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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637099/aggregation-and-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-with-proteinase-k-resistance-in-focal-%C3%AE-synucleinopathy-predominantly-localized-to-the-cardiac-sympathetic-nervous-system
#1
Nei Fukasawa, Takahiro Fukuda, Masato Nagaoka, Tohru Harada, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Masahiro Ikegami
Aggregates of α-synuclein, a major component of Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs), are distributed throughout the nervous system, including the central nervous system (CNS), sympathetic ganglia, enteric nervous system (ENS), cardiac and pelvic plexuses, submandibular gland, adrenal medulla and skin, in incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and pure autonomic failure (PAF) [1-3]. Here we report focal α-synucleinopathy predominantly localized to the cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625397/quantitative-evaluation-of-heartbeat-interval-time-series-using-poincar%C3%A3-analysis-reveals-distinct-patterns-of-heart-rate-dynamics-during-cycles-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#2
Imad Libbus, Bruce D Nearing, Badri Amurthur, Bruce H KenKnight, Richard L Verrier
BACKGROUND: Optimization of stimulation parameters is essential to maximizing therapeutic efficacy and minimizing side effects. METHODS: The ANTHEM-HF study enrolled patients with heart failure who received chronic autonomic regulation therapy (ART) with an implantable vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) system on either the right (n=30) or left side (n=29). Acute effects of continuously cycling VNS on R-R interval dynamics were evaluated using post hoc Poincaré analysis of ECG recordings collected during multiple titration sessions over an 8-12week period...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620053/exercise-training-improve-cardiac-autonomic-control-cardiac-function-and-arrhythmogenesis-in-rats-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-heart-failure
#3
David C Andrade, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Harold D Schultz, Noah J Marcus, Rodrigo Del Rio
Chronic heart failure is characterized by autonomic imbalance, cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmogenesis. It has been shown that exercise training (ExT) improves central nervous system oxidative stress, autonomic control and cardiac function in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), however to date no comprehensive studies have addressed the effects of ExT, if any, on oxidative stress in brainstem cardiovascular areas, cardiac autonomic balance, arrhythmogenesis and cardiac function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616545/assessment-of-various-parameters-using-simple-non-invasive-tests-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases-with-or-without-cardiac-rehabilitation
#4
Takashi Ueda, Shin-Ichiro Miura, Kanta Fujimi, Toshihisa Ishida, Takuro Matsuda, Masaomi Fujita, Yoshiyuki Ura, Kouji Kaino, Maya Sakamoto, Tomoe Horita, Tadaaki Arimura, Yuhei Shiga, Takashi Kuwano, Ken Kitajima, Keijiro Saku
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Simpler techniques are needed for use by physicians in the examination room to assess the usefulness of CR. We enrolled 46 consecutive CVD patients in a CR program (CR group) and prospectively followed them for 3 months. We compared them to 18 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched CVD patients without CR (non-CR group). Various parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 months using 3 simple non-invasive tests: severity of atherosclerosis [arterial velocity pulse index and arterial pressure volume index (API)] were determined using PASESA®, an autonomic nerve total activity amount index and a coefficient of variation of the R-R interval (CVRR) were determined using eHEART®, and peripheral resistance index, pressure rate product, stroke volume and cardiac index were determined using nico®]...
September 2016: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611676/autonomic-modulation-in-patients-with-heart-failure-increases-beat-to-beat-variability-of-ventricular-action-potential-duration
#5
Bradley Porter, Martin J Bishop, Simon Claridge, Jonathan Behar, Benjamin J Sieniewicz, Jessica Webb, Justin Gould, Mark O'Neill, Christopher A Rinaldi, Reza Razavi, Jaswinder S Gill, Peter Taggart
Background: Exaggerated beat-to-beat variability of ventricular action potential duration (APD) is linked to arrhythmogenesis. Sympathetic stimulation has been shown to increase QT interval variability, but its effect on ventricular APD in humans has not been determined. Methods and Results: Eleven heart failure patients with implanted bi-ventricular pacing devices had activation-recovery intervals (ARI, surrogate for APD) recorded from LV epicardial electrodes under constant RV pacing. Sympathetic activity was increased using a standard autonomic challenge (Valsalva) and baroreceptor indices were applied to determine changes in sympathetic stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605038/the-baroreflex-effectiveness-index-as-an-early-marker-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-heart-failure
#6
Joseph C Watso, Matthew C Babcock, Kamila U Migdal, Austin T Robinson
Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem worldwide, associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604565/droxidopa-for-symptomatic-neurogenic-hypotension
#7
Nadia Ferguson-Myrthil
Droxidopa is a first-in-class, orally available, synthetic amino acid precursor of norepinephrine that received accelerated Food and Drug Administration approval in February 2014 after Orphan Drug status for a debilitating condition known as symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Neurogenic disorders often lead to postural hypotension as a result of poor norepinephrine release from its storage sites. Clinical data suggest increases in standing systolic blood pressure and improvements in many other markers for subjective relief in patients with symptomatic neurogenic hypotension who received droxidopa therapy over 1-2 weeks...
