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Brain oedema

Yuichi Nishiyama, Hidekazu Kanayama, Hiroshi Mori, Keiji Tada, Yasushi Yamamoto, Takashi Katsube, Haruo Takeshita, Kazunori Kawakami, Hajime Kitagaki
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the usefulness of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for investigating postmortem changes on brain computed tomography (CT). METHODS: This retrospective study included 128 patients (23 - 100 years old) without cerebral abnormalities who underwent unenhanced brain CT before and after death. The antemortem CT (AMCT) scans and postmortem CT (PMCT) scans were spatially normalized using our original brain CT template, and postmortem changes of CT values (in Hounsfield units; HU) were analysed by the SPM technique...
October 21, 2016: European Radiology
Shiqi Cheng, WeiWei Gao, Xin Xu, Hengyi Fan, Yingang Wu, Fei Li, Jianning Zhang, Xingen Zhu, Yan Zhang
Inflammation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) cause oedema and secondary brain injury after intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), which is closely related to patient prognosis. Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS), a well-known immunosuppressive agent, is widely applied in many diseases to inhibit inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of MPSS on inflammation and disruption of the BBB in a model mouse of ICH. ICH was induced by injecting collagenase into the right striatum of male C57/BL mice...
October 13, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Linqiang Huang, Wei Cao, Yiyu Deng, Gaofeng Zhu, Yongli Han, Hongke Zeng
BACKGROUND: Cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of blood-brain barrier, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) all of which are important blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability regulatory factors. Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 are also the key components of BBB. Hypertonic saline is widely used to alleviate cerebral oedema. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying hypertonic saline that ameliorates cerebral oedema effectively...
October 13, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
P Porcari, M E Hegi, H Lei, M-F Hamou, I Vassallo, S Capuani, R Gruetter, V Mlynarik
Glioma models have provided important insights into human brain cancers. Among the investigative tools, MRI has allowed their characterization and diagnosis. In this study, we investigated whether diffusion MRI might be a useful technique for early detection and characterization of slow-growing and diffuse infiltrative gliomas, such as the proposed new models, LN-2669GS and LN-2540GS glioma sphere xenografts. Tumours grown in these models are not visible in conventional T2 -weighted or contrast-enhanced T1 -weighted MRI at 14...
September 15, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Luisa Baker, Bernard Lanz, Fausto Andreola, Javier Ampuero, Anisha Wijeyesekera, Elaine Holmes, Nicolaas Deutz
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which frequently accompanies acute or chronic liver disease. It is characterized by a variety of symptoms of different severity such as cognitive deficits and impaired motor functions. Currently, HE is seen as a consequence of a low grade cerebral oedema associated with the formation of cerebral oxidative stress and deranged cerebral oscillatory networks. However, the pathogenesis of HE is still incompletely understood as liver dysfunction triggers exceptionally complex metabolic derangements in the body which need to be investigated by appropriate technologies...
September 30, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Deepak Kumar Gupta, Ajay Bisht, Priyam Batra, Purva Mathur, Ashok Kumar Mahapatra
BACKGROUND: The management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) aims to maintain the normal cerebral perfusion in spite of the mass lesions that may occur (haematoma, contusion, and oedema). The monitoring of the intracranial pressure (ICP) is a step in that direction. The intra-parenchymal catheters have the lowest incidence of infection compared to intra-ventricular/subdural catheters with reliable and accurate pressure recordings. The major disadvantage of the intra-parenchymal catheters is the cost, especially in developing nations...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Soumaya Boudokhane, Hichem Ben Brahim, Aymen Haj Salah, Houda Migaou, Anis Jellad, Zohra Ben Salah Frih
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors influencing long-term functional and professional outcomes in patients post severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A descriptive analytical transversal and cross-sectional study involving patients with STBI dated more than 1 year and managed in rehabilitation department on an outpatient basis. Described parameters were: coma duration, post-traumatic amnesia duration (PTA), duration of hospitalization in intensive care unit, rehabilitation delay management, brain imaging findings, motor impairment, neuropsychological impairment assessed with Neurobehavioral Rating Scale-Revised (NRS-R), functional outcomes assessed with Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and disability assessed with Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jessica K R Boult, Marco Borri, Alexa Jury, Sergey Popov, Gary Box, Lara Perryman, Suzanne A Eccles, Chris Jones, Simon P Robinson
High grade and metastatic brain tumours exhibit considerable spatial variations in proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, necrosis and oedema. Vascular heterogeneity arising from vascular co-option in regions of invasive growth (in which the blood-brain barrier remains intact) and neoangiogenesis is a major challenge faced in the assessment of brain tumours by conventional MRI. A multiparametric MRI approach, incorporating native measurements and both Gd-DTPA (Magnevist) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (P904)-enhanced imaging, was used in combination with histogram and unsupervised cluster analysis using a k-means algorithm to examine the spatial distribution of vascular parameters, water diffusion characteristics and invasion in intracranially propagated rat RG2 gliomas and human MDA-MB-231 LM2-4 breast adenocarcinomas in mice...
