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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348027/implications-of-underlying-mechanisms-for%C3%A2-the-recognition-and-management-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#1
REVIEW
Thomas H Marwick, Rebecca Ritchie, Jonathan E Shaw, David Kaye
Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome, the incidence and prevalence of which is increased in diabetes mellitus, pre-diabetes, and obesity. Although this may arise from underlying coronary artery disease, it often occurs in the absence of significant major epicardial coronary disease, and most commonly manifests as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Despite epidemiological evidence linking diabetes to heart failure incidence and outcome, the presence of a distinct primary "diabetic" cardiomyopathy has been difficult to prove, because the link between diabetes and heart failure is confounded by hypertension, microvascular dysfunction, and autonomic neuropathy...
January 23, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338693/in-vitro-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-human-brucella-melitensis-isolates-from-ulanqab-of-inner-mongolia-china
#2
Zhi-Guo Liu, Dong-Dong Di, Miao Wang, Ri-Hong Liu, Hong-Yan Zhao, Dong-Ri Piao, Zhong-Zhi Zhao, Yong-Qing Hao, Ya-Nan Du, Hai Jiang, Bu-Yun Cui, Xian-Zhu Xia
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China and Ulanqab exhibits the highest prevalence of brucellosis in this region. Due to the complex nature of Brucellosis, a cure for this disease has proven to be elusive. Furthermore, the reduced susceptibility of Brucella spp. to antimicrobial agents has been reported as a potential cause of therapeutic failure. However, detailed in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns pertaining to Brucella isolates from this region have not yet been published...
January 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334914/-crying-without-tears-as-an-early-diagnostic-sign-post-of-triple-a-allgrove-syndrome-two-case-reports
#3
Daniel Tibussek, Sujal Ghosh, Angela Huebner, Joerg Schaper, Ertan Mayatepek, Katrin Koehler
BACKGROUND: Triple A syndrome (or Allgrove syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by alacrima, achalasia, adrenal insufficiency and autonomic/neurological abnormalities. The majority of cases are caused by mutations in the AAAS gene located on chromosome 12q13. However, the clinical picture as well as genetic testing may be complex since symptomatology is variable and mutations cannot be identified in all clinically diagnosed patients. We present two unrelated patients with triple-A syndrome illustrating the importance of alacrima as an early clinical sign...
January 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331563/trends-in-premature-mortality-due-to-heart-failure-by-autonomous-community-in-spain-1999-to-2013
#4
Lidia Gómez-Martínez, Domingo Orozco-Beltrán, José A Quesada, Vicente Bertomeu-González, Vicente F Gil-Guillén, Adriana López-Pineda, Concepción Carratalá-Munuera
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem, and the prevalence increases with age. In Spain, there are considerable differences between autonomous communities. The aim of this study was to analyze trends in premature mortality due to HF between 1999 and 2013 in Spain by autonomous community. METHODS: We analyzed data on mortality due to HF in Spanish residents aged 0 to 75 years by autonomous community between 1999 and 2013...
January 10, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331491/investigating-the-relationship-between-cardiac-interoception-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-using-a-predictive-coding-framework
#5
Andrew P Owens, Karl J Friston, David A Low, Christopher J Mathias, Hugo D Critchley
Predictive coding models, such as the 'free-energy principle' (FEP), have recently been discussed in relation to how interoceptive (afferent visceral feedback) signals update predictions about the state of the body, thereby driving autonomic mediation of homeostasis. This study appealed to 'interoceptive inference', under the FEP, to seek new insights into autonomic (dys)function and brain-body integration by examining the relationship between cardiac interoception and autonomic cardiac control in healthy controls and patients with forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI); to (i) seek empirical support for interoceptive inference and (ii) delineate if this relationship was sensitive to increased interoceptive prediction error in OI patients during head-up tilt (HUT)/symptom provocation...
