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Brain swelling treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340311/hyponatremia-and-the-brain
#1
REVIEW
Fabrice Gankam Kengne, Guy Decaux
Hyponatremia is defined by low serum sodium concentration and is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. Serum sodium is the main determinant of plasma osmolality, which, in turn, affects cell volume. In the presence of low extracellular osmolality, cells will swell if the adaptation mechanisms involved in the cell volume maintenance are inadequate. The most dramatic effects of hyponatremia on the brain are seen when serum sodium concentration decreases in a short period, allowing little or no adaptation...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301599/experimental-study-on-the-protection-of-agrimony-extracts-from-different-extracting-methods-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
Hui-Yuan Zhu, Yu-Long Bie, Jiang Wang, Jing Gao, Bing-Yue Yang, Hai-Tong Wan
Objective To study the protective effect of agrimony extracts from different extracting methods on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, in order to optimize the extraction scheme of agrimony. Methods Male rats were randomly assigned into seven groups: 1. Sham-operated group, 2. Untreated MCAO group (MCAO), 3. Petroleum ether extract of Agrimonia pilosa treated MCAO group (PEA), 4. Ethyl acetate extract of Agrimonia pilosa treated MCAO group (EAEA), 5. Ethanol extract of Agrimonia pilosa treated MCAO group (EEA), 6...
December 30, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290003/inhibition-of-vegf-signaling-reduces-diabetes-exacerbated-brain-swelling-but-not-infarct-size-in-large-cerebral-infarction-in-mice
#3
Eunhee Kim, Jiwon Yang, Keun Woo Park, Sunghee Cho
In light of repeated translational failures with preclinical neuroprotection-based strategies, this preclinical study reevaluates brain swelling as an important pathological event in diabetic stroke and investigates underlying mechanism of the comorbidity-enhanced brain edema formation. Type 2 (mild), type 1 (moderate), and mixed type 1/2 (severe) diabetic mice were subjected to transient focal ischemia. Infarct volume, brain swelling, and IgG extravasation were assessed at 3 days post-stroke. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, endothelial-specific molecule-1 (Esm1), and the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) was determined in the ischemic brain...
December 30, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216295/alpha-1-antichymotrypsin-is-involved-in-astrocyte-injury-in-concert-with-arginine-vasopressin-during-the-development-of-acute-hepatic-encephalopathy
#4
Jonghyuk Park, Takahiro Masaki, Yoshihiro Mezaki, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Mariko Nakamura, Haruka Maehashi, Takahiko J Fujimi, Sabine S Gouraud, Keisuke Nagatsuma, Madoka Nakagomi, Naofumi Kimura, Tomokazu Matsuura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We developed a bio-artificial liver (BAL) using a radial-flow bioreactor and rescued mini-pig models with lethal acute liver failure (ALF). The point of the rescue is the recovery from hepatic encephalopathy (HE). HE on ALF has sometimes resulted in brain death following brain edema with astrocyte swelling. Several factors, including ammonia and glutamine, have been reported to induce astrocyte swelling and injury. However, many clinicians believe that there are any other factors involved in the development of HE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206655/pathophysiology-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-of-coma-and-acute-kidney-injury-complicating-falciparum-malaria
#5
Katherine Plewes, Gareth D H Turner, Arjen M Dondorp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral impairment and acute kidney injury (AKI) are independent predictors of mortality in both adults and children with severe falciparum malaria. In this review, we present recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of these complications of severe malaria, and discuss future areas of research. RECENT FINDINGS: Cerebral malaria and AKI are serious and well recognized complications of severe malaria...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201849/concurrent-surgery-of-craniectomy-and-splenectomy-as-initial-treatment-in-severe-traumatic-head-injury-a-case-report
#6
Hyeong Rae Lee, Nam Kyu You, Sook Jin Seo, Mi Sun Choi
It is not a common case for neurosurgery department and the other departments to perform joint operation at the same time. Patients with severe head injury are a condition in which vital signs are unstable due to severe brain swelling and increased intracranial pressure, and emergency surgery is required. A 44-year-old man visited the trauma center with a motorcycle accident. The Glasgow Coma Scale score at the time of emergency department was 3 points, and the pupil was fixed at 6 mm on both sides. His medical history was unknown...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201206/combined-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy-with-alprostadil-and-calcium-dobesilate
#7
Lili Qin, Wenjun Qin, Jianfei Wang, Lin Lin
This study investigated the effects of alprostadil combined with calcium dobesilate on the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. We recruited 80 patients with diabetic nephropathy, who were randomly divided into experimental (n=40) and control (n=40) groups. Patients received high-quality low-protein diabetic diet intervention and subcutaneous injection of insulin to adjust blood glucose, combined with antihypertensive, antiplatelet drugs, and other comprehensive treatments. The control group received alprostadil and the experimental group received alprostadil combined with calcium dobesilate...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198174/intracranial-complications-of-midline-nasal-dermoid-cysts
#8
Dries Opsomer, Toon Allaeys, Ann-Sofie Alderweireldt, Edward Baert, Nathalie Roche
BACKGROUND: Nasal dermoid cysts are common tumors in children. Due to anomalies in embryologic development of the nasal complex, sometimes an intracranial extension exists. When these cysts become infected they can lead to meningitis, brain abscess and death. METHODS: We report the case of a 1.5-year-old girl admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit after infection of a nasal dermoid cyst. RESULTS: The infant had a spiking fever and epileptic seizures...
