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Brain swelling treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151151/long-term-treatment-of-diabetic-rats-with-vanadyl-sulfate-or-insulin-attenuate-acute-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-their-antiglycemic-effect
#1
Hossein Ahmadi-Eslamloo, Gholam Abbas Dehghani, Seyed Mostafa Shid Moosavi
It is well-known that patients with diabetes mellitus have worse clinical outcomes following acute ischemic stroke. The intensifying effects of diabetes on ischemic brain injury have been shown to be mostly due to hyperglycemia, rather than the lack of insulin direct effects on brain. It is also well-approved that vanadium compounds have insulin-like and anti-diabetic effects, and the present study was designed to compare the protective effects of diabetes treatment with vanadium or insulin on ischemic/reperfused brain injury...
November 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149391/decompressive-craniectomy-for-traumatic-intracranial-hypertension-application-in-children
#2
Adam M H Young, Angelos G Kolias, Peter J Hutchinson
Traumatic brain injury remains prevalent in children, particularly within the adolescent age group. In severe injury, the priority of treatment is to stabilise the patient initially and prevent the evolution of brain swelling and secondary ischaemia using tiers of medical therapy. The final stage of intervention for such patients is a decompressive craniectomy. Here in, we identify the current evidence for performing decompressive crainectomy in children including the results from the RESCUEicp study.
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149389/autoregulation-in-paediatric-tbi-current-evidence-and-implications-for-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Joseph E Donnelly, Adam M H Young, Ken Brady
BACKGROUND: Children who survive acute traumatic brain injury are at risk of death from subsequent brain swelling and secondary injury. Strict physiologic management in the ICU after traumatic brain injury is believed to be key to survival, and cerebral perfusion pressure is a prominent aspect of post brain injury care. However, optimal cerebral perfusion pressure targets for children are not known. Autoregulation monitoring has been used to delineate individualized optimal perfusion pressures for patients with traumatic brain injury...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062904/ammonia-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-energy-metabolism-disturbances-in-isolated-brain-and-liver-mitochondria-and-the-effect-of-taurine-administration-relevance-to-hepatic-encephalopathy-treatment
#4
Hossein Niknahad, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Mahdi Zarei, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati
INTRODUCTION: Ammonia-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and energy crisis are known as some the major mechanisms of brain injury in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hyperammonemia also affects the liver and hepatocytes. Therefore, targeting mitochondria seems to be a therapeutic point of intervention in the treatment of HE. Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the human body. Several biological functions including the mitochondrial protective properties are attributed to this amino acid...
September 2017: Clin Exp Hepatol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031913/chronic-pain-and-pain-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Pierre J Blanchet, Christine Brefel-Courbon
Pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients living with Parkinson's disease. It is most often of nociceptive origin, but may also be ascribed to neuropathic (radicular or central) or miscellaneous sources. The recently validated King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale is based on 7 domains including musculoskeletal pain, chronic body pain (central or visceral), fluctuation-related pain, nocturnal pain, oro-facial pain, pain with discolouration/oedema/swelling, and radicular pain. The basal ganglia integrate incoming nociceptive information and contribute to coordinated motor responses in pain avoidance and nocifensive behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988495/the-beneficial-effects-of-l-cysteine-on-brain-antioxidants-of-rats-affected-by-sodium-valproate
#6
R Z Hamza, N S El-Shenawy
Oxidative stress caused by sodium valproate (SV) is known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of brain tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of l-cysteine (LC) on the antioxidants of brain tissue of rats. The animals were divided into six groups: control group 1 was treated with saline as vehicle, groups 2 and 3 were treated with low and high doses of SV (100 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), group 4 was treated with LC (100 mg/kg), and groups 5 and 6 were treated with low-dose SV + LC and high-dose SV + LC, respectively...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956123/the-value-of-subtraction-mri-in-detection-of-amyloid-related-imaging-abnormalities-with-oedema-or-effusion-in-alzheimer-s-patients-an-interobserver-study
#7
Roland M Martens, Arianne Bechten, Silvia Ingala, Ronald A van Schijndel, Vania B Machado, Marcus C de Jong, Esther Sanchez, Derk Purcell, Michael H Arrighi, Robert H Brashear, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapeutic treatments targeting amyloid-β plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with the presence of amyloid-related imaging abnormalities with oedema or effusion (ARIA-E), whose detection and classification is crucial to evaluate subjects enrolled in clinical trials. PURPOSE: To investigate the applicability of subtraction MRI in the ARIA-E detection using an established ARIA-E-rating scale. METHODS: We included 75 AD patients receiving bapineuzumab treatment, including 29 ARIA-E cases...
