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Brain oedema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772253/interstitial-ion-homeostasis-and-acid-base-balance-are-maintained-in-oedematous-brain-of-mice-with-acute-toxic-liver-failure
#1
Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan Albrecht
Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer...
May 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763764/machine-learning-based-brain-tumour-segmentation-on-limited-data-using-local-texture-and-abnormality
#2
Stijn Bonte, Ingeborg Goethals, Roel Van Holen
Brain tumour segmentation in medical images is a very challenging task due to the large variety in tumour shape, position, appearance, scanning modalities and scanning parameters. Most existing segmentation algorithms use information from four different MRI-sequences, but since this is often not available, there is need for a method able to delineate the different tumour tissues based on a minimal amount of data. We present a novel approach using a Random Forests model combining voxelwise texture and abnormality features on a contrast-enhanced T1 and FLAIR MRI...
May 7, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752386/nppa-and-nppb-act-redundantly-during-zebrafish-cardiac-development-to-confine-avc-marker-expression-and-reduce-cardiac-jelly-volume
#3
Daniela R Grassini, Anne K Lagendijk, Jessica E De Angelis, Jason Da Silva, Angela Jeanes, Nicole Zettler, Neil I Bower, Benjamin M Hogan, Kelly A Smith
Atrial natriuretic peptide ( nppa/anf ) and brain natriuretic peptide ( nppb/bnp ) form a gene cluster with expression in the chambers of the developing heart. Despite restricted expression, a function in cardiac development has not been demonstrated by mutant analysis. This is attributed to functional redundancy however their genomic location in cis has impeded formal analysis. Using genome-editing, we generated mutants for nppa and nppb and found single mutants indistinguishable from wildtype whereas nppa / nppb double mutants display heart morphogenesis defects and pericardial oedema...
May 11, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729466/calcifying-pseudoneoplasm-of-the-neuraxis-capnon-a-case-illustrating-natural-history-over-17-years-of-radiological-surveillance
#4
Sean M Barber, Jacob Chen Ming Low, Paul Johns, Philip Rich, Bridget MacDonald, Timothy L Jones
Calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis (CAPNON) is a rare central nervous system (CNS) lesion that can be found in both the brain and the spine. Although this entity is poorly understood, radiological and histological features have been identified. We describe a unique case of a 31-year-old patient who was managed with anti-epileptic medication for 17 years before requiring neurosurgical intervention for tumour progression. T2-weighted MRI revealed hyperintensity within the tumour with extensive associated vasogenic oedema, which is not normally associated with CAPNON...
May 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728814/improved-visualisation-of-early-cerebral-infarctions-after-endovascular-stroke-therapy-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography-oedema-maps
#5
Astrid Ellen Grams, Tanja Djurdjevic, Rafael Rehwald, Thomas Schiestl, Florian Dazinger, Ruth Steiger, Michael Knoflach, Elke Ruth Gizewski, Bernhard Glodny
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) reconstructions optimised for oedema visualisation (oedema map; EM) facilitate an improved detection of early infarctions after endovascular stroke therapy (EST). METHODS: Forty-six patients (21 women; 25 men; mean age: 63 years; range 24-89 years) were included. The brain window (BW), virtual non-contrast (VNC) and modified VNC series based on a three-material decomposition technique optimised for oedema visualisation (EM) were evaluated...
May 4, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725040/membrane-depolarization-and-aberrant-lipid-distributions-in-the-neonatal-rat-brain-following-hypoxic-ischaemic-insult
#6
Dominika Luptakova, Ladislav Baciak, Tomas Pluhacek, Anton Skriba, Blanka Sediva, Vladimir Havlicek, Ivo Juranek
Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) encephalopathy is among the most serious complications in neonatology. In the present study, we studied the immediate (0 hour), subacute (36 hours) and late (144 hours) responses of the neonatal brain to experimental HI insult in laboratory rats. At the striatal level, the mass spectrometry imaging revealed an aberrant plasma membrane distribution of Na+ /K+ ions in the oedema-affected areas. The failure of the Na+ /K+ gradients was also apparent in the magnetic resonance imaging measurements, demonstrating intracellular water accumulation during the acute phase of the HI insult...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704892/fluid-outflow-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-the-role-of-perivascular-and-paravascular-pathways
#7
Shinuo Liu, Magdalena A Lam, Alisha Sial, Sarah J Hemley, Lynne E Bilston, Marcus A Stoodley
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. Although fluid dynamics have been studied in the brain, little is known about spinal cord fluid inflow and outflow. Understanding the normal fluid physiology of the spinal cord may give insight into the pathogenesis of spinal cord oedema and CSF disorders such as syringomyelia...
