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Cerebral oedema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892994/life-threatening-severe-hypernatraemic-dehydration-in-neonates-a-report-of-two-cases
#1
Priyaja Paramasivam, Sujay Kumar Earan, Arulkumaran Arunagirinadhan, Shilpa Kantamneni
Hypernatraemic dehydration in neonates may lead to potentially lethal consequences like cerebral oedema, intracranial haemorrhage, hydrocephalus and gangrene. In the light of increase in the infants presenting with hypernatraemic dehydration, there is a definitive need to heighten the awareness and have a high degree of suspicion in diagnosis for this potentially lethal condition. We report two neonates of severe hypernatraemia with dehydration highlighting its diagnosis and management. Treatment of hypernatraemic dehydration involves correction of electrolyte imbalance by careful restoration of fluids and ensuring appropriate intake of calories...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872345/intra-cerebral-cannabidiol-infusion-induced-neuroprotection-is-partly-associated-with-the-tnf-%C3%AE-tnfr1-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-pathway-in-transient-focal-cerebral-ischaemia
#2
Sepideh Khaksar, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a neurological disease, which, in addition to high mortality, imposes many financial and mental burdens on families and the society. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cannabidiol (CBD) on one of the major inflammatory pathways in cerebral ischaemia. METHOD: Using stereotaxic surgery, the cannula was implanted into the right lateral ventricle of rats. CBD (50, 100, and 200 ng/rat; i.c.v.) was administrated for five consecutive days...
September 5, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866699/a-sudden-paediatric-death-due-to-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-the-importance-of-vigilance
#3
R Rahimi, E Omar, T S Tuan Soh, S F A Mohd Nawi, S Md Noor
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enteroviruses such as Coxsackie virus A16 (CVA16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV71). The diagnostic hallmarks are oral ulcers and maculo-papular or vesicular rash on the hands and feet. Severe form of this disease can lead to death due to neurological and cardiopulmonary complications. This case report aims to describe a fatal case of HFMD with minimal oral and skin manifestations. CASE REPORT: A four-year-old girl was brought to a hospital after suddenly becoming unresponsive at home...
August 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861076/case-of-meningitis-in-a-neonate-caused-by-an-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-strain-of-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#4
Khalit S Khaertynov, Vladimir A Anokhin, Yuri N Davidyuk, Irina V Nicolaeva, Svetlana V Khalioullina, Dina R Semyenova, Evgeny Y Alatyrev, Natalia N Skvortsova, Levon G Abrahamyan
Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important infectious agents among neonates. This pathogen has a potential to develop an increased antimicrobial resistance and virulence. The classic non-virulent strain of K. pneumoniae, producing an extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), is associated with nosocomial infection mainly in preterm neonates. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains are associated with invasive infection among previously healthy ambulatory patients, and most of them exhibit antimicrobial susceptibility...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857714/calcium-channel-blockade-with-nimodipine-reverses-mri-evidence-of-cerebral-oedema-following-acute-hypoxia
#5
Matthew J Rowland, Martyn Ezra, Anderson Winkler, Payashi Garry, Catherine Lamb, Michael Kelly, Thomas W Okell, Jon Westbrook, Richard G Wise, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Kyle Ts Pattinson
Acute cerebral hypoxia causes rapid calcium shifts leading to neuronal damage and death. Calcium channel antagonists improve outcomes in some clinical conditions, but mechanisms remain unclear. In 18 healthy participants we: (i) quantified with multiparametric MRI the effect of hypoxia on the thalamus, a region particularly sensitive to hypoxia, and on the whole brain in general; (ii) investigated how calcium channel antagonism with the drug nimodipine affects the brain response to hypoxia. Hypoxia resulted in a significant decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), a measure particularly sensitive to cell swelling, in a widespread network of regions across the brain, and the thalamus in particular...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821524/the-association-between-intensive-care-unit-acquired-hypernatraemia-and-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-cerebrovascular-diseases-a-single-centre-cohort-study-in-japan
