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Cerebral oedema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724595/hypertensive-encephalopathy-mimicking-cerebral-vasculitis-with-pontine-oedema-cerebellar-white-matter-lesions-and-multiple-cerebral-infarctions
#1
Daniela Ceccarelli, David Hargroves, Ibrahim Balogun, Thomas Webb
A 47-year-old man with poorly controlled hypertension presented with headaches, right-sided weakness and dysarthria. CT and MRI scans of the brain showed widespread abnormalities including significant pontine oedema, basal ganglia and corona radiata infarctions and cerebellar white matter high signal. Imaging of the intracerebral vasculature also demonstrated wall irregularities. Initially a central nervous system inflammatory disorder was thought to be the most likely diagnosis, possibly acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis or cerebral vasculitis, and the patient was treated with high-dose intravenous steroids...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689601/imaging-features-of-intracranial-psammomatous-meningioma
#2
L Liu, Y Lu, W Peng, D Geng, J Wen, J Xiong, L Zou, B Yin
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to describe the imaging features of intracranial psammomatous meningioma (IPM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with a histopathological diagnosis of IPM between January 2007 and August 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-two patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI scanning, and 16 underwent non-enhanced CT. RESULTS: A total of 23 adult patients (3 men, 20 women; mean age, 55.3±7.0 years) with 30 IPMs, including 3 patients with multiple IPMs, were recruited...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687281/head-computed-tomography-for-prognostication-of-poor-outcome-in-comatose-patients-after-cardiac-arrest-and-targeted-temperature-management
#3
Marion Moseby-Knappe, Tommaso Pellis, Irina Dragancea, Hans Friberg, Niklas Nielsen, Janneke Horn, Michael Kuiper, Andrea Roncarati, Roger Siemund, Johan Undén, Tobias Cronberg
INTRODUCTION: A multimodal approach to prognostication of outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) is recommended. Evidence for combinations of methods is low. In this post-hoc analysis we described findings on head computed tomography (CT) after CA. We also examined whether generalised oedema on CT alone or together with the biomarker Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) could predict poor outcome. METHODS: Patients participating in the Target Temperature Management after out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-trial underwent CT based on clinical indications...
July 4, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682567/-pres-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-potential-complication-of-hypertensive-crisis-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Michele Vergura, Michele Prencipe, Antonio Maria Del Giudice, Rachele Grifa, Filomena Miscio, Anna Maria Pennelli, Teresa Popolizio, Anna Simeone, Mariangela Ferrara, Maurizio Leone, Filippo Aucella
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome, usually reversible, characterized by vasogenic oedema in cerebral posterior regions in patients with autoimmune diseases, nephropathies, hypertensive crisis, eclampsia and exposure to cytotoxic drugs. The main symptoms are: headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, visual disturbance and altered consciousness. Complications as cerebral hemorrhage and recurrences are rare. We describe a case of a 65 years old woman, affected by chronic kidney disease, recently exacerbated, diabetes and hypertension in treatment, who showed an heterogeneous clinical presentation with vomiting, headache, blurred vision and impaired consciousness during an episode of acute hypertension...
April 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653390/interventions-for-preventing-high-altitude-illness-part-1-commonly-used-classes-of-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Daniel Molano Franco, Roger David Medina, Alejandro G Gonzalez Garay, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (8202 feet). Acute hypoxia, acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude. In this review, the first in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assess the effectiveness of six of the most recommended classes of pharmacological interventions...
June 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645746/cortical-aquaporin-4-in-relation-to-brain-oedema-and-neurological-function-of-cortical-cryo-injured-mice
#6
Edmond Jonathan Gandham, Prabhakaran Vasudevan, Ranjith K Moorthy, Kesavan Narasimhan, Muthukumar Murthy, Grace Rebekah, Vedantam Rajshekhar
To estimate the spatial and temporal expression of Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) in a murine model of automated cerebral cryoinjury and correlate AQP-4 expression with development of brain oedema and neurological function. AQP-4 levels were determined quantitatively by Western blots at site of injury and at sites adjacent to and distant from injury in brains of cryoinjured (experimental) (n=18), sham injured (n=18) & normal mice at 24, 48, 72h post injury. AQP-4 expression was correlated with percentage water content of brain, Neurological Severity Score (NSS) and rotarod scores...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627942/diffusion-imaging-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-impact-accelerated-rodent-model-a-pilot-study
#7
Zora Kikinis, Marc Muehlmann, Ofer Pasternak, Sharon Peled, Praveen Kulkarni, Craig Ferris, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Inga K Koerte, Steve Pieper, Alexander Yarmarkovich, Caryn L Porter, Bruce S Kristal, Martha E Shenton
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: There is a need to understand pathologic processes of the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Previous studies report axonal injury and oedema in the first week after injury in a rodent model. This study aims to investigate the processes occurring 1 week after injury at the time of regeneration and degeneration using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the impact acceleration rat mTBI model. RESEARCH DESIGN: Eighteen rats were subjected to impact acceleration injury, and three rats served as sham controls...