September 27, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933211/traumatic-brain-injury-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-endeavors
#8
Michael Galgano, Gentian Toshkezi, Xuecheng Qiu, Thomas Russell, Lawrence Chin, Li-Ru Zhao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) presents in various forms ranging from mild alterations of consciousness to an unrelenting comatose state and death. In the most severe form of TBI, the entirety of the brain is affected by a diffuse type of injury and swelling. Treatment modalities vary extensively based on the severity of the injury and range from daily cognitive therapy sessions to radical surgery such as bilateral decompressive craniectomies. Guidelines have been set forth regarding the optimal management of TBI, but they must be taken in context of the situation and cannot be used in every individual circumstance...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925524/hypothermia-increases-aquaporin-4-aqp4-plasma-membrane-abundance-in-human-primary-cortical-astrocytes-via-a-calcium-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4-and-calmodulin-mediated-mechanism
#9
Mootaz M Salman, Philip Kitchen, M Nicola Woodroofe, James E Brown, Roslyn M Bill, Alex C Conner, Matthew T Conner
Human aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel protein in brain astrocytes. Hypothermia is known to cause astrocyte swelling in culture, but the precise role of AQP4 in this process is unknown. Primary human cortical astrocytes were cultured under hypothermic (32 °C) or normothermic (37 °C) conditions. AQP4 transcript, total protein and surface-localized protein were quantified using RT-qPCR, sandwich ELISA with whole cell lysates or cell surface biotinylation, followed by ELISA analysis of the surface-localized protein, respectively...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906027/sur1-trpm4-and-aqp4-form-a-heteromultimeric-complex-that-amplifies-ion-water-osmotic-coupling-and-drives-astrocyte-swelling
#10
Jesse A Stokum, Min S Kwon, Seung K Woo, Orest Tsymbalyuk, Rudi Vennekens, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
Astrocyte swelling occurs after central nervous system injury and contributes to brain swelling, which can increase mortality. Mechanisms proffered to explain astrocyte swelling emphasize the importance of either aquaporin-4 (AQP4), an astrocyte water channel, or of Na(+) -permeable channels, which mediate cellular osmolyte influx. However, the spatio-temporal functional interactions between AQP4 and Na(+) -permeable channels that drive swelling are poorly understood. We hypothesized that astrocyte swelling after injury is linked to an interaction between AQP4 and Na(+) -permeable channels that are newly upregulated...
January 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888095/magnesium-therapy-improves-outcome-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-by-altering-pneumolysin-pore-formation
#11
Sabrina Hupp, Sandra Ribes, Jana Seele, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Förtsch, Elke Maier, Roland Benz, Timothy J Mitchell, Roland Nau, Asparouh I Iliev
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and is characterized by high lethality and substantial cognitive disabilities in survivors. Here, we have studied the capacity of an established therapeutic agent, magnesium, to improve survival in pneumococcal meningitis by modulating the neurological effects of the major pneumococcal pathogenic factor, pneumolysin. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used mixed primary glial and acute brain slice cultures, pneumolysin injection in infant rats, a mouse meningitis model and complementary approaches such as Western blot, a black lipid bilayer conductance assay and live imaging of primary glial cells...
September 9, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878657/targeted-approaches-applied-to-uncommon-diseases-a-case-of-salivary-duct-carcinoma-metastatic-to-the-brain-treated-with-the-multikinase-inhibitor-neratinib
#12
Karl R Sorenson, Guilherme Piovezani Ramos, Jose Caetano Villasboas Bisneto, Katharine Price
Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. Local surgical control is the cornerstone of therapy, but a subset of patients develops metastatic disease portending a poor prognosis and limited management options. Intracranial metastases are an uncommon manifestation and present a therapeutic challenge. We report the case of a 31-year-old male who presented with facial pain and swelling subsequently diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma...