#6
Takahiro Imaizumi, Masahiro Nakatochi, Yoshiro Fujita, Rie Nomura, Kenshi Watanabe, Michitaka Maekawa, Taishi Yamakawa, Takayuki Katsuno, Shoichi Maruyama
OBJECTIVES: Hypernatraemia is one of the major electrolyte disorders associated with mortality among critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs). It is unclear whether this applies to patients with cerebrovascular diseases in whom high sodium concentrations may be allowed in order to prevent cerebral oedema. This study aimed to examine the association between ICU-acquired hypernatraemia and the prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821266/endogenous-hydrogen-sulphide-attenuates-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-neuroinflammation-by-suppressing-the-p2x7-receptor-after-intracerebral-haemorrhage-in-rats
#7
Hengli Zhao, Pengyu Pan, Yang Yang, Hongfei Ge, Weixiang Chen, Jie Qu, Jiantao Shi, Gaoyu Cui, Xin Liu, Hua Feng, Yujie Chen
BACKGROUND: Emerging studies have demonstrated the important physiological and pathophysiological roles of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as a gasotransmitter for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-associated neuroinflammation in the central nervous system. However, the effects of H2S on neuroinflammation after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), especially on the NLRP3 inflammasome, remain unknown. METHODS: We employed a Sprague-Dawley rat of collagenase-induced ICH in the present study...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817088/the-role-of-neurogenic-inflammation-in-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-development-of-cerebral-oedema-following-acute-central-nervous-system-cns-injury
#8
REVIEW
Annabel J Sorby-Adams, Amanda M Marcoionni, Eden R Dempsey, Joshua A Woenig, Renée J Turner
Acute central nervous system (CNS) injury, encompassing traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, accounts for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, largely attributable to the development of cerebral oedema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Despite this, clinical treatments are limited and new therapies are urgently required to improve patient outcomes and survival. Originally characterised in peripheral tissues, such as the skin and lungs as a neurally-elicited inflammatory process that contributes to increased microvascular permeability and tissue swelling, neurogenic inflammation has now been described in acute injury to the brain where it may play a key role in the secondary injury cascades that evolve following both TBI and stroke...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801335/hypercapnia-induced-cerebral-oedema-in-a-patient-with-copd-exacerbation-a-rare-and-under-recognised-entity
#9
Siddique Chaudhary, Ahsan Wahab, Shiny Varghese, Susan Jane Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798247/diffuse-cerebral-oedema-from-sickle-cell-vaso-occlusive-crisis
#10
Martin D Weaver, Hayan Dayoub, Emily Damuth, Tapan Kavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751428/cerebral-haemorrhage-as-a-clinical-manifestation-of-human-ehrlichiosis
#11
Catalina Garc Ía-Baena, MarÍa Fernanda Cárdenas, Juan Fernando Ramón
A 16-year-old young man presented to the emergency room with new-onset generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Examination showed a Glasgow score of 13 and predominantly crural left hemiparesis. Imaging demonstrated a right frontoparietal haemorrhage of non-vascular origin with perilesional oedema. Surgical drainage was carried out, but rebleeding occurred within 24 hours following surgery, and again 1 week after discharge. On reinterrogation and examination, Ehrlichia canis infection was suspected and empirical management with doxycycline was begun...
July 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736035/propane-2-sulfonic-acid-octadec-9-enyl-amide-a-novel-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dual-agonist-protects-against-ischemia-induced-brain-damage-in-mice-by-inhibiting-inflammatory-responses
#12
Ying Li, Lanxi Xu, Kaiyue Zeng, Zhentian Xu, Daqin Suo, Lu Peng, Tong Ren, Zhiheng Sun, Wushuang Yang, Xin Jin, Lichao Yang
Propane-2-sulfonic acid octadec-9-enyl-amide (N15), an analogue of oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist. Our previous studies verified the positive effects of OEA on the acute and delayed stages of cerebral ischemia. However, it is not clear whether N15 is effective against ischemic cerebral injury. In the present study, male Kunming mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To evaluate its preventive effects, N15 (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, ip) was administered for 3 days before ischemia...
