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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440910/subacute-pyridostigmine-exposure-increases-heart-rate-recovery-and-cardiac-parasympathetic-tone-in-rats
#1
Manushree Bharadwaj, Carey Pope, Michael Davis, Stuart Katz, Christian Cook, Lara Maxwell
Heart rate recovery (HRR) describes the rapid deceleration of heart rate after strenuous exercise and is an indicator of parasympathetic tone. A reduction in parasympathetic tone occurs in patients with congestive heart failure, resulting in prolonged HRR. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as pyridostigmine, can enhance parasympathetic tone by increasing cholinergic input to the heart. The objective of this study was to develop a rodent model of HRR to test the hypothesis that subacute pyridostigmine administration decreases cholinesterase activity and accelerates HRR in rats...
April 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426808/a-screen-for-protective-drugs-against-delayed-hypoxic-injury
#2
Chun-Ling Sun, Huiliang Zhang, Meng Liu, Wang Wang, C Michael Crowder
Despite longstanding efforts to develop cytoprotective drugs against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injuries, there remains no effective therapeutics to treat hypoxic injury. The failure of traditional strategies at solving this problem suggests the need for novel and unbiased approaches that can lead to previously unsuspected targets and lead compounds. Towards this end, we report here a unique small molecule screen in the nematode C. elegans for compounds that improve recovery when applied after the hypoxic insult, using a C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424575/contribution-of-autonomic-reflexes-to-the-hyperadrenergic-state-in-heart-failure
#3
REVIEW
Edgar Toschi-Dias, Maria Urbana P B Rondon, Chiara Cogliati, Nazareno Paolocci, Eleonora Tobaldini, Nicola Montano
Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome representing the clinical endpoint of many cardiovascular diseases of different etiology. Given its prevalence, incidence and social impact, a better understanding of HF pathophysiology is paramount to implement more effective anti-HF therapies. Based on left ventricle (LV) performance, HF is currently classified as follows: (1) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); (2) with mid-range EF (HFmrEF); and (3) with preserved EF (HFpEF). A central tenet of HFrEF pathophysiology is adrenergic hyperactivity, featuring increased sympathetic nerve discharge and a progressive loss of rhythmical sympathetic oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418441/an-integrated-anti-arrhythmic-target-network-of-a-chinese-medicine-compound-wenxin-keli-revealed-by-combined-machine-learning-and-molecular-pathway-analysis
#4
Taiyi Wang, Ming Lu, Qunqun Du, Xi Yao, Peng Zhang, Xiaonan Chen, Weiwei Xie, Zheng Li, Yuling Ma, Yan Zhu
Wenxin Keli (WK), a Chinese patent medicine, is known to be effective against cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. Although a number of electrophysiological findings regarding its therapeutic effect have been reported, the active components and system-level characterizations of the component-target interactions of WK have yet to be elucidated. In the current study, we present the first report of a new protective effect of WK on suppressing anti-arrhythmic-agent-induced arrhythmias. In a model of isolated guinea pig hearts, rapid perfusion of quinidine altered the heart rate and prolonged the Q-T interval...
April 18, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408306/heart-failure-and-thermoregulatory-control-can-patients-with-heart-failure-handle-the-heat
#5
REVIEW
Bryce N Balmain, Surendran Sabapathy, Ollie Jay, Julie Adsett, Glenn M Stewart, Rohan Jayasinghe, Norman R Morris
Upon heat exposure, the thermoregulatory system evokes reflex increases in sweating and skin blood flow responses to facilitate heat dissipation and maintain heat balance to prevent the continuing rise in core temperature. These heat dissipating responses are mediated primarily by autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments; which if attenuated, may compromise thermoregulatory control. In patients with heart failure (HF), the neurohumoral and cardiovascular dysfunction that underpins this condition may potentially impair thermoregulatory responses and, consequently, place these patients at a greater risk of heat-related illness...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400822/pacemaker-placement-in-patients-with-stroke-mediated-autonomic-dysregulation
#6
Ali A Alsaad, Christopher O Austin, Maisha T Robinson, Michael B Phillips
Lateral medullary syndrome (LMS) is an ischemic disease of the medulla oblongata, which involves the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Lateral medullary syndrome is often missed as the cause of autonomic dysregulation in patients with recent brain stem stroke. Due to the location of the baroreceptor regulatory center in the lateral medulla oblongata, patients with LMS occasionally have autonomic dysregulation-associated clinical manifestations. We report a case of LMS-associated autonomic dysregulation...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400726/review-of-epidural-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-augmenting-cough-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