April 29, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701515/intracranial-pressure-changes-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#8
Mohammad Nadir Haider, John J Leddy, Andrea L Hinds, Nell Aronoff, Diane Rein, David Poulsen, Barry S Willer
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial pressure (ICP) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is poorly studied due to lack of sensitive non-invasive methods. The purpose of this review was to summarize the existing knowledge of changes in ICP after mTBI. Literature selection: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched by three reviewers independently up to December 2016. INCLUSION CRITERIA: animal and human studies measuring ICP and brain oedema after an mTBI. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: moderate and severe forms of traumatic brain injury, repeat samples, and studies that measured ICP at the time of impact but not after...
April 27, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691273/a-brain-populated-with-space-occupying-lesions-identifying-the-culprit
#9
Rawan A AlHarmi, Deyari Fryad Henari, Raafat Hammad Seroor Jadah, Haya Mohammed AlKhayyat
This is a case of an 8-year-old girl who was previously healthy and presented with unresponsiveness on a background of fever that resolved within 2 days of onset. History was significant for recurrent dental abscesses requiring drainage. Imaging revealed what was unexpected: a brain overloaded with multiple space-occupying lesions and diffuse oedema. The patient was started on mannitol and dexamethasone in addition to antimicrobials. Her condition improved dramatically within few days. Multiple aspiration procedures were performed later and she recovered fully with minor deficits...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684516/reconsideration-of-neurogenic-pulmonary-oedema-as-a-source-of-metastatic-cerebral-abscess-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhages-a-preliminary-study
#10
Ahmet Gökyar, Mehmet D Aydın, Sevilay Özmen, Elif Demirci, Abdullah H Marangoz, Enis Kuruoğlu, Cengiz Çokluk
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be a cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE). It is well known that lymphatic fluid draining by thoracic duct to lungs consists of many dangerous metabolites, degraded tissue particles and microbiological pathogens. However, there is no enough study which investigates if NPE cause septicemia or not. In this study, we retrospectively examined our experimental materials whether there is a meaningful relationship between the NPE and cerebral abscess formation...
April 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674712/when-light-hurts-comparative-morphometry-of-human-brainstem-in-traumatic-photalgia
#11
Lora T Likova, Christopher W Tyler
Traumatic brain injury is an increasingly common affliction, although many of its serious repercussions are still underappreciated. A frequent consequence is the development of light-induced pain, or 'photalgia', which can often lead to prolonged debilitation. The mechanism underlying the sensitivity to light, however, remains unresolved. Since tissue oedema (swelling) is a common feature of traumatic brain injury, we propose that the brainstem oedema, in particular, might sensitize the brainstem trigeminal complex to signals from ocular mechanisms activated in bright light...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674479/regionally-clustered-abcc8-polymorphisms-in-a-prospective-cohort-predict-cerebral-oedema-and-outcome-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Ruchira Menka Jha, Theresa A Koleck, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Seo-Young Park, Benjamin E Zusman, Robert S B Clark, Lori A Shutter, Jessica S Wallisch, Philip E Empey, Patrick M Kochanek, Yvette P Conley
OBJECTIVE: ABCC8 encodes sulfonylurea receptor 1, a key regulatory protein of cerebral oedema in many neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sulfonylurea-receptor-1 inhibition has been promising in ameliorating cerebral oedema in clinical trials. We evaluated whether ABCC8 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms predicted oedema and outcome in TBI. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 485 prospectively enrolled patients with severe TBI. 410 were analysed after quality control...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599372/interventions-to-reduce-neurological-symptoms-in-patients-with-gbm-receiving-radiotherapy-from-theory-to-clinical-practice
#13
Lucia Palombi, Paolo Marchetti, Maurizio Salvati, Mattia Falchetto Osti, Luigi Frati, Alessandro Frati
BACKGROUND: Patients affected by glioblastoma often develop cerebral oedema as a life-threatening complication. Although there is no approved pharmacological intervention, such cerebral oedema is usually treated with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone has been shown in experimental studies to reduce cerebral oedema with only few mineralocorticoid side-effects. The goal of our study was to examine its efficacy in reducing the emergence of neurological deficits during the Stupp protocol. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of 459 patients, assigned in controlled groups: in group A, patients received radiochemotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy; in group B, patients received an equivalent combined treatment with dexamethasone...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594463/traumatic-brain-injury-in-indian-children
#14
REVIEW
Krishna Chaitanya, Archana Addanki, Rajendra Karambelkar, Rakesh Ranjan
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents is a community-based medical and educational challenge world-over due to increasing urbanization and motorization. In India, children between 1 to 15 years constitute significant proportion of the total population, who are vulnerable for TBI. In developed countries, pediatric trauma mortality still represents more than half of all childhood fatalities, which is 18 times more common than brain tumors. In this study, we attempted to analyze epidemiological factors, management, and outcome of TBI in children at a tertiary care center in Pune, Maharashtra...