July 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724595/hypertensive-encephalopathy-mimicking-cerebral-vasculitis-with-pontine-oedema-cerebellar-white-matter-lesions-and-multiple-cerebral-infarctions
#13
Daniela Ceccarelli, David Hargroves, Ibrahim Balogun, Thomas Webb
A 47-year-old man with poorly controlled hypertension presented with headaches, right-sided weakness and dysarthria. CT and MRI scans of the brain showed widespread abnormalities including significant pontine oedema, basal ganglia and corona radiata infarctions and cerebellar white matter high signal. Imaging of the intracerebral vasculature also demonstrated wall irregularities. Initially a central nervous system inflammatory disorder was thought to be the most likely diagnosis, possibly acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis or cerebral vasculitis, and the patient was treated with high-dose intravenous steroids...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689601/imaging-features-of-intracranial-psammomatous-meningioma
#14
L Liu, Y Lu, W Peng, D Geng, J Wen, J Xiong, L Zou, B Yin
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to describe the imaging features of intracranial psammomatous meningioma (IPM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with a histopathological diagnosis of IPM between January 2007 and August 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-two patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI scanning, and 16 underwent non-enhanced CT. RESULTS: A total of 23 adult patients (3 men, 20 women; mean age, 55.3±7.0 years) with 30 IPMs, including 3 patients with multiple IPMs, were recruited...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687281/head-computed-tomography-for-prognostication-of-poor-outcome-in-comatose-patients-after-cardiac-arrest-and-targeted-temperature-management
#15
Marion Moseby-Knappe, Tommaso Pellis, Irina Dragancea, Hans Friberg, Niklas Nielsen, Janneke Horn, Michael Kuiper, Andrea Roncarati, Roger Siemund, Johan Undén, Tobias Cronberg
INTRODUCTION: A multimodal approach to prognostication of outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) is recommended. Evidence for combinations of methods is low. In this post-hoc analysis we described findings on head computed tomography (CT) after CA. We also examined whether generalised oedema on CT alone or together with the biomarker Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) could predict poor outcome. METHODS: Patients participating in the Target Temperature Management after out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-trial underwent CT based on clinical indications...
July 4, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682567/-pres-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-potential-complication-of-hypertensive-crisis-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Michele Vergura, Michele Prencipe, Antonio Maria Del Giudice, Rachele Grifa, Filomena Miscio, Anna Maria Pennelli, Teresa Popolizio, Anna Simeone, Mariangela Ferrara, Maurizio Leone, Filippo Aucella
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome, usually reversible, characterized by vasogenic oedema in cerebral posterior regions in patients with autoimmune diseases, nephropathies, hypertensive crisis, eclampsia and exposure to cytotoxic drugs. The main symptoms are: headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, visual disturbance and altered consciousness. Complications as cerebral hemorrhage and recurrences are rare. We describe a case of a 65 years old woman, affected by chronic kidney disease, recently exacerbated, diabetes and hypertension in treatment, who showed an heterogeneous clinical presentation with vomiting, headache, blurred vision and impaired consciousness during an episode of acute hypertension...
April 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653390/interventions-for-preventing-high-altitude-illness-part-1-commonly-used-classes-of-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Daniel Molano Franco, Roger David Medina, Alejandro G Gonzalez Garay, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (8202 feet). Acute hypoxia, acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude. In this review, the first in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assess the effectiveness of six of the most recommended classes of pharmacological interventions...
June 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645746/cortical-aquaporin-4-in-relation-to-brain-oedema-and-neurological-function-of-cortical-cryo-injured-mice
#18
Edmond Jonathan Gandham, Prabhakaran Vasudevan, Ranjith K Moorthy, Kesavan Narasimhan, Muthukumar Murthy, Grace Rebekah, Vedantam Rajshekhar
To estimate the spatial and temporal expression of Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) in a murine model of automated cerebral cryoinjury and correlate AQP-4 expression with development of brain oedema and neurological function. AQP-4 levels were determined quantitatively by Western blots at site of injury and at sites adjacent to and distant from injury in brains of cryoinjured (experimental) (n=18), sham injured (n=18) & normal mice at 24, 48, 72h post injury. AQP-4 expression was correlated with percentage water content of brain, Neurological Severity Score (NSS) and rotarod scores...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627942/diffusion-imaging-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-impact-accelerated-rodent-model-a-pilot-study
#19
Zora Kikinis, Marc Muehlmann, Ofer Pasternak, Sharon Peled, Praveen Kulkarni, Craig Ferris, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Inga K Koerte, Steve Pieper, Alexander Yarmarkovich, Caryn L Porter, Bruce S Kristal, Martha E Shenton
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: There is a need to understand pathologic processes of the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Previous studies report axonal injury and oedema in the first week after injury in a rodent model. This study aims to investigate the processes occurring 1 week after injury at the time of regeneration and degeneration using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the impact acceleration rat mTBI model. RESEARCH DESIGN: Eighteen rats were subjected to impact acceleration injury, and three rats served as sham controls...
June 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609593/travelling-safely-to-places-at-high-altitude-understanding-and-preventing-altitude-illness
#20
Ivan Parise
BACKGROUND: Greater numbers of people are travelling to places at high altitude each year. Altitude illness is common in places at high altitude and may be life-threatening. General practitioners (GPs) are best placed to provide evidence-based advice to keep travellers well informed of the possible risks they may encounter in places at high altitude. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review knowledge on altitude illness in order to help GPs assist patients to travel safely to places at high altitude...
June 2017: Australian Family Physician
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