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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903817/effects-of-orthostatic-hypotension-on-cognition-in-parkinson-disease
#1
Justin Centi, Roy Freeman, Christopher H Gibbons, Sandy Neargarder, Alexander O Canova, Alice Cronin-Golomb
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between orthostatic hypotension (OH) and posture-mediated cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD) using a cross-sectional and within-group design. METHODS: Individuals without dementia with idiopathic PD included 18 with OH (PDOH) and 19 without OH; 18 control participants were also included. Neuropsychological tests were conducted in supine and upright-tilted positions. Blood pressure was assessed in each posture. RESULTS: The PD groups performed similarly while supine, demonstrating executive dysfunction in sustained attention and response inhibition, and reduced semantic fluency and verbal memory (encoding and retention)...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902931/human-presynaptic-receptors
#2
REVIEW
Eberhard Schlicker, Thomas Feuerstein
Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899309/repeated-misdiagnosis-of-a-relapsed-atypical-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-without-an-associated-ovarian-teratoma
#3
Weihe Zhang, Li Yan, Jinsong Jiao
We present an atypical case of relapsed anti-NMDAR encephalitis in a young female patient without an associated ovarian teratoma. She presented with recurrent seizure attacks with muscle weakness, psychosis, dyskinesia, autonomic failure and insomnia. She was first misdiagnosed as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) then Hashimoto's encephalopathy due to diffuse cerebral lesions, elevated serum lactic acid concentration, increased amount of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in serum and diffuse lesions of the thyroid gland...
November 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898646/iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine-scintigraphy-for-the-assessment-of-cardiac-sympathetic-innervation-and-the-relationship-with-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-healthy-adults-using-standardized-methods
#4
Omar Asghar, Parthiban Arumugam, Ian Armstrong, Simon Ray, Matthias Schmitt, Rayaz A Malik
BACKGROUND: Global iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-MIBG) uptake is predictive of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with heart failure. Normal variations in global and regional uptake, however, are not well defined and few studies have addressed the functional relevance of I-MIBG uptake and distribution in healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed I-MIBG scintigraphy and cardiac autonomic function testing using the standardized methodology in 15 healthy individuals (mean age 54...
January 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895211/improvement-in-aerobic-capacity-during-cardiac-rehabilitation-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-is-there-a-role-for-autonomic-adaptations
#5
Davide Lazzeroni, Paolo Castiglioni, Matteo Bini, Andrea Faini, Umberto Camaiora, Pietro Tito Ugolotti, Claudio Stefano Centorbi, Lorenzo Brambilla, Valerio Brambilla, Massimo Francesco Piepoli, Paolo Coruzzi
BACKGROUND: It has been previously shown in patients with heart failure that exercise-based rehabilitation programmes may improve functional capacity and autonomic response. The aim of this study was to investigate this issue further by evaluating whether an association exists between autonomic adaptations and improvements of aerobic capacity in a general population of coronary artery disease patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Ninety consecutive patients (age 60 ± 11 years) attended a rehabilitation programme of moderate continuous training (25 ± 8 sessions, 2-3 sessions/week)...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889915/constitutive-regulation-of-the-glutamate-aspartate-transporter-eaat1-by-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii
#6
Aarti R Chawla, Derrick E Johnson, Agnes S Zybura, Benjamin P Leeds, Ross M Nelson, Andy Hudmon
Glutamate clearance by astrocytes is an essential part of normal excitatory neurotransmission. Failure to adapt or maintain low levels of glutamate in the central nervous system is associated with multiple acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The primary excitatory amino acid transporters in human astrocytes are EAAT1 and EAAT2 (GLAST and GLT-1 respectively in rodents). While the inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMKII), a ubiquitously-expressed serine/threonine protein kinase, results in diminished glutamate uptake in cultured primary rodent astrocytes (Ashpole et al...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885874/post-translational-regulation-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-implications-for-sympathoexcitatory-states
#7
Neeru M Sharma, Kaushik P Patel
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized via neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a significant role in regulation/modulation of autonomic control of circulation. Various pathological states are associated with diminished nNOS expression and blunted autonomic effects of NO in the central nervous system (CNS) including heart failure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure etc. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanism/s involved in dysregulation of nNOS is essential to understand the pathogenesis of increased sympathoexcitation in these diseased states...
