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Cerebral oedema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772253/interstitial-ion-homeostasis-and-acid-base-balance-are-maintained-in-oedematous-brain-of-mice-with-acute-toxic-liver-failure
#1
Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan Albrecht
Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer...
May 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728814/improved-visualisation-of-early-cerebral-infarctions-after-endovascular-stroke-therapy-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography-oedema-maps
#2
Astrid Ellen Grams, Tanja Djurdjevic, Rafael Rehwald, Thomas Schiestl, Florian Dazinger, Ruth Steiger, Michael Knoflach, Elke Ruth Gizewski, Bernhard Glodny
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) reconstructions optimised for oedema visualisation (oedema map; EM) facilitate an improved detection of early infarctions after endovascular stroke therapy (EST). METHODS: Forty-six patients (21 women; 25 men; mean age: 63 years; range 24-89 years) were included. The brain window (BW), virtual non-contrast (VNC) and modified VNC series based on a three-material decomposition technique optimised for oedema visualisation (EM) were evaluated...
May 4, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716778/fatal-accidental-inhalation-of-brake-cleaner-aerosols
#3
F Veit, W Martz, C G Birngruber, R B Dettmeyer
Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner...
April 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684516/reconsideration-of-neurogenic-pulmonary-oedema-as-a-source-of-metastatic-cerebral-abscess-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhages-a-preliminary-study
#4
Ahmet Gökyar, Mehmet D Aydın, Sevilay Özmen, Elif Demirci, Abdullah H Marangoz, Enis Kuruoğlu, Cengiz Çokluk
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be a cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE). It is well known that lymphatic fluid draining by thoracic duct to lungs consists of many dangerous metabolites, degraded tissue particles and microbiological pathogens. However, there is no enough study which investigates if NPE cause septicemia or not. In this study, we retrospectively examined our experimental materials whether there is a meaningful relationship between the NPE and cerebral abscess formation...
April 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674479/regionally-clustered-abcc8-polymorphisms-in-a-prospective-cohort-predict-cerebral-oedema-and-outcome-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Ruchira Menka Jha, Theresa A Koleck, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Seo-Young Park, Benjamin E Zusman, Robert S B Clark, Lori A Shutter, Jessica S Wallisch, Philip E Empey, Patrick M Kochanek, Yvette P Conley
OBJECTIVE: ABCC8 encodes sulfonylurea receptor 1, a key regulatory protein of cerebral oedema in many neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sulfonylurea-receptor-1 inhibition has been promising in ameliorating cerebral oedema in clinical trials. We evaluated whether ABCC8 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms predicted oedema and outcome in TBI. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 485 prospectively enrolled patients with severe TBI. 410 were analysed after quality control...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668855/the-negative-ultraslow-potential-electrophysiological-correlate-of-infarction-in-the-human-cortex
#6
Janos Lückl, Coline L Lemale, Vasilis Kola, Viktor Horst, Uldus Khojasteh, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Sebastian Major, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Karl Schoknecht, Peter Martus, Jed A Hartings, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
Spreading depolarizations are characterized by abrupt, near-complete breakdown of the transmembrane ion gradients, neuronal oedema, mitochondrial depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity and activity loss (depression). Spreading depolarization induces either transient hyperperfusion in normal tissue; or hypoperfusion (inverse coupling = spreading ischaemia) in tissue at risk for progressive injury. The concept of the spreading depolarization continuum is critical since many spreading depolarizations have intermediate characteristics, as opposed to the two extremes of spreading depolarization in either severely ischaemic or normal tissue...