May 4, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603516/iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine-myocardial-scintigraphy-in-isolated-autonomic-failure-potential-red-flag-for-future-multiple-system-atrophy
#8
Francesca Baschieri, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Annagrazia Cecere, Giorgio Barletta, Manuela Contin, Piero Parchi, Pietro Cortelli
Pure autonomic failure is challenging as it can be the presenting feature of a central nervous system syncleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or multiple system atrophy (MSA). Because the prognosis of MSA and PD is so different, predictive features for a possible conversion can be extremely valuable. In this paper, we report three cases (two with autopsy-proven diagnosis) that had isolated AF for many years before converting to MSA or PD. Of all the tests that were performed during the premotor stage, Iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was predictive of the conversion to MSA...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600367/development-and-validation-of-a-risk-stratification-model-for-prediction-of-disability-and-hospitalisation-in-patients-with-heart-failure-a-study-protocol
#9
Luis García-Olmos, Francisco Rodríguez-Salvanés, Maurice Batlle-Pérez, Río Aguilar-Torres, Carlos Porro-Fernández, Alfredo García-Cabello, Montserrat Carmona, Sergio Ruiz-Alonso, Sofía Garrido-Elustondo, Ángel Alberquilla, Luis María Sánchez-Gómez, Ricardo Sánchez de Madariaga, Elena Monge-Navarrete, Luis Benito-Ortiz, Nicolás Baños-Pérez, Amaya Simón-Puerta, Ana Belén López Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel Martínez-Álvarez, María Ángeles Velilla-Celma, María Isabel Bernal-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) reduces quality of life and causes hospitalisation and death. Identifying predictive factors of such events may help change the natural history of this condition. AIM: To develop and validate a stratification system for classifying patients with CHF, according to their degree of disability and need for hospitalisation due to any unscheduled cause, over a period of 1 year. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Prospective, concurrent, cohort-type study in two towns in the Madrid autonomous region having a combined population of 1 32 851...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592560/ectopic-calcification-in-pseudoxanthoma-elasticum-responds-to-inhibition-of-tissue-nonspecific-alkaline-phosphatase
#10
Shira G Ziegler, Carlos R Ferreira, Elena Gallo MacFarlane, Ryan C Riddle, Ryan E Tomlinson, Emily Y Chew, Ludovic Martin, Chen-Ting Ma, Eduard Sergienko, Anthony B Pinkerton, José Luis Millán, William A Gahl, Harry C Dietz
Biallelic mutations in ABCC6 cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a disease characterized by calcification in the skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The function of ATP-binding cassette C6 (ABCC6) and the pathogenesis of PXE remain unclear. We used mouse models and patient fibroblasts to demonstrate genetic interaction and shared biochemical and cellular mechanisms underlying ectopic calcification in PXE and related disorders caused by defined perturbations in extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate catabolism...
June 7, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590261/orthostatic-hypotension-and-association-of-arterial-compliance-in-elderly-patients-with-hypertension-a-pilot-study
#11
Ayumi Toba, Joji Ishikawa, Kazumasa Harada
BACKGROUNDS: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, and increased mortality. We evaluated whether OH was affected by cardiac structure and function or autonomic function in elderly hypertensive outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 64 hypertension patients (mean age 74.2±1.7 years old), we evaluated changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability before and after standing up using the MemCalc system. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed their medical records and echocardiographic data...
