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Brain oedema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034568/efficacy-and-safety-of-balloon-pulmonary-angioplasty-for-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-guided-by-cone-beam-computed-tomography-and-electrocardiogram-gated-area-detector-computed-tomography
#1
Takeshi Ogo, Tetsuya Fukuda, Akihiro Tsuji, Shigefumi Fukui, Jin Ueda, Yoshihiro Sanda, Yoshiaki Morita, Ryotaro Asano, Nao Konagai, Satoshi Yasuda
BACKGROUND: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease characterized by chronic obstructive thrombus and pulmonary hypertension. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), an emerging alternative catheter-based treatment for inoperable patients with CTEPH, has not yet been standardised, especially for lesion assessment in distal pulmonary arteries. Recent advancement in computed tomography enables distal CTEPH lesions to be visualized. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 80 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who received BPA guided by cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) or electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated area detector CT (ADCT) for target lesion assessment...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995546/preliminary-experience-of-the-concurrent-use-of-radiosurgery-and-t-dm1-for-brain-metastases-in-her2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer
#2
Arthur Geraud, Hao Ping Xu, Philippe Beuzeboc, Youlia M Kirova
This is preliminary study assessing the efficacy and safety of concurrent use of radiation therapy (RT) and T-DM1 for the treatment of brain metastases (BM) in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (BC). We retrospectively studied 12 patients treated for BM at the Institut Curie in 2014-2015 with T-DM1 and concurrent (4) or sequential (8) radiosurgery with or without whole brain irradiation. The following variables were studied: local control, clinical and radiological response as well as early and late side effects...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986927/histological-underpinnings-of-grey-matter-changes-in-fibromyalgia-investigated-using-multimodal-brain-imaging
#3
F B Pomares, T Funck, N A Feier, S Roy, A Daigle-Martel, M Ceko, S Narayanan, D Araujo, A Thiel, N Stikov, M A Fitzcharles, P Schweinhardt
: Chronic pain patients present with cortical grey matter alterations, observed with anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Reduced regional grey matter volumes are often interpreted to reflect neurodegeneration but studies investigating the cellular origin of grey matter changes are lacking. We used multi-modal imaging to compare 26 post-menopausal women with 25 healthy controls (age range: 50-75 years) to test whether regional grey matter volume decreases in chronic pain are associated with compromised neuronal integrity...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942481/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-after-intrathecal-methotrexate-infusion-a-case-report-and-literature-update
#4
Efterpi Pavlidou, Evangelos Pavlou, Athanasia Anastasiou, Zoi Pana, Vasiliki Tsotoulidou, Maria Kinali, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare clinical-radiological entity characterised by seizures, severe headache, mental status instability and visual disturbances. Hypertension is typically present. We report a case of a 13-year old boy with Burkitt lymphoma/leukaemia, who presented with posterior leukoencephalopathy 24 hours after intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) infusion. The child presented with headache, seizures, elevated blood pressure and gradual deterioration of his neurological status...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928693/accumulation-of-lactate-in-the-rat-brain-during-hyperammonaemia-is-not-associated-with-impaired-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity
#5
Anne Møller Witt, Fin Stolze Larsen, Peter Nissen Bjerring
In acute liver failure (ALF) cerebral oedema and high intracranial pressure (ICP) are potentially deadly complications. Astrocytes cultured in ammonia have shown mitochondrial dysfunction and in rat models of liver failure, de novo lactate production in the brain has been observed and has led to a hypothesis of compromised brain metabolism during ALF. In contrast, normal lactate levels are found in cerebral microdialysate of ALF patients and the oxygen: glucose ratio of cerebral metabolic rates remains normal...
December 7, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923162/comparison-of-different-osmotic-therapies-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Vinoth K M Khandelwal, Prabhakar Singh, Tatiana Ravingerova, Marslin Gregory, Hardik Gandhi, Manu Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in the affected region, increased intracranial pressure, consequent oedema and congestion contribute to the negative outcome of traumatic brain injury. Osmotic therapies are recommended for improvement in cognitive and motor functions. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of osmotic therapies in a mice model of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Experimental closed head injury was performed in adult Swiss albino mice by the weight-drop method...