June 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609593/travelling-safely-to-places-at-high-altitude-understanding-and-preventing-altitude-illness
#8
Ivan Parise
BACKGROUND: Greater numbers of people are travelling to places at high altitude each year. Altitude illness is common in places at high altitude and may be life-threatening. General practitioners (GPs) are best placed to provide evidence-based advice to keep travellers well informed of the possible risks they may encounter in places at high altitude. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review knowledge on altitude illness in order to help GPs assist patients to travel safely to places at high altitude...
June 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571812/a-hypothesis-for-mechanism-for-brain-oedema-due-to-glycine
#9
Suchita J Mehta, Andrea Roche Recinos, Subodh J Saggi, Man S Oh
Death following the use the glycine distension solution in transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) or hysteroscopic surgery has been attributed to the toxic effect of glycine on the brain through the glycine receptors and hyperammonemia, contending that glycine-associated hyponatremia is isosmotic and therefore would not cause brain oedema. Here we propose a hypothesis that the mechanism of brain oedema and death is actually osmotic brain oedema caused by selective diffusion of glycine into the brain while sodium cannot diffuse out of the brain despite favourable concentration gradient because of the absence of sodium transporter on the cerebral capillaries needed for the exit of sodium from the brain...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569284/acute-pulmonary-oedema-not-always-cardiogenic
#10
M Bonello, R Pullicino, A J Larner
A patient presented with fulminant pulmonary oedema and required acute intubation and ventilation. There was no history of a prior cardiac disorder. As he was weaned from sedation, following stabilisation of his pulmonary status, neurological signs suggestive of brainstem dysfunction became apparent. Investigations showed infarcts in the posterior cerebral circulation secondary to a vertebral artery dissection. Neurogenic pulmonary oedema needs to be considered in any patient with fulminant pulmonary oedema without overt evidence or history of cardiac disease...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545408/importance-of-correctly-interpreting-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-diagnose-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-hellp-syndrome-a-case-report
#11
Syuichi Tetsuka, Hiroaki Nonaka
BACKGROUND: Severe haemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome in pregnancy are possible underlying trigger factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows diffuse signal abnormalities involving the subcortical white matter in the parieto-occipital lobes. Although the diagnosis of RPES was clearly established by the distinctive reversibility of clinical and radiological abnormalities, it is difficult to distinguish from differential diagnosis...
May 25, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533826/a-novel-triage-tool-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-in-traumatic-brain-injury-and-its-correlation-to-rotterdam-computed-tomography-ct-scoring
#12
Sudha Kiran Das, Sachin P Shetty, Kamal Kumar Sen
BACKGROUND: Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) evaluated in CT imaging as well as Rotterdam CT Score (RCTS) are proven independent predictors of outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, no study has correlated ONSD on admission CT scan with RCTS. MATERIAL/METHODS: Retrospective cohort study comprised of consecutive patients undergoing CT imaging for traumatic brain injury recruited between January and October 2015. Bilateral ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the eyeball in axial and sagittal planes and mean value was calculated...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523591/assessment-of-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-arginine-rich-protamine-peptides-poly-arginine-peptides-r12-cyclic-r22-and-arginine-tryptophan-containing-peptides-following-in-vitro-excitotoxicity-and-or-permanent-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#13
Bruno P Meloni, Diego Milani, Jane L Cross, Vince W Clark, Adam B Edwards, Ryan S Anderton, David J Blacker, Neville W Knuckey
We have demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties with arginine content and peptide positive charge being particularly critical for neuroprotective efficacy. In addition, the presence of other amino acids within arginine-rich peptides, as well as chemical modifications, peptide length and cell-penetrating properties also influence the level of neuroprotection. Against this background, we have examined the neuroprotective efficacy of arginine-rich protamine peptides, a cyclic (R12-c) poly-arginine peptide and a R22 poly-arginine peptide, as well as arginine peptides containing tryptophan or other amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, glycine or leucine) in in vitro glutamic acid excitotoxicity and in vivo rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion models of stroke...