June 5, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588311/low-frequency-of-ns5a-relevant-resistance-associated-substitutions-to-elbasvir-among-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1a-in-spain-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Claudia Palladino, Marta Sánchez-Carrillo, Irene Mate-Cano, Sonia Vázquez-Morón, Ma Ángeles Jimenez-Sousa, Mónica Gutiérrez-Rivas, Salvador Resino, Verónica Briz
Relevant resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) to elbasvir, the new HCV NS5A inhibitor, may limit its efficacy and lead to virological failure in HCV-GT1a-infected patients. There are few data outside clinical trials evaluating their prevalence and impact of elbasvir/grazoprevir. A multicenter cross-sectional study of 617 HCV-GT1a-infected individuals attended in 84 Spanish hospitals from the 17 Autonomous Communities and two Autonomous cities was performed. HCV population sequencing was used to identify RASs to elbasvir and the mutational pattern and drug sensitivity were confirmed by geno2pheno[HCV]...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577744/orthostatic-hypotension-a-review
#13
Adrien Joseph, Ruben Wanono, Martin Flamant, Emmanuelle Vidal-Petiot
Orthostatic hypotension, defined by a drop in blood pressure of at least 20mmHg for systolic blood pressure and at least 10mmHg for diastolic blood pressure within 3minutes of standing up, is a frequent finding, particularly in elderly patients. It is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Although it is often multifactorial, the first favoring factor is medications. Other etiologies are divided in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, characterized by autonomic failure due to central or peripheral nervous system disorders, and non-neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, mainly favoured by hypovolemia...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572789/impaired-baroreflex-sensitivity-after-bilateral-convulsive-seizures-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#14
Kevin G Hampel, Christian E Elger, Rainer Surges
BACKGROUND: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is probably due to an autonomic failure in the early postictal phase after bilateral convulsive seizures (BCS) in the majority of cases. The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is an established and reliable biomarker of autonomic function and sudden cardiac death. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether postictal BRS depends on seizure type. METHODS: Beat-to-beat systemic blood pressure and heart rate were continuously and non-invasively recorded with the ccNexfin(®) device in patients with focal epilepsy undergoing video-EEG monitoring...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571820/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-hpa-axis-and-sympathetic-nervous-system
#15
John R Richards
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, is an enigmatic and challenging clinical disorder. As cannabis legalization, use, and potency has increased worldwide over the past decade, so has the prevalence of CHS. These patients often require acute care and inpatient treatment for refractory emesis, electrolyte derangement, dehydration, acute renal failure, and injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Routinely-prescribed antiemetics are frequently associated with treatment failure in CHS, necessitating use of sedating agents such as benzodiazepines and antipsychotics...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560737/reduced-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#16
Bhaswati Roy, Mary A Woo, Danny J J Wang, Gregg C Fonarow, Ronald M Harper, Rajesh Kumar
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) patients show significant lateralized neural injury, accompanied by autonomic, mood and cognitive deficits. Both gray and white matter damage occurs and probably develops from altered cerebral blood flow (CBF), a consequence of impaired cardiac output. However, the distribution of regional CBF changes in HF patients is unknown, but is an issue in determining mechanisms of neural injury. Our aim was to compare regional CBF changes in HF with CBF in control subjects using non-invasive pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (ASL) procedures...
May 30, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560192/mutational-analysis-of-mitochondrial-trna-genes-in-patients-with-asthma
#17
Chun Mei Wang, Xiao Jing Zhang, Ying Jun Ma, Xia Li
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering, and cell fate determination. Most recently, mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial mutations played important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the frequency of mitochondrial tRNA mutations in asthma is largely unknown. METHODS: Overall, 200 patients with asthma and 100 healthy control subjects were recruited between Jan 2015 and Dec 2015 at the Guangming New District People's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559356/thymic-epithelial-cells-require-p53-to-support-their-long-term-function-in-thymopoiesis-in-mice
#18
Pedro M Rodrigues, Ana R Ribeiro, Chiara Perrod, Jonathan J M Landry, Leonor Araújo, Isabel Pereira-Castro, Vladimir Benes, Alexandra Moreira, Helena Xavier-Ferreira, Catarina Meireles, Nuno L Alves
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) provide crucial microenvironments for T-cell development and tolerance induction. As the regular function of the thymus declines with age, it is of fundamental and clinical relevance to decipher new determinants that control TEC homeostasis in vivo Beyond its recognized tumor suppressive function, p53 controls several immunoregulatory pathways. To study the cell-autonomous role of p53 in thymic epithelium functioning, we developed and analyzed mice with conditional inactivation of Trp53 in TECs (p53cKO)...
May 30, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554585/predictors-of-response-to-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Ana Abreu, Mário Oliveira, Pedro Silva Cunha, Helena Santa Clara, Vanessa Santos, Guilherme Portugal, Pedro Rio, Rui Soares, Luísa Moura Branco, Marta Alves, Ana Luísa Papoila, Rui Ferreira, Miguel Mota Carmo
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has modified the prognosis of chronic heart failure (HF) with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. However, 30% of patients do not have a favorable response. The big question is how to determine predictors of response. AIMS: To identify baseline characteristics that might influence echocardiographic response to CRT. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective single-center hospital-based cohort study of consecutive HF patients selected to CRT (NYHA class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <35% and QRS complex ≥120 ms)...
May 26, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551783/mitochondrial-mutations-in-cardiac-disorders
#20
Sung Ryul Lee, Jin Han
Mitochondria individually encapsulate their own genome, unlike other cellular organelles. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a circular, double-stranded, 16,569-base paired DNA containing 37 genes: 13 proteins of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs; 12S and 16S), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). The mtDNA is more vulnerable to oxidative modifications compared to nuclear DNA because of its proximity to ROS-producing sites, limited presence of DNA damage repair systems, and continuous replication in the cell...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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