December 4, 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169728/morphological-analysis-of-mitochondria-for-evaluating-the-toxicity-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-transgenic-mice-and-isolated-preparations-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#9
Ge Gao, Zhipeng Wang, Lingling Lu, Chunli Duan, Xiaomin Wang, Hui Yang
A key molecular event in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is mitochondrial damage caused by α-synuclein (α-syn). Mitochondria mediates both necrosis and apoptosis, which are associated with morphological changes. However, the mechanism by which α-syn alters mitochondrial morphology remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and changes in cardiolipin (CL) levels in mitochondria isolated from the brain of Thy1α-syn mice. Cytoplasmic cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3 protein levels were upregulated in the brain of transgenic mice...
November 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151151/long-term-treatment-of-diabetic-rats-with-vanadyl-sulfate-or-insulin-attenuate-acute-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-their-antiglycemic-effect
#10
Hossein Ahmadi-Eslamloo, Gholam Abbas Dehghani, Seyed Mostafa Shid Moosavi
It is well-known that patients with diabetes mellitus have worse clinical outcomes following acute ischemic stroke. The intensifying effects of diabetes on ischemic brain injury have been shown to be mostly due to hyperglycemia, rather than the lack of insulin direct effects on brain. It is also well-approved that vanadium compounds have insulin-like and anti-diabetic effects, and the present study was designed to compare the protective effects of diabetes treatment with vanadium or insulin on ischemic/reperfused brain injury...
November 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149391/decompressive-craniectomy-for-traumatic-intracranial-hypertension-application-in-children
#11
Adam M H Young, Angelos G Kolias, Peter J Hutchinson
Traumatic brain injury remains prevalent in children, particularly within the adolescent age group. In severe injury, the priority of treatment is to stabilise the patient initially and prevent the evolution of brain swelling and secondary ischaemia using tiers of medical therapy. The final stage of intervention for such patients is a decompressive craniectomy. Here in, we identify the current evidence for performing decompressive crainectomy in children including the results from the RESCUEicp study.
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149389/autoregulation-in-paediatric-tbi-current-evidence-and-implications-for-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Joseph E Donnelly, Adam M H Young, Ken Brady
BACKGROUND: Children who survive acute traumatic brain injury are at risk of death from subsequent brain swelling and secondary injury. Strict physiologic management in the ICU after traumatic brain injury is believed to be key to survival, and cerebral perfusion pressure is a prominent aspect of post brain injury care. However, optimal cerebral perfusion pressure targets for children are not known. Autoregulation monitoring has been used to delineate individualized optimal perfusion pressures for patients with traumatic brain injury...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062904/ammonia-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-energy-metabolism-disturbances-in-isolated-brain-and-liver-mitochondria-and-the-effect-of-taurine-administration-relevance-to-hepatic-encephalopathy-treatment
#13
Hossein Niknahad, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Mahdi Zarei, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati
INTRODUCTION: Ammonia-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and energy crisis are known as some the major mechanisms of brain injury in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hyperammonemia also affects the liver and hepatocytes. Therefore, targeting mitochondria seems to be a therapeutic point of intervention in the treatment of HE. Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the human body. Several biological functions including the mitochondrial protective properties are attributed to this amino acid...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031913/chronic-pain-and-pain-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Pierre J Blanchet, Christine Brefel-Courbon
Pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients living with Parkinson's disease. It is most often of nociceptive origin, but may also be ascribed to neuropathic (radicular or central) or miscellaneous sources. The recently validated King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale is based on 7 domains including musculoskeletal pain, chronic body pain (central or visceral), fluctuation-related pain, nocturnal pain, oro-facial pain, pain with discolouration/oedema/swelling, and radicular pain. The basal ganglia integrate incoming nociceptive information and contribute to coordinated motor responses in pain avoidance and nocifensive behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988495/the-beneficial-effects-of-l-cysteine-on-brain-antioxidants-of-rats-affected-by-sodium-valproate
#15
R Z Hamza, N S El-Shenawy