May 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836291/introducing-the-concept-of-csf-shift-edema-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
REVIEW
Iype Cherian, Margarita Beltran, Alessandro Landi, Concetta Alafaci, Fabio Torregrossa, Giovanni Grasso
Brain edema after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) plays an important role in the outcome and survival of injured patients. It is also one of the main targets in the therapeutic approach in the current clinical practice. To date, the pathophysiology of traumatic brain swelling is complex and, being that it is thought to be mainly cytotoxic and vasogenic in origin, not yet entirely understood. However, based on new understandings of the hydrodynamic aspects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), an additional mechanism of brain swelling can be considered...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830843/inhibition-of-tpa-induced-hemorrhagic-transformation-involves-adenosine-a2b-receptor-activation-after-cerebral-ischemia
#14
Qiang Li, Xiaoning Han, Xi Lan, Xiaohua Hong, Qian Li, Yufeng Gao, Tianqi Luo, Qingwu Yang, Raymond C Koehler, Yu Zhai, Jinyuan Zhou, Jian Wang
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is administered after ischemic stroke to dissolve intravascular clots, but its use can lead to hemorrhagic transformation (HT). Therapeutic strategies to reduce hemorrhagic complications of tPA might be of benefit for stroke patients. Adenosine A2b receptor (A2bR) plays pivotal roles in regulating vascular protection in peripheral organs. This study explored whether A2bR agonist BAY 60-6583 reduces hemorrhage risk after tPA usage. Using a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model, we showed that mRNA and protein expression of A2bR increased to a greater extent after ischemia-reperfusion than did expression of the other three adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, and A3)...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817088/the-role-of-neurogenic-inflammation-in-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-development-of-cerebral-oedema-following-acute-central-nervous-system-cns-injury
#15
REVIEW
Annabel J Sorby-Adams, Amanda M Marcoionni, Eden R Dempsey, Joshua A Woenig, Renée J Turner
Acute central nervous system (CNS) injury, encompassing traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, accounts for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, largely attributable to the development of cerebral oedema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Despite this, clinical treatments are limited and new therapies are urgently required to improve patient outcomes and survival. Originally characterised in peripheral tissues, such as the skin and lungs as a neurally-elicited inflammatory process that contributes to increased microvascular permeability and tissue swelling, neurogenic inflammation has now been described in acute injury to the brain where it may play a key role in the secondary injury cascades that evolve following both TBI and stroke...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806209/refractory-intracranial-hypertension-the-role-of-decompressive-craniectomy
#16
Martin Smith
Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is associated with worse outcomes after acute brain injury, and clinical guidelines advocate early treatment of intracranial hypertension. ICP-lowering therapies are usually administered in a stepwise manner, starting with safer first-line interventions, while reserving higher-risk options for patients with intractable intracranial hypertension. Decompressive craniectomy is a surgical procedure in which part of the skull is removed and the underlying dura opened to reduce brain swelling-related raised ICP; it can be performed as a primary or secondary procedure...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794092/optic-disc-swelling-in-a-patient-with-tuberculous-meningitis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#17
Hanis Zuhaimy, Sue Ngein Leow, Suresh K Vasudevan
We discuss the diagnostic challenge in an adult patient presented with purely ocular symptoms diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). A 38-year-old woman presented with bilateral painless blurring of vision. There were bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy and bilateral optic disc swelling. Optic nerve function tests were normal. Patient was lucid with no signs of meningism. Brain imaging were normal. She had a positive Mantoux test, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate but no clinical evidence of active pulmonary tuberculosis infection...
August 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757160/mitochondrial-impairments-contribute-to-spatial-learning-and-memory-dysfunction-induced-by-chronic-tramadol-administration-in-rat-protective-effect-of-physical-exercise
#18
Hajar Mehdizadeh, Jalal Pourahmad, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Nasim Vousooghi, Ali Yoonessi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Ladan Behzadfar, Mohammad Reza Rouini, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
Despite the worldwide use of tramadol, few studies have been conducted about its effects on memory and mitochondrial function, and controversial results have been reported. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in physical exercise as a protective approach to neuronal and cognitive impairments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on spatial learning and memory and brain mitochondrial function in tramadol-treated rats. After completion of 2-week (short-term) and 4-week (long-term) treadmill exercise regimens, male Wistar rats received tramadol (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 30days...
October 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712890/amburana-cearensis-seed-extract-protects-brain-mitochondria-from-oxidative-stress-and-cerebellar-cells-from-excitotoxicity-induced-by-glutamate
#19
Érica Patrícia Lima Pereira, Cleide Santos Souza, Jessika Amparo, Rafael Short Ferreira, Yanier Nuñez-Figueredo, Luzimar Gonzaga Fernandez, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro, Suzana Braga-de-Souza, Victor Diogenes Amaral da Silva, Silvia Lima Costa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Amburana cearensis (Allemao) A.C.Sm. is a medicinal plant of the Brazilian Caatinga reported to present antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the extracts obtained from the seeds of A. cearensis in primary cultures of cerebellar cells subjected to excitotoxicity induced by glutamate and brain mitochondria submitted to oxidative stress. MATERIALS: and methods: Primary cultures of cerebellar cells were treated with the ethanol (ETAC), hexane (EHAC), dichloromethane (EDAC) and ethyl acetate (EAAC) extracts of the seeds of A...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710882/mid-trimester-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-pprom-etiology-diagnosis-classification-international-recommendations-of-treatment-options-and-outcome
#20
REVIEW
Michael Tchirikov, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, James Maher, Jörg Buchmann, Yuri Naberezhnev, Andreas S Winarno, Gregor Seliger
Mid-trimester preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), defined as rupture of fetal membranes prior to 28 weeks of gestation, complicates approximately 0.4%-0.7% of all pregnancies. This condition is associated with a very high neonatal mortality rate as well as an increased risk of long- and short-term severe neonatal morbidity. The causes of the mid-trimester PPROM are multifactorial. Altered membrane morphology including marked swelling and disruption of the collagen network which is seen with PPROM can be triggered by bacterial products or/and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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