April 16, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599372/interventions-to-reduce-neurological-symptoms-in-patients-with-gbm-receiving-radiotherapy-from-theory-to-clinical-practice
#7
Lucia Palombi, Paolo Marchetti, Maurizio Salvati, Mattia Falchetto Osti, Luigi Frati, Alessandro Frati
BACKGROUND: Patients affected by glioblastoma often develop cerebral oedema as a life-threatening complication. Although there is no approved pharmacological intervention, such cerebral oedema is usually treated with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone has been shown in experimental studies to reduce cerebral oedema with only few mineralocorticoid side-effects. The goal of our study was to examine its efficacy in reducing the emergence of neurological deficits during the Stupp protocol. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of 459 patients, assigned in controlled groups: in group A, patients received radiochemotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy; in group B, patients received an equivalent combined treatment with dexamethasone...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594463/traumatic-brain-injury-in-indian-children
#8
REVIEW
Krishna Chaitanya, Archana Addanki, Rajendra Karambelkar, Rakesh Ranjan
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents is a community-based medical and educational challenge world-over due to increasing urbanization and motorization. In India, children between 1 to 15 years constitute significant proportion of the total population, who are vulnerable for TBI. In developed countries, pediatric trauma mortality still represents more than half of all childhood fatalities, which is 18 times more common than brain tumors. In this study, we attempted to analyze epidemiological factors, management, and outcome of TBI in children at a tertiary care center in Pune, Maharashtra...
March 29, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535477/hyponatraemia-in-hospitalised-adults-a-guide-for-the-junior-doctor
#9
Joseph Fogarty, Clodagh Loughrey
Hyponatraemia is common and often a source of confusion for junior doctors. It is infrequently dangerous, but when it is, is a medical emergency and requires urgent treatment to avoid life-threatening cerebral oedema. Treatment of acute hyponatraemia is also potentially hazardous; it is therefore important to be able to recognise when urgent management is not indicated, and to investigate appropriately. This paper focuses on these issues, which are most likely to be the cause of consternation for the junior doctor...
May 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529715/interventions-for-preventing-high-altitude-illness-part-2-less-commonly-used-drugs
#10
REVIEW
Alejandro Gonzalez Garay, Daniel Molano Franco, Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of mainly cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (˜ 8200 feet). Acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude ascent. In this second review, in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assessed the effectiveness of five of the less commonly used classes of pharmacological interventions...
March 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467807/temporary-visual-loss-due-to-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-the-case-of-an-end-stage-renal-disease-patient
#11
Michael Chia-Yen Chou, Chia-Yi Lee, Shih-Chun Chao
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinical phenomenon associated with headache, altered mental status, seizures, and visual disturbances along with radiographic acute cerebral oedema. Several conditions are correlated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, with acute hypertension, eclampsia, and cytotoxic agents being the most common. This report presents a case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a 45-year-old male with multiple underlying conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and end-stage renal disease...
February 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465100/central-diabetes-insipidus-unmasked-by-corticosteroid-therapy-for-cerebral-metastases-beware-the-case-with-pituitary-involvement-and-hypopituitarism
#12
H X Chin, T P Quek, M K Leow
Patients with intra-cerebral metastases often receive glucocorticoids, particularly in the presence of peri-lesional vasogenic cerebral oedema. We present a case of presumptive lung carcinoma with cerebral metastases where central diabetes insipidus was unmasked after glucocorticoid administration and correction of undiagnosed central hypocortisolism.
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458555/does-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-impact-liver-transplantation-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Maria de la Luz Galván-Ramírez, Laura V Sánchez-Orozco, Adrián Fernando Gutiérrez-Maldonado, Laura Roció Rodriguez Pérez
PURPOSE: Approximately one-third of the world's population has Toxoplasma gondii infection, and one of the main routes of transmission is organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Toxoplasma infection on liver transplantation patients. METHODOLOGY: We searched PubMed, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Springer, Wiley, Ovid and Google Scholar for reports published up to June 2017, and a systematic review was performed...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422315/loss-of-endothelial-barrier-antigen-immunoreactivity-in-rat-retinal-microvessels-is-correlated-with-clostridium-perfringens-type-d-epsilon-toxin-induced-damage-to-the-blood-retinal-barrier
#14
K A Mander, J W Finnie
Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin (ETX) is a potent neurotoxin producing a severe, and often fatal, neurological disorder in ruminant livestock. Microvascular damage appears to be the fundamental action of ETX in the brain and, recently, similar vascular injury, with subsequent severe vasogenic oedema, has been reported in the retina of rats given ETX. Endothelial barrier antigen (EBA) is a useful marker of an intact blood-brain barrier in rats and it has been shown that loss of EBA immunoreactivity is correlated with ETX-induced cerebral microvascular damage in this species...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411993/hepatic-encephalopathy-causes-and-health-related-burden
#15
Michelle Clayton
Patients with cirrhosis are at risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). While its pathogenesis is not fully understood, the circulation of increased levels of ammonia through the bloodstream to the brain is thought to be a key causative factor. The ammonia penetrates the blood-brain barrier, ultimately leading to cerebral oedema. This can result in cognitive impairments, which can exhibit in multiple ways, adversely affecting quality of life for both patients and their families. The need for hospitalisation and longer hospital stays associated with HE has cost implications for the health service...
