental medicine, thus, we assumed that a complete SCI would lead to discontinuation of the meridians in humans. In this case series report with a cross-sectional view, we observed quantitative changes in heart rate variability induced by laser acupuncture at bilateral GB34 and ST36 points for 15 minutes in eight patients with complete SCIs between the levels of T8 and T12, and eight healthy individuals as a control group...
January 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238778/fixed-spaced-stimulation-restores-adaptive-plasticity-within-the-spinal-cord-identifying-the-eliciting-conditions
#17
Kyle M Baumbauer, Joel D Turtle, James W Grau
Prior work has shown that neurons within the spinal cord are sensitive to temporal relations and that stimulus regularity impacts nociceptive processing and adaptive plasticity. Application of brief (80ms) shocks (180-900) in a variable manner induces a form of maladaptive plasticity that inhibits spinally-mediated learning and enhances nociceptive reactivity. In contrast, an extended exposure (720-900) to stimuli given at regular (fixed spaced) intervals has a restorative effect that counters nociceptive sensitization and enables learning...
February 24, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227967/a-stimulation-driven-exoskeleton-for-walking-after-paraplegia
#18
Sarah R Chang, Mark J Nandor, Lu Li, Kevin M Foglyano, John R Schnellenberger, Rudi Kobetic, Roger D Quinn, Ronald J Triolo, Sarah R Chang, Mark J Nandor, Lu Li, Kevin M Foglyano, John R Schnellenberger, Rudi Kobetic, Roger D Quinn, Ronald J Triolo, Mark J Nandor, Rudi Kobetic, Roger D Quinn, John R Schnellenberger, Sarah R Chang, Kevin M Foglyano, Lu Li, Ronald J Triolo
An untethered version of a stimulation-driven exoskeleton was evaluated for its ability to restore walking after paralysis from spinal cord injury. The hybrid neuroprosthesis (HNP) combined a passive variable-constraint exoskeleton for stability and support with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) to contract the paralyzed muscles to drive limb movement. This self-contained HNP was operated by an onboard controller that sampled sensor signals, generated appropriate commands to both the exoskeletal constraints and integrated stimulator, and transmitted data wirelessly via Bluetooth to an off-board computer for real-time monitoring and recording for offline analysis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226539/directing-the-spatial-patterning-of-motor-neuron-differentiation-in-engineered-microenvironments
#19
Christopher J Demers, Greg Cox, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith, Christopher J Demers, Greg Cox, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith, Greg Cox, Christopher J Demers, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith
Embryonic development of the spinal cord proceeds through a carefully orchestrated temporal and spatial sequence of chemical cues to provide precise patterning of adult cell types. Recreating this complex microenvironment in a standard cell culture dish is difficult, if not impossible. In this paper, a microfluidic device is used to recapitulate, in vitro, the graded patterning events which occur during early spinal cord development. The microdevice design is developed using COMSOL modeling, with which the spatiotemporal profiles of multiple, diffusible morphogens are simulated...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226428/a-model-based-exploration-of-the-role-of-pattern-generating-circuits-during-locomotor-adaptation
#20
Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley, Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley, Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley
In this study, we used a model-based approach to explore the potential contributions of central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) during adaptation to external perturbations during locomotion. We constructed a neuromechanical modeled of locomotion using a reduced-phase CPG controller and an inverted pendulum mechanical model. Two different forms of locomotor adaptation were examined in this study: split-belt treadmill adaptation and adaptation to a unilateral, elastic force field. For each simulation, we first examined the effects of phase resetting and varying the model's initial conditions on the resulting adaptation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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