Oxidative stress caused by sodium valproate (SV) is known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of brain tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of l-cysteine (LC) on the antioxidants of brain tissue of rats. The animals were divided into six groups: control group 1 was treated with saline as vehicle, groups 2 and 3 were treated with low and high doses of SV (100 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), group 4 was treated with LC (100 mg/kg), and groups 5 and 6 were treated with low-dose SV + LC and high-dose SV + LC, respectively...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956123/the-value-of-subtraction-mri-in-detection-of-amyloid-related-imaging-abnormalities-with-oedema-or-effusion-in-alzheimer-s-patients-an-interobserver-study
#16
Roland M Martens, Arianne Bechten, Silvia Ingala, Ronald A van Schijndel, Vania B Machado, Marcus C de Jong, Esther Sanchez, Derk Purcell, Michael H Arrighi, Robert H Brashear, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapeutic treatments targeting amyloid-β plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with the presence of amyloid-related imaging abnormalities with oedema or effusion (ARIA-E), whose detection and classification is crucial to evaluate subjects enrolled in clinical trials. PURPOSE: To investigate the applicability of subtraction MRI in the ARIA-E detection using an established ARIA-E-rating scale. METHODS: We included 75 AD patients receiving bapineuzumab treatment, including 29 ARIA-E cases...
September 27, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933211/traumatic-brain-injury-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-endeavors
#17
Michael Galgano, Gentian Toshkezi, Xuecheng Qiu, Thomas Russell, Lawrence Chin, Li-Ru Zhao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) presents in various forms ranging from mild alterations of consciousness to an unrelenting comatose state and death. In the most severe form of TBI, the entirety of the brain is affected by a diffuse type of injury and swelling. Treatment modalities vary extensively based on the severity of the injury and range from daily cognitive therapy sessions to radical surgery such as bilateral decompressive craniectomies. Guidelines have been set forth regarding the optimal management of TBI, but they must be taken in context of the situation and cannot be used in every individual circumstance...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925524/hypothermia-increases-aquaporin-4-aqp4-plasma-membrane-abundance-in-human-primary-cortical-astrocytes-via-a-calcium-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4-and-calmodulin-mediated-mechanism
#18
Mootaz M Salman, Philip Kitchen, M Nicola Woodroofe, James E Brown, Roslyn M Bill, Alex C Conner, Matthew T Conner
Human aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel protein in brain astrocytes. Hypothermia is known to cause astrocyte swelling in culture, but the precise role of AQP4 in this process is unknown. Primary human cortical astrocytes were cultured under hypothermic (32 °C) or normothermic (37 °C) conditions. AQP4 transcript, total protein and surface-localized protein were quantified using RT-qPCR, sandwich ELISA with whole cell lysates or cell surface biotinylation, followed by ELISA analysis of the surface-localized protein, respectively...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906027/sur1-trpm4-and-aqp4-form-a-heteromultimeric-complex-that-amplifies-ion-water-osmotic-coupling-and-drives-astrocyte-swelling
#19
Jesse A Stokum, Min S Kwon, Seung K Woo, Orest Tsymbalyuk, Rudi Vennekens, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
Astrocyte swelling occurs after central nervous system injury and contributes to brain swelling, which can increase mortality. Mechanisms proffered to explain astrocyte swelling emphasize the importance of either aquaporin-4 (AQP4), an astrocyte water channel, or of Na(+) -permeable channels, which mediate cellular osmolyte influx. However, the spatio-temporal functional interactions between AQP4 and Na(+) -permeable channels that drive swelling are poorly understood. We hypothesized that astrocyte swelling after injury is linked to an interaction between AQP4 and Na(+) -permeable channels that are newly upregulated...
January 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888095/magnesium-therapy-improves-outcome-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-by-altering-pneumolysin-pore-formation
#20
Sabrina Hupp, Sandra Ribes, Jana Seele, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Förtsch, Elke Maier, Roland Benz, Timothy J Mitchell, Roland Nau, Asparouh I Iliev
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and is characterized by high lethality and substantial cognitive disabilities in survivors. Here, we have studied the capacity of an established therapeutic agent, magnesium, to improve survival in pneumococcal meningitis by modulating the neurological effects of the major pneumococcal pathogenic factor, pneumolysin. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used mixed primary glial and acute brain slice cultures, pneumolysin injection in infant rats, a mouse meningitis model and complementary approaches such as Western blot, a black lipid bilayer conductance assay and live imaging of primary glial cells...
September 9, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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