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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093795/the-natural-history-of-pure-autonomic-failure-a-u-s-prospective-cohort
#1
Horacio Kaufmann, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Jose-Alberto Palma, Italo Biaggioni, Phillip A Low, Wolfgang Singer, David S Goldstein, Amanda C Peltier, Cyndia A Shibao, Christopher H Gibbons, Roy Freeman, David Robertson
OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical features and biomarkers that predict which patients with pure autonomic failure will develop Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, or multiple system atrophy. METHODS: One hundred patients who presented with pure autonomic failure were recruited at 5 medical centers in the U.S. Seventy-four patients agreed to be followed prospectively. Patients underwent clinical evaluations including neurological rating scales, sleep questionnaires, smell test, and sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular autonomic function tests...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092986/a-review-of-the-treatment-of-primary-orthostatic-hypotension
#2
Genevieve M Hale, Jose Valdes, Michael Brenner
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies used to treat primary orthostatic hypotension (OH). DATA SOURCES: A literature review using PubMed and MEDLINE databases searching hypotension, non-pharmacological therapy, midodrine, droxidopa, pyridostigmine, fludrocortisone, atomoxetine, pseudoephedrine, and octreotide was performed. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Randomized or observational studies, cohorts, case series, or case reports written in English between January 1970 and November 2016 that assessed primary OH treatment in adult patients were evaluated...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090690/the-many-faces-of-autonomic-failure-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#3
EDITORIAL
Wassilios G Meissner, Anne Pavy-Le Traon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088475/role-of-some-vasoactive-mediators-in-scorpion-envenomed-children-possible-relation-to-envenoming-outcome
#4
Sahar E M El-DeeK, Ayat A Sayed, Ahmed Y Nassar, Zeynab M Mohey-Eldeen, Hussein M Eldeeb, Abdel-Raheim M A Meki
Scorpion envenomation causes an autonomic storm resulting in changes in the vasoactive mediators' levels which lead to myocardial damage, cardiovascular disturbances, peripheral circulatory failure, pulmonary edema, multi-system-organ-failure and death. The study aimed to determine the circulating levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin II (Ang II), kallikrein enzyme, nitric oxide (NO), aldosterone, and electrolytes Na(+), K(+) and Ca(+2) in scorpion envenomed children and to evaluate the potential relation between these vasoactive mediators, the severity of scorpion envenoming and the clinical outcome of envenomed children...
January 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079354/effect-of-excess-iodine-intake-on-thyroid-on-human-health
#5
Eftychia G Koukkou, Nikolaos D Roupas, Kostas B Markou
INTRODUCTION: The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 175 μg for pregnancy and 200 μg for lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin...
January 12, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074124/involvement-of-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-the-infertility-age-associated-diseases-and-cancer-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Antonin Bukovsky
Blood mononuclear cells consist of T cells and monocyte derived cells. Beside immunity, the blood mononuclear cells belong to the complex tissue control system (TCS), where they exhibit morphostatic function by stimulating proliferation of tissue stem cells followed by cellular differentiation, that is stopped after attaining the proper functional stage, which differs among various tissue types. Therefore, the term immune and morphostatic system (IMS) should be implied. The TCS-mediated morphostasis also consists of vascular pericytes controlled by autonomic innervation, which is regulating the quantity of distinct tissues in vivo...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072813/a-case-report-on-red-ear-syndrome-with-tinnitus-successfully-treated-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#7
Peter M Kreuzer, Veronika Vielsmeier, Timm B Poeppl, Berthold Langguth
BACKGROUND: The red ear syndrome represents a rare symptom complex consisting of auricular erythema associated with painful and burning sensations. It has been described in combination with tinnitus rarely. It has been hypothesized to be etiologically related to altered trigeminal afferent input, temporomandibular disorders, and thalamic dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: The initial objective of applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) in a case of red ear syndrome in combination with tinnitus was the alleviation of the phantom sounds...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065709/-the-exercise-training-restores-the-heart-rate-variability-in-heart-failure-patients-a-systematic-review
#8
Victoria Segovia, Carlos Manterola, Marcelo González, Iván Rodríguez-Núñez
: Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population. In this sense the autonomic imbalance is the cornerstone of the physiopathology underlying the development of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in adult patients with chronic heart failure. METHODOLOGY: A systematic literature review was conducted on electronic databases. The considered studies were randomized clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies with non-randomized control group, quasi-experimental studies with analysis of pre and post intervention and crossover studies with randomly assigned training and detraining periods...