September 27, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Samuel Crocodile Wassmer, Georges Emile Raymond Grau
Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe and fatal form of malaria in humans with over half a million deaths each year. Cerebral malaria, a complex neurological syndrome of severe falciparum malaria, is often fatal and represents a major public health burden. Despite vigorous efforts, the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria remains to be elucidated, thereby hindering the development of adjunctive therapies. In recent years, multidisciplinary and collaborative approaches have led to groundbreaking progress both in the laboratory and in the field...
September 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Mohammadreza Soltaninejad, Guang Yang, Tryphon Lambrou, Nigel Allinson, Timothy L Jones, Thomas R Barrick, Franklyn A Howe, Xujiong Ye
PURPOSE: We propose a fully automated method for detection and segmentation of the abnormal tissue associated with brain tumour (tumour core and oedema) from Fluid- Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). METHODS: The method is based on superpixel technique and classification of each superpixel. A number of novel image features including intensity-based, Gabor textons, fractal analysis and curvatures are calculated from each superpixel within the entire brain area in FLAIR MRI to ensure a robust classification...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Francesca Camia, Livia Pisciotta, Giovanni Morana, Maria Cristina Schiaffino, Salvatore Renna, Paola Carrera, Maurizio Ferrari, Maria Giuseppina Baglietto, Edvige Veneselli, Laura Siri, Maria Margherita Mancardi
INTRODUCTION: Variants in the CACNA1A gene on chromosome 19p13 result in a spectrum of neurological phenotypes ranging from familial or sporadic hemiplegic migraine to congenital or progressive encephalopathies. Patients with CACNA1A variants often show acute attacks with ataxia or hemiplegia till coma, sometimes related to unilateral brain oedema. No guidelines for the medical management of these attacks are available since treatment is empiric, and many cases do not respond to common antimigraine drugs...
September 19, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Kevin N Sheth, Jordan J Elm, Bradley J Molyneaux, Holly Hinson, Lauren A Beslow, Gordon K Sze, Ann-Christin Ostwaldt, Gregory J Del Zoppo, J Marc Simard, Sven Jacobson, W Taylor Kimberly
BACKGROUND: Preclinical models of stroke have shown that intravenous glyburide reduces brain swelling and improves survival. We assessed whether intravenous glyburide (RP-1127; glibenclamide) would safely reduce brain swelling, decrease the need for decompressive craniectomy, and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with a large hemispheric infarction. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients (aged 18-80 years) with a clinical diagnosis of large anterior circulation hemispheric infarction for less than 10 h and baseline diffusion-weighted MRI image lesion volume of 82-300 cm(3) on MRI at 18 hospitals in the USA...
October 2016: Lancet Neurology
Kyle D Wilson, Sonja J Stutz, Lorenzo F Ochoa, Gustavo A Valbuena, Petra D Cravens, Kelly T Dineley, Gracie Vargas, Robin Stephens
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria is one of the most severe complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection and occurs mostly in young African children. This syndrome results from a combination of high levels of parasitaemia and inflammation. Although parasite sequestration in the brain is a feature of the human syndrome, sequestering strains do not uniformly cause severe malaria, suggesting interplay with other factors. Host genetic factors such as mutations in the promoters of the cytokines IL-10 and TNF are also clearly linked to severe disease...