February 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895359/awake-craniotomy-for-brain-tumours-in-pakistan-an-initial-case-series-from-a-developing-country
#7
Saad Akhtar Khan, Karim Rizwan Nathani, Badar Uddin Ujjan, Muhammad Danish Barakzai, Syed Ather Enam, Faraz Shafiq
Awake craniotomy offers safe resection of brain tumours in eloquent area. Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, recently started the programme in Pakistan, and the current study was planned to assess our experience of the first 16 procedures. The retrospective study comprised all such procedures done from November 2015 to May 2016. Pre-operative and post-operative variables were analysed. Of the 16 patients, 11(68.75%) were males and 5(31.25%) were females. The overall median age was 37 years (interquartile range[IQR]: 23-62 years)...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887978/mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-reversible-splenial-lesion-mers-due-to-dengue-virus
#8
Choong Yi Fong, Mi Mi Ko Khine, Alan Basil Peter, Wei Kang Lim, Faizatul Izza Rozalli, Kartini Rahmat
A 14-year-old girl presented with encephalopathy, delirium and ophthalmoplegia following a 3day history of high-grade fever. Brain MRI on day 6 of illness showed diffusion restricted ovoid lesion in the splenium of corpus callosum. Dengue virus encephalitis was diagnosed with positive PCR for dengue virus type-2 in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. She made a complete recovery from day 10 of illness. Repeat brain MRI on day 12 of illness showed resolution of the splenial lesion. Serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) showed normal fractional anisotropy values on resolution of splenial lesion indicating that MERS was likely due to transient interstitial oedema with preservation of white matter tracts...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885275/tdb-protects-vascular-endothelial-cells-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion-induced-injury-by-targeting-mir-34a-to-increase-bcl-2-expression
#9
Li-Xi Liao, Ming-Bo Zhao, Xin Dong, Yong Jiang, Ke-Wu Zeng, Peng-Fei Tu
Prolonged ischemia can result in apoptotic death of vascular endothelial cells and lead to ischemic vascular diseases including vascular dementia, arteriosclerosis and brain oedema. Finding protective strategies to prevent this is therefore an urgent mission. Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can lead to imbalance of Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to further damage of vascular cells under ischemic conditions. However, whether miRNAs can be used as a drug target for treating vascular diseases is not fully understood...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878561/pseudotumoral-brain-lesions-mri-review
#10
Dimitri Renard, Giovanni Castelnovo, Anne Le Floch, Jean-Sebastien Guillamo, Eric Thouvenot
Single or multiple space-occupying lesions on brain MRI, with or without contrast enhancement and/or perilesional oedema, evoke a neoplastic origin. However, a multitude of non-neoplastic disorders can simulate cerebral neoplasia. In this review, we will discuss the MRI characteristics of non-neoplastic disorders that can mimic cerebral neoplasia. Distinguishing MRI characteristics are discussed for each of these non-neoplastic disorders.
November 22, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876102/structural-functional-brain-changes-in-depressed-patients-during-and-after-electroconvulsive-therapy
#11
Antoine Yrondi, Patrice Péran, Anne Sauvaget, Laurent Schmitt, Christophe Arbus
OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a non-pharmacological treatment that is effective in treating severe and treatment-resistant depression. Although the efficacy of ECT has been demonstrated to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), the brain mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Structural-functional changes occur with the use of ECT as a treatment for depression based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this reason, we have tried to identify the changes that were identified by MRI to try to clarify some operating mechanisms of ECT...
November 23, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873213/is-management-of-hyperglycaemia-in-acute-phase-stroke-still-a-dilemma
#12
REVIEW
C Savopoulos, G Kaiafa, I Kanellos, A Fountouki, D Theofanidis, A I Hatzitolios
INTRODUCTION: Close monitoring of blood glucose levels during the immediate post-acute stroke phase is of great clinical value, as there is evidence that the risk of neurological deterioration is associated with both hyper- and hypoglycaemia. The aim of this review paper is to summarise the evidence on post-stroke blood glucose management and its impact on clinical outcomes, during the early post-acute stage. FINDINGS: Post-stroke hyperglycaemia has been associated with increased cerebral oedema, haemorrhagic transformation, lower likelihood of recanalisation and deteriorating neurological state...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862464/randomized-assessment-of-imatinib-in-patients-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke-treated-with-intravenous-thrombolysis
#13
N Wahlgren, M Thorén, B Höjeberg, T-B Käll, A-C Laska, C Sjöstrand, J Höijer, H Almqvist, S Holmin, A Lilja, L Fredriksson, D Lawrence, U Eriksson, N Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to restore blood-brain barrier integrity and reduce infarct size, haemorrhagic transformation and cerebral oedema in stroke models treated with tissue plasminogen activator. We evaluated the safety of imatinib, based on clinical and neuroradiological data, and its potential influence on neurological and functional outcomes. METHODS: A phase II randomized trial was performed in patients with acute ischaemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843625/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-prame-cancer-immunotherapeutic-in-metastatic-melanoma-results-of-a-phase-i-dose-escalation-study
#14
R Gutzmer, L Rivoltini, E Levchenko, A Testori, J Utikal, P A Ascierto, L Demidov, J J Grob, R Ridolfi, D Schadendorf, P Queirolo, A Santoro, C Loquai, B Dreno, A Hauschild, E Schultz, T P Lesimple, N Vanhoutte, B Salaun, M Gillet, S Jarnjak, P M De Sousa Alves, J Louahed, V G Brichard, F F Lehmann
PURPOSE: The PRAME tumour antigen is expressed in several tumour types but in few normal adult tissues. A dose-escalation phase I/II study (NCT01149343) assessed the safety, immunogenicity and clinical activity of the PRAME immunotherapeutic (recombinant PRAME protein (recPRAME) with the AS15 immunostimulant) in patients with advanced melanoma. Here, we report the phase I dose-escalation study segment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage IV PRAME-positive melanoma were enrolled to 3 consecutive cohorts to receive up to 24 intramuscular injections of the PRAME immunotherapeutic...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770229/whole-brain-analysis-of-postmortem-density-changes-of-grey-and-white-matter-on-computed-tomography-by-statistical-parametric-mapping
#15
Yuichi Nishiyama, Hidekazu Kanayama, Hiroshi Mori, Keiji Tada, Yasushi Yamamoto, Takashi Katsube, Haruo Takeshita, Kazunori Kawakami, Hajime Kitagaki
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the usefulness of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for investigating postmortem changes on brain computed tomography (CT). METHODS: This retrospective study included 128 patients (23 - 100 years old) without cerebral abnormalities who underwent unenhanced brain CT before and after death. The antemortem CT (AMCT) scans and postmortem CT (PMCT) scans were spatially normalized using our original brain CT template, and postmortem changes of CT values (in Hounsfield units; HU) were analysed by the SPM technique...