January 5, 2017: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057752/foxo1-inhibits-accelerated-%C3%AE-cell-aging-in-pancreas-specific-smad7-mutant-mice
#9
Xiangwei Xiao, Congde Chen, Ping Guo, Ting Zhang, Shane Fischbach, Joseph Carl Fusco, Chiyo Shiota, Krishna Prasadan, H Henry Dong, George K Gittes
The mechanisms underlying the effects of exocrine dysfunction on the development of diabetes remain largely unknown. Here, we show that pancreatic depletion of SMAD7 resulted in age-dependent increases in β-cell dysfunction, with accelerated glucose intolerance, followed by overt diabetes. The accelerated β-cell dysfunction and loss of proliferation capacity, two features of β-cell aging, appeared to be non-cell-autonomous, secondary to the adjacent exocrine failure as a bystander effect. Increased FoxO1 acetylation and nuclear retention was followed by progressive FoxO1 loss in β-cells, which marked the onset of diabetes...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050656/the-recommendations-of-a-consensus-panel-for-the-screening-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension-and-associated-supine-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Christopher H Gibbons, Peter Schmidt, Italo Biaggioni, Camille Frazier-Mills, Roy Freeman, Stuart Isaacson, Beverly Karabin, Louis Kuritzky, Mark Lew, Phillip Low, Ali Mehdirad, Satish R Raj, Steven Vernino, Horacio Kaufmann
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is common in patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure, dementia with Lewy bodies, and peripheral neuropathies including amyloid or diabetic neuropathy. Due to the frequency of nOH in the aging population, clinicians need to be well informed about its diagnosis and management. To date, studies of nOH have used different outcome measures and various methods of diagnosis, thereby preventing the generation of evidence-based guidelines to direct clinicians towards 'best practices' when treating patients with nOH and associated supine hypertension...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049831/mobile-zinc-increases-rapidly-in-the-retina-after-optic-nerve-injury-and-regulates-ganglion-cell-survival-and-optic-nerve-regeneration
#11
Yiqing Li, Lukas Andereggen, Kenya Yuki, Kumiko Omura, Yuqin Yin, Hui-Ya Gilbert, Burcu Erdogan, Maria S Asdourian, Christine Shrock, Silmara de Lima, Ulf-Peter Apfel, Yehong Zhuo, Michal Hershfinkel, Stephen J Lippard, Paul A Rosenberg, Larry Benowitz
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, cannot regenerate their axons once the optic nerve has been injured and soon begin to die. Whereas RGC death and regenerative failure are widely viewed as being cell-autonomous or influenced by various types of glia, we report here that the dysregulation of mobile zinc (Zn(2+)) in retinal interneurons is a primary factor. Within an hour after the optic nerve is injured, Zn(2+) increases several-fold in retinal amacrine cell processes and continues to rise over the first day, then transfers slowly to RGCs via vesicular release...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029639/sleep-disordered-breathing-exacerbates-muscle-vasoconstriction-and-sympathetic-neural-activation-in-patients-with-systolic-heart-failure
#12
Denise M L Lobo, Patricia F Trevizan, Edgar Toschi-Dias, Patricia A Oliveira, Rafael B Piveta, Dirceu R Almeida, Charles Mady, Edimar A Bocchi, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Holly R Middlekauff, Carlos E Negrão
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and hypoxia and hypercapnia episodes activate chemoreceptors stimulating autonomic reflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that muscle vasoconstriction and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia would be more pronounced in patients with HF and SDB than in patients with HF without SDB (NoSBD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety consecutive patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class II-III, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were screened for the study...
November 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025409/a-case-of-acute-autonomic-and-sensory-neuropathy-aasn-with-antibody-against-a-mixture-of-galactocerebroside-and-phospholipids
#13
Teruyuki Ishikura, Kazushiro Takata, Makoto Kinoshita, Kei Fukada, Jinichi Sawada, Takanori Hazama
A 62-year-old woman presented with paresthesia of limbs, gait disturbance, urinary retention and constipation following upper respiratory infection. Neurological examination revealed gait disturbance due to loss of position sense in her extremities with intact muscle power, and autonomic failure represented by orthostatic hypotension, constipation and autonomic bladder. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed normal cell counts with elevated protein levels. Nerve conduction study showed sensory nerve impairment with almost normal motor nerve conduction in her upper and lower extremities...