February 7, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409679/peritoneal-dialysis-a-factor-of-risk-or-protection-for-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-review-of-the-literature
#16
Mercedes Moreiras-Plaza, Francisco Fernández-Fleming, Naiara Azkárate-Ramírez, Walfred Nájera-de la Garza, Isabel Martín-Baez, Maria Hernansanz-Pérez
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinical and radiological entity with acute or subacute neurological presentation associated with brain lesions that primarily affect the white matter of the posterior regions. It is often associated with the rapid onset of severe hypertension and/or with kidney failure (acute and chronic), but it has also been reported as a neurological complication in several medical conditions. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of cases and related publications due to the advance of diagnostic imaging techniques...
March 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405037/osmotic-therapies-added-to-antibiotics-for-acute-bacterial-meningitis
#17
REVIEW
Emma Cb Wall, Katherine Mb Ajdukiewicz, Hanna Bergman, Robert S Heyderman, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Every day children and adults die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries, and survivors risk deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies may attract extra-vascular fluid and reduce cerebral oedema, and thus reduce death and improve neurological outcomes.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults on mortality, deafness and neurological disability...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402812/contrast-induced-encephalopathy-following-coronary-angiography-with-no-radiological-features-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Abhishek Dattani, Laura Au, Kok Hoon Tay, Patrick Davey
Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) following coronary angiography (CAG) is a very rare complication. Radiological signs such as cerebral oedema and cortical enhancement are of great importance in the diagnosis. We report a case of probable CIE in a 76-year-old gentleman following a normal diagnostic CAG that involved 120 mL of the iodinated contrast agent iohexol (Omnipaque 300). At 90 min postprocedure he became acutely confused with a normal non-contrast CT of the head. After 9 days of conservative treatment, the patient recovered spontaneously with no neurological deficits...
2018: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359959/the-ketogenic-diet-as-a-treatment-for-traumatic-brain-injury-a-scoping-review
#19
Alexandre McDougall, Mark Bayley, Sarah Ep Munce
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The ketogenic diet (KD) has been identified as a potential therapy to enhance recovery after TBI. The purpose of this study is to complete a scoping review and synthesize the evidence regarding the KD and its therapeutic effects in TBI. The methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley was employed. Databases searched include Medline, EMBASE, CCRCT, CINAHL and WebOfScience. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts in a two-step screening protocol to determine inclusion...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322653/viruses-associated-with-congenital-tremor-and-high-lethality-in-piglets
#20
F Possatti, S A Headley, R A Leme, A M Dall Agnol, E Zotti, T E S de Oliveira, A F Alfieri, A A Alfieri
The recently described atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets in different countries. Another important neurological pathogen of pigs is porcine teschovirus (PTV), which has been associated with non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in pigs with severe or mild neurological disorders. There have been no reports of APPV and/or PTV coinfection associated with CT or encephalomyelitis in Brazilian pig herds. The aim of this study was to describe the pathological and molecular findings associated with simultaneous infection of APPV and PTV in piglets with clinical manifestations of CT that were derived from a herd with high rates of CT-associated lethality...
April 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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