December 2, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879279/heart-rate-turbulence-is-a-powerful-predictor-of-cardiac-death-and-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-postmyocardial-infarction-and-heart-failure-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Marcello Disertori, Michela Masè, Marta Rigoni, Giandomenico Nollo, Flavia Ravelli
BACKGROUND: Heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been proposed as a candidate marker of altered autonomic tone, and some studies showed its prognostic value for both cardiac death (CD) and sudden death. Nevertheless, HRT is not currently used in the clinical practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the predictive value of HRT for the end points of total mortality, CD, and fatal and nonfatal ventricular arrhythmias in postacute myocardial infarction and heart failure patients...
December 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871959/intracavernous-injections-in-spinal-cord-injured-men-with-erectile-dysfunction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Lucie Chochina, Florian Naudet, Clément Chéhensse, Andrea Manunta, Mireille Damphousse, Isabelle Bonan, François Giuliano
INTRODUCTION: Despite improvements in the care of patients after spinal cord injury (SCI), permanent impairment of locomotion, sensation, and autonomic function remains a major hurdle. After the acute stage of injury, recovering sexual function is a high priority. AIM: To review the efficacy of intracavernous injections (ICIs) in men with SCI and to identify prognostic factors affecting the efficacy of ICIs in this population. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed-Medline, Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases...
July 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861527/the-impact-of-early-life-stress-on-growth-and-cardiovascular-risk-a-possible-example-for-autonomic-imprinting
#10
Reiner Buchhorn, Sebastian Meint, Christian Willaschek
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress is imprinting regulatory properties with life-long consequences. We investigated heart rate variability in a group of small children with height below the third percentile, who experienced an episode of early life stress due to heart failure or intra uterine growth retardation. These children appear to develop autonomic dysfunction in later life. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy control group heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced on average in a group of 101 children with short stature...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854009/autonomic-modulation-with-baroreflex-activation-therapy-in-heart-failure
#11
REVIEW
Edoardo Gronda, Emilio Vanoli
Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) produces a central inhibition of cardiac sympathetic outflow and, concomitantly, an increased cardiac vagal activity via a physiological reflex pathway. In a pilot study in 11 patients with NYHA class III heart failure (HF), BAT produced a persistent significant reduction of muscle sympathetic nerve activity over a 21-month follow-up and a dramatic decrease in the number and length of hospitalizations. In a multinational, prospective, randomized, parallel-controlled, clinical trial in 146 NYHA functional class III HF, BAT produced a significant N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide reduction (p = 0...
November 16, 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852001/reduced-epicardial-vagal-nerve-density-and-impaired-vagal-control-in-a-rat-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure-model
#12
Matthew S Delfiner, John Siano, Ying Li, Eduard I Dedkov, Youhua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Autonomic remodeling, characterized by sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal, contributes to heart failure (HF) progression. However, the exact mechanism(s) responsible for vagal withdrawal in HF remain(s) unclear, and whether HF causes epicardial autonomic nerve remodeling is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in 14 Sprague-Dawley rats, and 10 sham surgery rats served as the control. MI-HF was confirmed 2 months after the surgery by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurement...
October 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844341/does-the-type-of-multisystem-atrophy-parkinsonism-or-cerebellar-ataxia-impact-on-the-nature-of-sleep-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Sara Marelli, Romina Combi
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a combination of autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and/or cerebellar ataxia. The cause of MSA is unknown, but neuropathologically the disease is characterized by widespread α-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions and striatonigral and/or olivopontocerebellar neurodegeneration. Two motor phenotypes have been clinically identified: parkinsonian (MSA-P) and cerebellar (MSA-C). In order to elucidate if in addition to the motor abnormalities there are other significant differences between these two phenotypes, we performed a review of the studies on sleep disorders in the two MSA subtypes...