REVIEW
Jan T Hachmann, Jonathan S Calvert, Peter J Grahn, Dina I Drubach, Kendall H Lee, Igor A Lavrov
Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a debilitating condition for which there is no cure. In addition to loss of somatic sensorimotor functions, SCI is also commonly associated with impairment of autonomic function. Importantly, cough dysfunction due to paralysis of expiratory muscles in combination with respiratory insufficiency can render affected individuals vulnerable to respiratory morbidity. Failure to clear sputum can aggravate both risk for and severity of respiratory infections, accounting for frequent hospitalizations and even mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396041/association-of-holter-derived-heart-rate-variability-parameters-with-the-development-of-congestive-heart-failure-in-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#8
Vaiibhav N Patel, Brian R Pierce, Rohan K Bodapati, David L Brown, Diane G Ives, Phyllis K Stein
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether Holter-based parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) are independently associated with incident heart failure among older adults in the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study) as evidenced by an improvement in the predictive power of the Health Aging and Body Composition Heart Failure (Health ABC) score. BACKGROUND: Abnormal HRV, a marker of autonomic dysfunction, has been associated with multiple adverse cardiovascular outcomes but not the development of congestive heart failure (CHF)...
March 30, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394027/changes-in-the-cell-population-in-brain-white-matter-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#9
Charlotte Havelund Nykjaer, Tomasz Brudek, Lisette Salvesen, Bente Pakkenberg
BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic progressive neurodegenerative disorder with adult onset and unknown etiology. Clinically it is characterized by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, parkinsonism, and corticospinal dysfunction in any combination and with varying severity. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To establish the extent of involvement of the white matter in the disease, we have used stereology to quantify the total number of neurons and glial cells (oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia) in the brains from 10 MSA patients and 11 controls...
April 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376642/cardiovascular-sequel-of-neck-irradiation-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#10
Manish Goyal, Pragya Shukla, Deepak Gupta, Shyam Bisht, Nar Singh Verma, Sunita Tiwari, Madan Lal Bhatt
PURPOSE: Introduction: The baroreflex is an important afferent mechanism controlling autonomic functions. As afferent nerves course through the neck, they are susceptible to damage by neck irradiation in the head and neck cancer patients. With increased survival of head and neck cancer patients because of improved therapy, the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in them have become apparent and is of clinical concern. There are few case reports of baroreflex failure as a chronic sequel to neck irradiation...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375909/syncope
#11
William P Cheshire
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Syncope is a prevalent syndrome with diverse causes, which have in common a sudden transient failure of the autonomic nervous system to maintain blood pressure against the force of gravity at a level sufficient for cerebral perfusion. Neurally mediated syncope is an episodic phenomenon in which autonomic nervous system function is normal the rest of the time. Although relatively benign, syncope increases the risk for injury from falling and can substantially impair patients' quality of life...
April 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375677/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#12
Valentina Mantegazza, Anna Apostolo, Alfred Hager
Recently, the number of patients with congenital heart diseases reaching adulthood has been progressively increasing in developed countries and new issues are emerging regarding them: the evaluation of their capacity to cope with physical activity, and whether this knowledge can be used to optimize medical management. A symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test has proven to be an essential tool because it can objectively evaluate the functional cardiovascular capacity of these patients, identify the pathological mechanisms of the defect (circulatory failure, shunts, pulmonary hypertension) and help prescribe an individualized rehabilitation program when needed...
