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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320070/dexpramipexole-improves-bioenergetics-and-outcome-in-experimental-stroke
#1
Mirko Muzzi, Elisabetta Gerace, Daniela Buonvicino, Elisabetta Coppi, Francesco Resta, Laura Formentini, Riccardo Zecchi, Laura Tigli, Daniele Guasti, Martina Ferri, Emidio Camaioni, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Guido Mannaioni, Daniele Bani, Anna M Pugliese, Alberto Chiarugi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dexpramipexole, a drug recently tested in ALS patients able to bind F1Fo ATP synthase and increase mitochondrial ATP production, on experimental ischemic brain injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of dexpramipexole on bioenergetics, Ca(2+) fluxes, electrophysiological functions and death were evaluated in primary neural cultures and hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The drug's impact on infarct volumes and neurological functions was also evaluated in mice subjected to proximal or distal MCAo...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292200/therapeutic-effects-of-methionine-sulfoximine-in-multiple-diseases-include-and-extend-beyond-inhibition-of-glutamine-synthetase
#2
William S A Brusilow, Tyler J Peters
Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a well-characterized inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, displays significant therapeutic benefits in animal models for several human diseases. This amino acid might therefore be a viable candidate for drug development to treat diseases for which there are few effective therapies. Areas covered: We describe the effects of MSO on brain swelling occurring in overt hepatic encephalopathy resulting from liver failure, the effects of MSO on excitotoxic damage involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or resulting from stroke, and the effects of MSO on a model for an inflammatory immune response involved in a range of diseases...
March 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290606/3-daidzein-sulfonate-sodium-inhibits-neuronal-apoptosis-induced-by-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#3
Ruizhen Liu, Xinming Zhong, Jing Zeng, Zhihua Huang, Xiao Li, Hai Xiao, Qin Chen, Dongliang Li
This study aimed to observe the effects of 3'-daidzein sulfonate sodium (DSS) on ischemia-reperfusion-induced brain injury and to analyze the mechanisms responsible for neuronal apoptosis. Focal ischemias were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using middle cerebral artery occlusion. The rats were divided into 5 groups based on sham surgery or real occlusion, and treatment with different doses of DSS (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) or normal saline (model group), injected preoperatively into the rats with cerebral occlusion...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258567/aquaporins-in-nervous-system
#4
Mengmeng Xu, Ming Xiao, Shao Li, Baoxue Yang
Aquaporins (AQPs ) mediate water flux between the four distinct water compartments in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present chapter, we mainly focus on the expression and function of the 9 AQPs expressed in the CNS, which include five members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, and AQP8; three members of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9; and one member of superaquaporin subfamily: AQP11. In addition, AQP1, AQP2 and AQP4 expressed in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are also reviewed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224477/genistein-alleviates-neuroinflammation-and-restores-cognitive-function-in-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-underlying-mechanisms
#5
Ajaz Ahmad Ganai, Mohammad Husain
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from acute liver failure. Previously, we demonstrated hepatoprotective effects of genistein in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). In this study, we evaluated behavioural and neuroprotective effects of genistein in rat model of HE. HE was induced by intraperitonial administration of D-GalN (250 mg/kg BW) twice a week for 30 days Genistein was given as co-treatment through oral gavage daily at dose of 5 mg/kg BW...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125598/a-feasibility-study-of-quantifying-longitudinal-brain-changes-in-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-encephalitis-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-and-stereology
#6
Sylviane Defres, Simon S Keller, Kumar Das, Rishma Vidyasagar, Laura M Parkes, Girvan Burnside, Michael Griffiths, Michael Kopelman, Neil Roberts, Tom Solomon
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether it is feasible to quantify acute change in temporal lobe volume and total oedema volumes in herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis as a preliminary to a trial of corticosteroid therapy. METHODS: The study analysed serially acquired magnetic resonance images (MRI), of patients with acute HSV encephalitis who had neuroimaging repeated within four weeks of the first scan. We performed volumetric measurements of the left and right temporal lobes and of cerebral oedema visible on T2 weighted Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images using stereology in conjunction with point counting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072961/-a-case-report-of-childhood-farber-s-disease-and-literature-review
#7
X H Bao, J M Tian, T Y Ji, X Z Chang
Objective: To explore the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and the prognosis of Farber disease by case report and literature review. Method: The clinical information of a case with farber's disease diagnosed in October 2015 at Peking University First Hospital was collected and analyzed, including clinical manifestation, electrophysiology, magnetic resonance imaging, pathology, treatments and prognosis.ASAH1 gene mutational analysis was conducted in the patient and her parents.By using "Farber's disease, ASAH1" as keywords, literature was searched from Pubmed, CHKD and HGMD database from January 1951 to January 2016...