October 21, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746369/methylprednisolone-sodium-succinate-reduces-bbb-disruption-and-inflammation-in-a-model-mouse-of-intracranial-haemorrhage
#16
Shiqi Cheng, WeiWei Gao, Xin Xu, Hengyi Fan, Yingang Wu, Fei Li, Jianning Zhang, Xingen Zhu, Yan Zhang
Inflammation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) cause oedema and secondary brain injury after intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), which is closely related to patient prognosis. Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS), a well-known immunosuppressive agent, is widely applied in many diseases to inhibit inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of MPSS on inflammation and disruption of the BBB in a model mouse of ICH. ICH was induced by injecting collagenase into the right striatum of male C57/BL mice...
October 13, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733124/hypertonic-saline-alleviates-experimentally-induced-cerebral-oedema-through-suppression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-its-receptor-vegfr2-expression-in-astrocytes
#17
Linqiang Huang, Wei Cao, Yiyu Deng, Gaofeng Zhu, Yongli Han, Hongke Zeng
BACKGROUND: Cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of blood-brain barrier, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) all of which are important blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability regulatory factors. Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 are also the key components of BBB. Hypertonic saline is widely used to alleviate cerebral oedema. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying hypertonic saline that ameliorates cerebral oedema effectively...
October 13, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717037/early-detection-of-human-glioma-sphere-xenografts-in-mouse-brain-using-diffusion-mri-at-14-1%C3%A2-t
#18
P Porcari, M E Hegi, H Lei, M-F Hamou, I Vassallo, S Capuani, R Gruetter, V Mlynarik
Glioma models have provided important insights into human brain cancers. Among the investigative tools, MRI has allowed their characterization and diagnosis. In this study, we investigated whether diffusion MRI might be a useful technique for early detection and characterization of slow-growing and diffuse infiltrative gliomas, such as the proposed new models, LN-2669GS and LN-2540GS glioma sphere xenografts. Tumours grown in these models are not visible in conventional T2 -weighted or contrast-enhanced T1 -weighted MRI at 14...
September 15, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696270/new-technologies-new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#19
Luisa Baker, Bernard Lanz, Fausto Andreola, Javier Ampuero, Anisha Wijeyesekera, Elaine Holmes, Nicolaas Deutz
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which frequently accompanies acute or chronic liver disease. It is characterized by a variety of symptoms of different severity such as cognitive deficits and impaired motor functions. Currently, HE is seen as a consequence of a low grade cerebral oedema associated with the formation of cerebral oxidative stress and deranged cerebral oscillatory networks. However, the pathogenesis of HE is still incompletely understood as liver dysfunction triggers exceptionally complex metabolic derangements in the body which need to be investigated by appropriate technologies...
December 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695548/a-cost-effectiveness-based-safety-and-efficacy-study-of-resterilized-intra-parenchymal-catheter-based-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-in-developing-world
#20
Deepak Kumar Gupta, Ajay Bisht, Priyam Batra, Purva Mathur, Ashok Kumar Mahapatra
BACKGROUND: The management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) aims to maintain the normal cerebral perfusion in spite of the mass lesions that may occur (haematoma, contusion, and oedema). The monitoring of the intracranial pressure (ICP) is a step in that direction. The intra-parenchymal catheters have the lowest incidence of infection compared to intra-ventricular/subdural catheters with reliable and accurate pressure recordings. The major disadvantage of the intra-parenchymal catheters is the cost, especially in developing nations...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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