January 9, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326534/is-exercise-training-appropriate-for-patients-with-advanced-heart-failure-receiving-continuous-inotropic-infusion-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Eisuke Amiya, Masanobu Taya
Exercise-based rehabilitation programs have been reported to have beneficial effects for patients with heart failure. However, there is little evidence about whether this is the case in patients with more severe heart failure. In particular, there is a question in the clinical setting whether patients with advanced heart failure and continuous inotropic infusion should be prescribed exercise training. In contrast, many studies conclude that prolonged immobility associated with heart failure profoundly impairs physical function and promotes muscle wasting that could further hasten the course of heart failure...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316845/rho-inhibitor-vx-210-in-acute-traumatic-subaxial-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-design-of-the-spinal-cord-injury-rho-inhibition-investigation-spring-clinical-trial
#7
Michael G Fehlings, Kee D Kim, Bizhan Aarabi, Marco Rizzo, Lisa M Bond, Lisa McKerracher, Alexander Vaccaro, David O Okonkwo
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a lifetime of disability stemming from loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions; these losses, along with increased comorbid sequelae, negatively impact health outcomes and quality of life. Early decompression surgery after SCI can enhance patient outcomes but does not directly facilitate neural repair and regeneration. Currently, there are no FDA-approved pharmacologic therapies to augment motor function and functional recovery in individuals with traumatic SCI...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313153/first-symptoms-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#8
Jake H McKay, William P Cheshire
PURPOSE: The initial symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and, in particular, early autonomic symptoms, have received less attention than motor symptoms. Whereas pathognomonic motor signs are essential to diagnostic specificity, early symptoms important to recognition of a neurodegenerative disorder may be less apparent or diagnostically ambiguous. This observational study sought to identify the very earliest symptoms in the natural history of MSA. METHODS: Detailed clinical histories focusing on early symptoms were obtained from 30 subjects recently diagnosed with MSA...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299712/cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Rosemary S C Horne
A failure of cardiorespiratory control mechanisms, together with an impaired arousal response from sleep, are believed to play an important role in the final event of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The 'triple risk model' describes SIDS as an event that results from the intersection of three overlapping factors: (1) a vulnerable infant, (2) a critical developmental period in homeostatic control and (3) an exogenous stressor. In an attempt to understand how the triple risk hypothesis is related to infant cardiorespiratory physiology, many researchers have examined how the known risk and protective factors for SIDS alter infant cardiovascular control during sleep...
January 3, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297596/neuropathology-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-synucleinopathies
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Coon, Jeremy K Cutsforth-Gregory, Eduardo E Benarroch
The synucleinopathies-Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure-result from distinct patterns of abnormal α-synuclein aggregation throughout the nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction in these disorders results from variable involvement of the central and peripheral autonomic networks. The major pathologic hallmark of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies is Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites; of multiple system atrophy, oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions; and of pure autonomic failure, peripheral neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions...
January 3, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297193/advanced-and-traditional-electrocardiographic-risk-factors-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-the-significance-of-ventricular-late-potentials
#11
Barbara Uznańska-Loch, Kamil Wikło, Ewa Trzos, Karina Wierzbowska-Drabik, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Jarosław Damian Kasprzak, Małgorzata Kurpesa
BACKGROUND: Whether non-invasive electrocardiographic parameters may be of similar relevance in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as in left ventricular heart failure (LVHF) remains unclear. AIM: To examine a profile of electrocardiographic parameters in PAH and to determine their prognostic significance. Comparison of profile in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction was planned to put PAH group results into context. METHODS: We included 41 patients with type 1...
January 3, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290404/the-effects-of-recurrent-hypoglycaemia-and-opioid-antagonists-on-the-adrenal-catecholamine-synthetic-capacity-in-a-rat-model-of-haaf
#12
Manjula Senthilkumaran, Larisa Bobrovskaya
In this study, we investigated the effects of recurrent hypoglycaemia on the adrenal catecholamine synthetic enzymes in a rat model of hypoglycaemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). We found that plasma adrenaline was significantly reduced by about 50% in response to recurrent hypoglycaemia versus single hypoglycaemia. However, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 were increased in HAAF; similarly, aromatic aminoacid decarboxylase protein was also increased indicating a likely increase in catecholamine synthesis in the adrenal gland...
December 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283224/autonomic-regulation-therapy-to-enhance-myocardial-function-in-heart-failure-patients-the-anthem-hfpef-study
#13
Lorenzo A DiCarlo, Imad Libbus, H Uday Kumar, Sanjay Mittal, Rajendra K Premchand, Badri Amurthur, Bruce H KenKnight, Jeffrey L Ardell, Inder S Anand
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of the patients presenting with new-onset heart failure (HF) have HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with mid-range left ventricular ejection fraction (HFmrEF). These patients have neurohormonal activation like that of HF with reduced ejection fraction; however, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have not been shown to improve their outcomes, and current treatment for these patients is symptom based and empiric...