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024286/taurine-treatment-preserves-brain-and-liver-mitochondrial-function-in-a-rat-model-of-fulminant-hepatic-failure-and-hyperammonemia
#8
Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Mozhgan Abasvali, Mehdi Zarei, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Narges Abdoli, Forouzan Khodaei, Yasaman Yeganeh, Faezeh Jafari, Azita Zarei, Zahra Latifpour, Elnaz Mardani, Negar Azarpira, Behnam Asadi, Asma Najibi
Ammonia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis is known as a critical consequence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hence, mitochondria are potential targets of therapy in HE. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of taurine treatment on the brain and liver mitochondrial function in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. The animals received thioacetamide (400mg/kg, i.p, for three consecutive days at 24-h intervals) as a model of acute liver failure and hyperammonemia...
February 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009405/fulminant-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-and-venous-stasis-retinopathy-resulting-in-severe-bilateral-visual-impairment
#9
Alexander Voldman, Breanna Durbin, John Nguyen, Brian Ellis, Monique Leys
PURPOSE: To report a complicated case of fulminant idiopathic intracranial hypertension and concomitant venous stasis retinopathy leading to postpapilledema optic atrophy. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 34-year-old morbidly obese woman with a history of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) presented with a 1-month history of bilateral vision loss, diplopia, and left eye pain after being lost to follow-up for 6 years. Fundus examination revealed florid papilledema with venous tortuosity bilaterally...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998460/-treatment-of-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#10
Y H Wang, J Ma, Y Zhong
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension(IIH) is a kind of diffuse brain swelling disease. Several causes could lead to IIH. Intracranial venous circulatory disturbance is more common. The clinical manifestations include intracranial pressure increased, headache and papilledema. Since IIH usually has serious impact on vision even blindness, the diagnosis and corresponding treatment are especially important. This review is to discuss the new insights on the therapeutic options of IIH, which cover medical treatment, weight-losing therapy, surgical treatment, interventional therapy and supportive treatment...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938476/traumatic-brain-injury-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-endeavors
#11
Michael Galgano, Gentian Toshkezi, Xuecheng Qiu, Thomas Russell, Lawrence Chin, Li-Ru Zhao
Traumatic brain injury presents in various forms ranging from mild alterations of consciousness to an unrelenting comatose state and death. In the most severe form of traumatic brain injury, the entirety of the brain is affected by a diffuse type of injury and swelling. Treatment modalities vary extensively based on the severity of the injury and range from daily cognitive therapy sessions to radical surgery such as bilateral decompressive craniectomies. Guidelines have been set forth regarding the optimal management of traumatic brain injury, but they must be taken in context of the situation and cannot be used in every individual circumstance...
November 22, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931151/regulation-of-mitochondrial-function-and-glutamatergic-system-are-the-target-of-guanosine-effect-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Fernando Dobrachinski, Rogério da Rosa Gerbatin, Gláubia Sartori, Naiani Ferreira Marques, Ana Paula Zemolin, Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Jeferson Luis Franco, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Michele Rechia Fighera, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly complex multi-factorial disorder. Experimental trauma involves primary and secondary injury cascades that underlie delayed neuronal dysfunction and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction and glutamatergic excitotoxicity are the hallmark mechanisms of damage. Accordingly, a successful pharmacological intervention requires a multi-faceted approach. Guanosine (GUO) is known for its neuromodulator effects in various models of brain pathology, specifically those that involve the glutamatergic system...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923754/successful-coil-embolization-of-pediatric-carotid-cavernous-fistula-due-to-ruptured-posttraumatic-giant-internal-carotid-artery-aneurysm
#13
Daisuke Wajima, Ichiro Nakagawa, Hun Soo Park, Shohei Yokoyama, Takeshi Wada, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: The goal of the treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is to occlude the arteriovenous shunt and to preserve the patency of the concerned internal carotid artery. However, for the ipsilateral posttraumatic fragile cerebrum, coil embolization plus parent artery occlusion for the high-flow direct CCF is better for the prevention of hyperperfusion syndrome and intracranial hemorrhage. We experienced such a case and managed it successfully. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy had severe head trauma caused by being hit by a car...