May 18, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506130/fullerenol-nanoparticles-decrease-ischaemia-induced-brain-injury-and-oedema-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-damage-and-aquaporin-1-expression-in-ischaemic-stroke
#14
Shamsi Darabi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: We examined the possible protective effects of fullerenol nanoparticles on brain injuries and oedema in experimental model of ischaemic stroke through inhibition of oxidative damage and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) expression. METHODS: Experiment was done in three groups of rats (N = 66): sham, control ischaemia and ischaemic treatment. Ischaemia was induced by 90-minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Rats received a dose of 10 mg/kg of fullerenol 30 minutes before MCAO...
May 16, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379220/long-term-consumption-of-fermented-rooibos-herbal-tea-offers-neuroprotection-against-ischemic-brain-injury-in-rats
#15
Olusiji Akinrinmade, Sylvester Omoruyi, Daneel Dietrich, Okobi Ekpo
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, affecting about 240 people a day in South Africa and leaving survivors with residual disabilities. At the moment, there is no clinically approved neuroprotective product for stroke but the consumption of plant polyphenols has been suggested to offer some protection against stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term consumption of fermented rooibos herbal tea (FRHT) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in adult male Wistar rats...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299538/decompressive-surgery-in-malignant-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-what-predicts-its-outcome
#16
Rohan Mahale, Anish Mehta, Ravi Gopal Varma, Alangar S Hegde, Purushottam T Acharya, Rangasetty Srinivasa
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is common in Asians, accounting for 15% of all strokes in the young. CVST causing malignant cerebral oedema with brain herniation and death are referred as malignant CVST. This study was aimed at evaluating the outcome of patients and factors predicting the outcome with malignant CVST after decompressive surgery. It was a retrospective, observational, single centre, hospital-based and cross-sectional study. Records of patients with malignant CVST who had decompressive surgery were analysed...
May 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265034/extracellular-matrix-inflammation-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#17
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247179/neuroprotective-effect-of-3-naphthalen-2-yl-propoxy-methyl-azetidine-hydrochloride-on-brain-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Eun-A Kim, Jung-Min Na, Jiae Kim, Soo Young Choi, Jee-Yin Ahn, Sung-Woo Cho
Because ischaemic stroke is one of the most common brain disorders, diverse effective therapies are urgently required. Recent studies reported a variety of azetidine-based scaffolds for the development of central nervous system-focused lead-like libraries. However, their mechanisms of action and in vivo functions remain unclear. Here, we investigated the potential mechanism and beneficial effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792), a novel azetidine derivative, on ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) brain injury...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173619/hyperglycaemia-related-complications-at-the-time-of-diagnosis-can-cause-permanent-neurological-disability-in-children-with-neonatal-diabetes
#19
J O Day, S E Flanagan, M H Shepherd, A W Patrick, N Abid, L Torrens, A J Zeman, K A Patel, A T Hattersley
BACKGROUND: Children with neonatal diabetes often present with diabetic ketoacidosis and hence are at risk of cerebral oedema and subsequent long-term neurological deficits. These complications are difficult to identify because neurological features can also occur as a result of the specific genetic aetiology causing neonatal diabetes. CASE REPORTS: We report two cases of neonatal diabetes where ketoacidosis-related cerebral oedema was the major cause of their permanent neurological disability...
July 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160241/retinal-haemorrhages-in-a-university-hospital-not-always-abusive-head-injury
#20
M Mattheij, C Venstermans, I de Veuster, I Vanderstraete, T Menovsky, P Jorens, B Ceulemans
Retinal haemorrhages (RH) and subdural haematomas (SDH) are frequently seen in abusive head trauma (AHT). The aim of our study is to show that they are suggestive, but not pathognomonic for AHT. We performed an observational retrospective study on children, aged 1-18 months old, admitted to the Antwerp University Hospital with RH. History, physical examination, medical course, coagulation and metabolic tests, skeletal survey, head circumference, retinal findings, cerebral imaging, and evaluation reports by social services or civil/criminal courts were collected...
February 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
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