March 29, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582260/orbital-apex-syndrome-secondary-to-optic-nerve-cysticercosis
#15
Pratik Chaugule, D Ravi Varma, Preeti Patil Chhablani
A 22-year-old male presented to us with complaints of sudden painful loss of vision in left eye 10 days ago along with inward deviation of the left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in right eye was 20/20 and 20/50 in left eye. Left eye showed limitation of abduction, a relative afferent pupillary defect, normal anterior segment with optic disc oedema. Contrast-enhanced MRI of the brain and orbit showed thickening of left optic nerve along with a cystic lesion near the orbital apex with a central iso- to hyperintense spot resembling a scolex...
March 26, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575852/streptococcus-suis-a-re-emerging-pathogen-associated-with-occupational-exposure-to-pigs-or-pork-products-part-ii-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Violetta Zając, Jacek Sroka, Bernard Wasiński, Ewa Cisak, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
<i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen that may cause severe disease, mostly meningitis, in pigs and in humans having occupational contact with pigs and pork, such as farmers, slaughterhose workers and butchers. The first stage of the pathogenic process, similar in pigs and humans, is adherence to and colonisation of mucosal and/or epithelial surface(s) of the host. The second stage is invasion into deeper tissue and extracellular translocation of bacterium in the bloodstream, either free in circulation or attached to the surface of monocytes...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527473/fibre-specific-white-matter-changes-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#17
Sanuji Gajamange, David Raffelt, Thijs Dhollander, Elaine Lui, Anneke van der Walt, Trevor Kilpatrick, Joanne Fielding, Alan Connelly, Scott Kolbe
Long term irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be primarily driven by axonal degeneration. Axonal degeneration leads to degenerative atrophy, therefore early markers of axonal degeneration are required to predict clinical disability and treatment efficacy. Given that additional pathologies such as inflammation, demyelination and oedema are also present in MS, it is essential to develop axonal markers that are not confounded by these processes. The present study investigated a novel method for measuring axonal degeneration in MS based on high angular resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523179/a-young-female-presenting-with-heart-failure-secondary-to-eosinophilic-myocarditis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Priyantha Udaya Kumara Ralapanawa, Kulatunga Wijekoon Mudiyanselage Pramitha Prabhashini Kumarihamy, Miriyalini Sundararajah, Widana Arachchilage Thilak Ananda Jayalath
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic myocarditis is one of the fatal complications of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. Given the rarity of this form of myocarditis, it is often under-recognized. We describe a young girl who presented with features of heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of eosinophilic myocarditis in a young Sri Lankan female. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 21 year old Sri Lankan female admitted with shortness of breath for 1 week duration with associated low grade fever and profuse sweating...
March 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477436/supervised-learning-based-multimodal-mri-brain-tumour-segmentation-using-texture-features-from-supervoxels
#19
Mohammadreza Soltaninejad, Guang Yang, Tryphon Lambrou, Nigel Allinson, Timothy L Jones, Thomas R Barrick, Franklyn A Howe, Xujiong Ye
BACKGROUND: Accurate segmentation of brain tumour in magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a difficult task due to various tumour types. Using information and features from multimodal MRI including structural MRI and isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components derived from the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may result in a more accurate analysis of brain images. METHODS: We propose a novel 3D supervoxel based learning method for segmentation of tumour in multimodal MRI brain images (conventional MRI and DTI)...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431141/does-tranexamic-acid-lead-to-changes-in-mri-measures-of-brain-tissue-health-in-patients-with-spontaneous-intracerebral-haemorrhage-protocol-for-a-mri-substudy-nested-within-the-double-blind-randomised-controlled-tich-2-trial
#20
Rob A Dineen, Stefan Pszczolkowski, Katie Flaherty, Zhe K Law, Paul S Morgan, Ian Roberts, David J Werring, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Tim England, Philip M Bath, Nikola Sprigg
OBJECTIVES: To test whether administration of the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) leads to increased prevalence of diffusion-weighted MRI-defined hyperintense ischaemic lesions (primary hypothesis) or reduced perihaematomal oedema volume, perihaematomal diffusion restriction and residual MRI-defined SICH-related tissue damage (secondary hypotheses). DESIGN: MRI substudy nested within the double-blind randomised controlled Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Haemorrhage (TICH)-2 trial (ISRCTN93732214)...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Open
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