February 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918421/decreased-stat3-phosphorylation-mediates-cell-swelling-in-ammonia-treated-astrocyte-cultures
#14
Arumugam R Jayakumar, Kevin M Curtis, Kiran S Panickar, Nagarajarao Shamaladevi, Michael D Norenberg
Brain edema, due largely to astrocyte swelling, and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation, are major complications of acute liver failure (ALF). Elevated level of brain ammonia has been strongly implicated in the development of astrocyte swelling associated with ALF. The means by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling, however, is incompletely understood. Recently, oxidative/nitrosative stress and associated signaling events, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), have been implicated in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling...
December 2, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896810/multiple-pathways-for-elevating-extracellular-adenosine-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-characterized-by-adenosine-sensor-cells
#15
Kunihiko Yamashiro, Yuki Fujii, Shohei Maekawa, Mitsuhiro Morita
Extracellular adenosine in the brain, which modulates various physiological and pathological processes, fluctuates in a complicated manner that reflects the circadian cycle, neuronal activity, metabolism, and disease states. The dynamics of extracellular adenosine in the brain are not fully understood, largely because of the lack of simple and reliable methods of measuring time-dependent changes in tissue adenosine distribution. This study describes the development of a biosensor, designated an adenosine sensor cell, expressing adenosine A1 receptor, and a genetically modified G protein...
January 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858578/severe-cerebral-edema-following-nivolumab-treatment-for-pediatric-glioblastoma-case-report
#16
Xiao Zhu, Michael M McDowell, William C Newman, Gary E Mason, Stephanie Greene, Mandeep S Tamber
Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) currently undergoing Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of glioblastoma. The authors present the case of a 10-year-old girl with glioblastoma treated with nivolumab under compassionate-use guidelines. After the first dose of nivolumab the patient developed hemiparesis, cerebral edema, and significant midline shift due to severe tumor necrosis. She was managed using intravenous dexamethasone and discharged on a dexamethasone taper. The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated after the second dose of nivolumab, demonstrating hemiplegia, seizures, and eventually unresponsiveness with a fixed and dilated left pupil...
February 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857999/do-age-and-anticoagulants-affect-the-natural-history-of-acute-subdural-hematomas
#17
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Ryan C Turner, Darnell Josiah, Chelsea Knotts, Sanjay Bhatia
Acute subdural hematoma is a serious complication following traumatic brain injury. Large volume hematomas or those with underlying brain injury can cause mass effect, midline shift, and eventually herniation of the brain. Acute subdural hematomas in the young are associated with high-energy trauma and often have underlying contusions, while acute subdural hematomas in the elderly are associated with minor trauma and an absence of underlying contusions, even though the elderly are more likely to be on anticoagulants or anti-platelet therapy...
2016: Archives of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857913/addition-of-resection-of-temporal-muscle-and-fascia-in-decompressive-craniectomy-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Seung Han Yu, Byung Chul Kim, Jae Young Choi, Jae Il Lee, Won Ho Cho, Hyuk Jin Choi
OBJECTIVE: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a widely used surgical procedure for control of severely increased intracranial pressure in various conditions. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of resection of temporalis muscle and fascia in DC particularly in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Twenty patients underwent temporalis muscle and fascia resection in addition to conventional DC and duroplasty due to massive brain swelling in a single tertiary hospital from 2013 to 2015 were enrolled...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725221/fresh-frozen-plasma-modulates-brain-gene-expression-in-a-swine-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-shock-a-network-analysis
#19
Martin Sillesen, Ted Bambakidis, Simone E Dekker, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) decreases brain lesion size and swelling in a swine model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that brain gene expression profiles after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock would be modulated by FFP resuscitation. STUDY DESIGN: Fifteen swine underwent a protocol of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock and 2 hours of shock followed by resuscitation with FFP, normal saline, or hetastarch (5/group)...
January 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694105/establishment-of-a-novel-retinoblastoma-rb-nude-mouse-model-by-intravitreal-injection-of-human-rb-y79-cells-comparison-of-in-vivo-analysis-versus-histological-follow-up
#20
Alexander V Tschulakow, Ulrich Schraermeyer, H Peter Rodemann, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most frequent primary intraocular tumour in children and, if left untreated, can cause death. Preclinical animal models that mimic molecular, genetic, and cellular features of cancers are essential for studying cancer and searching for promising diagnosis and treatment modalities. There are several models described for Rb, but none of them fully meet our requirements. The aim of this study was to create a novel xenograft-nude mouse-model with broad application possibilities, which closely resembles the clinical observations of Rb patients and which could be used to investigate the development and spread of the tumour by using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy/optical coherence tomography (SLO/OCT) as well as histology methods...
November 15, 2016: Biology Open
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