December 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843452/challenges-in-modelling-hypoglycaemia-associated-autonomic-failure-a-review-of-human-and-animal-studies
#14
REVIEW
Manjula Senthilkumaran, Xin-Fu Zhou, Larisa Bobrovskaya
Recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycaemia is a major limitation to insulin treatment in diabetes patients leading to a condition called hypoglycaemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). HAAF is characterised by reduced sympathoadrenal response to subsequent hypoglycaemia thereby predisposing the patients to severe hypoglycaemia that can lead to coma or even death. Despite several attempts being made, the mechanism of HAAF is yet to be clearly established. In order for the mechanism of HAAF to be elucidated, establishing a human/animal model of the phenomenon is the foremost requirement...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835634/a-novel-and-effective-method-for-congestive-heart-failure-detection-and-quantification-using-dynamic-heart-rate-variability-measurement
#15
Wenhui Chen, Lianrong Zheng, Kunyang Li, Qian Wang, Guanzheng Liu, Qing Jiang
Risk assessment of congestive heart failure (CHF) is essential for detection, especially helping patients make informed decisions about medications, devices, transplantation, and end-of-life care. The majority of studies have focused on disease detection between CHF patients and normal subjects using short-/long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures but not much on quantification. We downloaded 116 nominal 24-hour RR interval records from the MIT/BIH database, including 72 normal people and 44 CHF patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834283/cerebral-glycogen-in-humans-following-acute-and-recurrent-hypoglycemia-implications-on-a-role-in-hypoglycemia-unawareness
#16
Gülin Öz, Mauro DiNuzzo, Anjali Kumar, Amir Moheet, Ameer Khowaja, Kristine Kubisiak, Lynn E Eberly, Elizabeth R Seaquist
Supercompensated brain glycogen levels may contribute to the development of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) following recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) by providing energy for the brain during subsequent periods of hypoglycemia. To assess the role of glycogen supercompensation in the generation of HAAF, we estimated the level of brain glycogen following RH and acute hypoglycemia (AH). After undergoing 3 hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic and 3 hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemic clamps (RH) on separate occasions at least 1 month apart, five healthy volunteers received [1-(13)C]glucose intravenously over 80+ h while maintaining euglycemia...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828991/loss-of-mecp2-causes-urological-dysfunction-and-contributes-to-death-by-kidney-failure-in-mouse-models-of-rett-syndrome
#17
Christopher S Ward, Teng-Wei Huang, José A Herrera, Rodney C Samaco, Meagan R Pitcher, Alan Herron, Steven A Skinner, Walter E Kaufmann, Daniel G Glaze, Alan K Percy, Jeffrey L Neul
Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810956/epithelial-cell-integrin-%C3%AE-1-is-required-for-developmental-angiogenesis-in-the-pituitary-gland
#18
Kathleen M Scully, Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk, Michal Krawczyk, Daria Merkurjev, Havilah Taylor, Antonia Livolsi, Jessica Tollkuhn, Radu V Stan, Michael G Rosenfeld
As a key component of the vertebrate neuroendocrine system, the pituitary gland relies on the progressive and coordinated development of distinct hormone-producing cell types and an invading vascular network. The molecular mechanisms that drive formation of the pituitary vasculature, which is necessary for regulated synthesis and secretion of hormones that maintain homeostasis, metabolism, and endocrine function, remain poorly understood. Here, we report that expression of integrin β1 in embryonic pituitary epithelial cells is required for angiogenesis in the developing mouse pituitary gland...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789562/blunted-cyclic-variation-of-heart-rate-predicts-mortality-risk-in-post-myocardial-infarction-end-stage-renal-disease-and-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#19
Junichiro Hayano, Fumihiko Yasuma, Eiichi Watanabe, Robert M Carney, Phyllis K Stein, James A Blumenthal, Petros Arsenos, Konstantinos A Gatzoulis, Hiroshi Takahashi, Hideki Ishii, Ken Kiyono, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Yutaka Yoshida, Emi Yuda, Itsuo Kodama
AIMS: Cyclic variation of heart rate (CVHR) associated with sleep-disordered breathing is thought to reflect cardiac autonomic responses to apnoeic/hypoxic stress. We examined whether blunted CVHR observed in ambulatory ECG could predict the mortality risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: CVHR in night-time Holter ECG was detected by an automated algorithm, and the prognostic relationships of the frequency (FCV) and amplitude (ACV) of CVHR were examined in 717 patients after myocardial infarction (post-MI 1, 6% mortality, median follow-up 25 months)...
October 26, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784025/arterial-stiffness-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Joong-Seok Kim, Si-Hoon Lee, Yoon-Sang Oh, Jeong-Wook Park, Jae-Young An, Hyun-Seok Choi, Kwang-Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Pulse wave velocity is a marker of arterial stiffness and a surrogate marker of vascular damage. Autonomic abnormalities associated with blood pressure are relatively commonly observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare arterial stiffness between patients with PD and controls and investigate the associations between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and pulse wave velocity in PD. METHODS: One hundred twenty-five PD patients without diabetes mellitus were enrolled into this study, along with 22 age-matched controls...
October 27, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
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