December 28, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280036/seronegative-autoimmune-autonomic-neuropathy-a-distinct-clinical-entity
#14
Elisabeth P Golden, Meredith A Bryarly, Steven Vernino
PURPOSE: Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is associated with ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) antibodies. We describe a similar but distinct series of patients with autoimmune autonomic failure lacking this antibody. METHODS: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Six patients presented with subacute autonomic failure, seronegative for gAChR antibodies. Orthostatic hypotension and gastrointestinal complaints were common. Autonomic testing revealed predominant sympathetic failure and no premature pupillary redilation...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275472/the-impact-of-housing-temperature-induced-chronic-stress-on-preclinical-mouse-tumor-models-and-therapeutic-responses-an-important-role-for-the-nervous-system
#15
Bonnie L Hylander, Jason W-L Eng, Elizabeth A Repasky
In the last 10-15 years, there has been a recognition that the catecholamines (norepinephrine, NE, and epinephrine, Epi) released by the sympathetic nervous system under stressful conditions promote tumor growth through a variety of mechanisms. Tumors recruit autonomic nerves during their development and NE is then released locally in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Acting through adrenergic receptors present on a variety of cells in the TME, NE and Epi induce proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, metastasis of tumor cells, angiogenesis, and inflammation in the TME...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246589/results-of-the-national-survey-on-the-treatment-of-chronic-anal-fissure-in-spanish-hospitals
#16
M Del Mar Aguilar, Pedro Moya, M José Alcaide, Alba Fernández, M Amparo Gómez, Jair Santos, Rafael Calpena, Antonio Arroyo
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of chronic anal fissure (FAC) differs depending on the professional. To come to a consensus, the current situation in Spain should be studied. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current situation of the management of FAC in Spanish hospitals. METHODS: Descriptive study, with data from a survey of surgeons of the Spanish Association of Coloproctology. Data was collected according to the doctor's autonomous community, type of hospital and professional category; FAC management data and 3 clinical cases...
December 12, 2017: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239338/effects-of-neuregulin-1-on-autonomic-nervous-system-remodeling-post-myocardial-infarction-in-a-rat-model
#17
Xin Lai, Liang Zhong, Hai-Xia Fu, Song Dang, Xin Wang, Ning Zhang, Gao-Ke Feng, Zi-Qiang Liu, Xi Wang, Long Wang
Sympathetic nerve and vagus nerve remodeling play an important part in cardiac function post-myocardial infarction (MI). Increasing evidence indicates that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) improves cardiac function following heart failure. Since its impact on cardiac function and neural remodeling post-MI is poorly understood, we aimed to investigate the role of NRG-1 in autonomic nervous system remodeling post-MI. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were equally randomized into three groups: sham (with the left anterior descending coronary artery exposed but without ligation), MI (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation), and MI plus NRG-1 (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation followed by intraperitoneal injection of NRG-1 (10 μg/kg, once daily for 7 days))...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235746/clinical-problem-solving-a-tobacco-merchant-who-can-t-spit
#18
Sandra Benizri, Nancy Agmon-Levin, Noam D Kitrey, Dan Carter, Elinor Goshen, Yehonathan Sharabi
A 47 year old man presented with a combination of dry mouth and lightheadedness while standing. His medical background was unremarkable except for cigarette smoking and hyperlipidemia. Sjögren's syndrome was ruled out, and he was referred for evaluation of orthostatic hypotension, which by then included syncopal episodes and injuries. Additional symptoms included dry eyes, constipation, reduced sweating, and erectile dysfunction. After excluding medications and structural cardiac abnormalities as causes of orthostatic hypotension, a clinical autonomic evaluation was performed...
December 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235200/concise-review-the-cellular-conspiracy-of-als
#19
REVIEW
Andrea Serio, Rickie Patani
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is incurable and devastating. A dearth of therapies has galvanized experimental focus onto the cellular and molecular mechanisms that both initiate and subsequently drive motor neuron (MN) degeneration. A traditional view of ALS pathogenesis posits that disease-specific injury to a subtype of neurons is mechanistically cell-autonomous. This "neuron-centric" view has biased past research efforts. However, a wealth of accumulating evidence now strongly implicates non-neuronal cells as being major determinants of ALS...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229545/fabrication-of-hybrid-crosslinked-network-with-buffering-capabilities-and-autonomous-strengthening-characteristics-for-dental-adhesive
#20
Linyong Song, Qiang Ye, Xueping Ge, Anil Misra, Candan Tamerler, Paulette Spencer
Ingress of bacteria and fluids at the interfacial gaps between the restorative composite biomaterial and the tooth structure contribute to recurrent decay and failure of the composite restoration. The inability of the material to increase the pH at the composite/tooth interface facilitates the outgrowth of bacteria. Neutralizing the microenvironment at the tooth/composite interface offers promise for reducing the damage provoked by cariogenic and aciduric bacteria. We address this problem by designing a dental adhesive composed of hybrid network to provide buffering and autonomous strengthening simultaneously...
December 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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