2016: Malaria Journal
N Wilson, D Pohl, J Michaud, A Doja, E Miller
AIM: To review the long-term clinical and imaging follow-up of eight children with histopathologically proven childhood primary central nervous system angiitis (cPACNS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight children (5-17 years, five female and three male patients) with biopsy-proven cPACNS vasculitis were reviewed retrospectively. All children were followed at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the brain parenchyma and vessel pattern of the arteries of the circle of Willis were reviewed at baseline and follow-up(s)...
November 2016: Clinical Radiology
Elham Abbasloo, Fatemeh Dehghan, Mohammad Khaksari, Hamid Najafipour, Reza Vahidi, Shahriar Dabiri, Gholamreza Sepehri, Golamreza Asadikaram
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern affecting the general public as well as military personnel. However, there is no FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of TBIs. In this work, we investigated the neurotherapeutic effects of the well-known natural Iranian medicine Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad (SKJ) essential oil (SKEO) on the outcomes of diffused experimental TBI, with particular attention paid to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Male Wistar rats were treated with doses of 50, 100 and 200 (mg/kg, i...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ruth Mc Donagh, David Bradley, Joseph Augustine Harbison
A previously well 30-year-old woman presented at 17:30 with a sudden onset of dizziness, ataxia and headache. She was initially investigated with a CT scan of the brain and lumbar puncture, which yielded no diagnosis. Subsequent MR scan revealed multiple posterior circulation infarcts, along with a previously undiagnosed Arnold-Chiari 2 malformation with an associated syrinx of her cervical and thoracic spine. The infarct involved one of the herniated cerebellar tonsils. Oedema of an infarct in the herniated tonsils caused compression of the medulla at the foramen magnum, with associated neurological symptoms including Lhermitte's phenomenon and headache on valsalva manoeuvre...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Reza Ghasemi, Aimee Rowe, Rajiv Shah, Pradhib Venkatesan, Timothy J England
A 62 year old Nepalese gentleman presented with left sided weakness and sensory loss. Initial brain CT scanning was suggestive of acute infarction but a subsequent MRI scan showed cysts with oedema. Cysticercosis serology was positive and a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was made. The patient made almost a complete recovery after treatment with albendazole, praziquantel and steroids. Neurocysticercosis should be considered in the diffierential diagnosis when patients originating from endemic areas present with focal neurological deficit...
2016: Acute Medicine
Omar C Logue, Eric M George, Gene L Bidwell
Preeclampsia (PE) is a form of gestational hypertension that complicates ∼5% of pregnancies worldwide. Over 70% of the fatal cases of PE are attributed to cerebral oedema, intracranial haemorrhage and eclampsia. The aetiology of PE originates from abnormal remodelling of the maternal spiral arteries, creating an ischaemic placenta that releases factors that drive the pathophysiology. An initial neurological outcome of PE is the absence of the autonomically regulated cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
S-H Xu, M-S Yin, B Liu, M-L Chen, G-W He, P-P Zhou, Y-J Cui, D Yang, Y-L Wu
Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent oedema are major causes of the pathogenesis in ischaemic stroke with which the current clinical therapy remains unsatisfied. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effect of tetramethylpyrazine-2'-O-sodium ferulate (TSF)-a novel analogue of tetramethylpyrazine in alleviating BBB breakdown and brain oedema after cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Then, we explored the potential mechanism of the protection on BBB disruption in cerebral I/R rat models...
July 6, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Carla Bianca Luena Victorio, Yishi Xu, Qimei Ng, Beng Hooi Chua, Sylvie Alonso, Vincent T K Chow, Kaw Bing Chua
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that sporadically causes fatal neurologic illness among infected children. Animal models of EV-A71 infection exist, but they do not recapitulate in animals the spectrum of disease and pathology observed in fatal human cases. Specifically, neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE)-the main cause of EV-A71 infection-related mortality-is not observed in any of these models. This limits their utility in understanding viral pathogenesis of neurologic infections. We report the development of a mouse model of EV-A71 infection displaying NPE in severely affected animals...
2016: Scientific Reports
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