April 4, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365181/sudden-death-in-ischemic-heart-disease-2017
#13
Alfred E Buxton
At this time, we find ourselves with an abundance of guidelines for management of patients with manifest ventricular tachyarrhythmias, or at risk for such arrhythmias, in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The guidelines are focused primarily on the "appropriate use" of the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD). Unfortunately, the bulk of the guidelines have very little basis in the underlying pathophysiology responsible for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with CHD. Rather, they are based primarily on the results of randomized clinical trials that merely sought to take broad populations at elevated total mortality risk and determining whether the ICD can reduce overall mortality...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362396/fabrication-of-three-dimensional-paper-based-microfluidic-devices-for-immunoassays
#14
Syrena C Fernandes, Daniel J Wilson, Charles R Mace
Paper wicks fluids autonomously due to capillary action. By patterning paper with hydrophobic barriers, the transport of fluids can be controlled and directed within a layer of paper. Moreover, stacking multiple layers of patterned paper creates sophisticated three-dimensional microfluidic networks that can support the development of analytical and bioanalytical assays. Paper-based microfluidic devices are inexpensive, portable, easy to use, and require no external equipment to operate. As a result, they hold great promise as a platform for point-of-care diagnostics...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356340/analysis-of-cardiac-myocyte-maturation-using-casaav-a-platform-for-rapid-dissection-of-cardiac-myocyte-gene-function-in-vivo
#15
Yuxuan Guo, Nathan J VanDusen, Lina Zhang, Weiliang Gu, Isha Sethi, Silvia Guatimosim, Qing Ma, Blake D Jardin, Yulan Ai, Donghui Zhang, Biyi Chen, Ang Guo, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Long-Sheng Song, William T Pu
Rationale: Loss-of-function studies in cardiac myocytes (CMs) are currently limited by the need for appropriate conditional knockout alleles. The factors that regulate CM maturation are poorly understood. Prior studies on CM maturation have been confounded by heart dysfunction caused by whole organ gene inactivation. Objective: To develop a new technical platform to rapidly characterize cell-autonomous gene function in postnatal murine CMs and apply it to identify genes that regulate T-tubules, a hallmark of mature cardiac myocytes...
March 29, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346013/the-physiology-of-blood-loss-and-shock-new-insights-from-a-human-laboratory-model-of-hemorrhage
#16
Alicia M Schiller, Jeffrey T Howard, Victor A Convertino
The ability to quickly diagnose hemorrhagic shock is critical for favorable patient outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the time course and involvement of the various physiological mechanisms that are active during volume loss and that have the ability to stave off hemodynamic collapse. This review provides new insights about the physiology that underlies blood loss and shock in humans through the development of a simulated model of hemorrhage using lower body negative pressure. In this review, we present controlled experimental results through utilization of the lower body negative pressure human hemorrhage model that provide novel insights on the integration of physiological mechanisms critical to the compensation for volume loss...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335436/photonic-low-cost-micro-sensor-for-in-line-wear-particle-detection-in-flowing-lube-oils
#17
Jon Mabe, Joseba Zubia, Eneko Gorritxategi
The presence of microscopic particles in suspension in industrial fluids is often an early warning of latent or imminent failures in the equipment or processes where they are being used. This manuscript describes work undertaken to integrate different photonic principles with a micro- mechanical fluidic structure and an embedded processor to develop a fully autonomous wear debris sensor for in-line monitoring of industrial fluids. Lens-less microscopy, stroboscopic illumination, a CMOS imager and embedded machine vision technologies have been merged to develop a sensor solution that is able to detect and quantify the number and size of micrometric particles suspended in a continuous flow of a fluid...
March 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326642/neprilysin-inhibition-in-heart-failure-mechanisms-and-substrates-beyond-modulating-natriuretic-peptides
#18
REVIEW
Emilia D'Elia, Attilio Iacovoni, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Ferdinando L Lorini, Stefano Perlini, Michele Senni
The autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the natriuretic peptide system represent critical regulatory pathways in heart failure and as such have been the major targets of pharmacological development. The introduction and approval of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi) have broadened the available drug treatments of patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin catalyses the degradation of a number of vasodilator peptides, including the natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and adrenomedullin, as well as vasoconstrictor peptides, including endothelin-1 and angiotensin I and II...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321682/recent-advances-and-clinical-applications-of-pet-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Nabil E Boutagy, Albert J Sinusas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarize current advances in positron emission tomography (PET) cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) imaging, with a specific focus on clinical applications of novel and established tracers. RECENT FINDINGS: [(11)C]-Meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has provided useful information in evaluation of normal and pathological cardiovascular function. Recently, [(11)C]-HED PET imaging was able to predict lethal arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death (SCD), and all-cause mortality in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
April 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303913/multiple-system-atrophy-insights-into-a-rare-and-debilitating-movement-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Florian Krismer, Gregor K Wenning
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a devastating and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. The clinical presentation of this disease is highly variable, with parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic failure being the most common - and often debilitating - symptoms. These symptoms progress rapidly, and patients die from MSA-related complications after 9 years of symptom duration on average. Unfortunately, the course of the disease cannot be improved by drug or surgical treatment. In addition, symptomatic treatment options are currently limited, and therapeutic benefits are often only transient...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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