December 23, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024941/orthostatic-hypotension-after-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation-in-a-patient-with-longstanding-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Derek S Chew, Brett H Shaw, Debra L Isaac, Jonathan G Howlett, Satish R Raj
A continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) benefits patients with advanced heart failure as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. However, unanticipated complications may occur. We report a patient with end-stage heart failure and longstanding diabetes who experienced functionally debilitating orthostatic hypotension from autonomic insufficiency after CF-LVAD implantation. This case demonstrates a role for comprehensive autonomic function testing in the workup of orthostatic hypotension after LVAD implantation...
October 28, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024268/validation-of-autonomic-and-endocrine-reactivity-to-a-laboratory-stressor-in-young-children
#15
Leslie E Roos, Ryan J Giuliano, Kathryn G Beauchamp, Megan Gunnar, Brigette Amidon, Philip A Fisher
The validation of laboratory paradigms that reliably induce a stress response [including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation], is critical for understanding how children's stress-response systems support emotional and cognitive function. Early childhood research to date is markedly limited, given the difficulty in establishing paradigms that reliably induce a cortisol response. Furthermore, research to date has not included a control condition or examined concurrent ANS reactivity...
November 29, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019045/autonomic-modulation-for-the-treatment-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-therapeutic-use-of-percutaneous-stellate-ganglion-blocks
#16
Marat Fudim, Richard Boortz-Marx, Chetan B Patel, Albert Y Sun, Jonathan P Piccini
Ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and electrical storm are commonly encountered emergency conditions in cardiac and surgical intensive care units. In most cases, recurrent ventricular arrhythmias or electrical storm are associated with a heightened sympathetic tone. These arrhythmias can be difficult to treat and may be refractory to beta-blockade, antiarrhythmic therapy, sedation, and mechanical hemodynamic support. While monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and PVC-triggered polymorphic ventricular tachycardia may sometimes be amenable to successful ablation, some patients may be too critically ill to make such an approach feasible...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011746/the-pharmacology-of-autonomic-failure-from-hypotension-to-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Italo Biaggioni
Primary neurodegenerative autonomic disorders are characterized clinically by loss of autonomic regulation of blood pressure. The clinical picture is dominated by orthostatic hypotension, but supine hypertension is also a significant problem. Autonomic failure can result from impairment of central autonomic pathways (multiple system atrophy) or neurodegeneration of peripheral postganglionic autonomic fibers (pure autonomic failure, Parkinson's disease). Pharmacologic probes such as the ganglionic blocker trimethaphan can help us in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and diagnosis of these disorders...
January 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011346/bucindolol-improves-right-ventricle-function-in-rats-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-through-the-reversal-of-autonomic-imbalance
#18
Bruna Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Rafael Colombo, Jéssica Hellen Poletto Bonetto, Rayane Brinck Teixeira, Luiza Mezzomo Donatti, Karina Rabello Casali, Alessandra Eifler Guerra Godoy, Isnard Elman Litvin, Paulo Cavalheiro Schenkel, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo, Adriane Belló-Klein
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterised by an elevation in afterload imposed on the right ventricle (RV), leading to hypertrophy and failure. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a key role in the progression to heart failure, and the use of beta-blockers attenuates this process. The aim of this study was to verify the role of bucindolol, aβ1-, β2- and α1-blocker, on the ANS, and its association with RV function in rats with PAH. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, monocrotaline, control+bucindolol, and monocrotaline+bucindolol...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998040/sleep-apnoea-in-heart-failure-to-treat-or-not-to-treat
#19
REVIEW
Matthew T Naughton, Kirk Kee
Heart failure (HF) and sleep apnoea are common disorders which frequently coexist. Two main types of apnoea occur: one is obstructive which, through recurring episodes of snoring, hypoxaemia, large negative intra-thoracic pressures and arousals from sleep leading to downstream inflammatory and autonomic nervous system changes, is thought to be a causative factor to the development of systemic hypertension and HF. The other type of apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnoea (CSR-CSA), is characterized by an oscillatory pattern of ventilation with a prevailing hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, often in the absence of significant hypoxaemia and snoring, and is thought to be a consequence of advanced HF-related low cardiac output, high sympathetic nervous system activation and pulmonary congestion...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974778/polymers-with-autonomous-life-cycle-control
#20
Jason F Patrick, Maxwell J Robb, Nancy R Sottos, Jeffrey S Moore, Scott R White
The lifetime of man-made materials is controlled largely by the wear and tear of everyday use, environmental stress and unexpected damage, which ultimately lead to failure and disposal. Smart materials that mimic the ability of living systems to autonomously protect, report, heal and even regenerate in response to damage could increase the lifetime, safety and sustainability of many manufactured items. There are several approaches to achieving these functions using polymer-based materials, but making them work in highly variable, real-world situations is proving challenging...
December 14, 2016: Nature
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