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Brain swelling treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918421/decreased-stat3-phosphorylation-mediates-cell-swelling-in-ammonia-treated-astrocyte-cultures
#1
Arumugam R Jayakumar, Kevin M Curtis, Kiran S Panickar, Nagarajarao Shamaladevi, Michael D Norenberg
Brain edema, due largely to astrocyte swelling, and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation, are major complications of acute liver failure (ALF). Elevated level of brain ammonia has been strongly implicated in the development of astrocyte swelling associated with ALF. The means by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling, however, is incompletely understood. Recently, oxidative/nitrosative stress and associated signaling events, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), have been implicated in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling...
December 2, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896810/multiple-pathways-for-elevating-extracellular-adenosine-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-characterized-by-adenosine-sensor-cells
#2
Kunihiko Yamashiro, Yuki Fujii, Shohei Maekawa, Mitsuhiro Morita
Extracellular adenosine in the brain, which modulates various physiological and pathological processes, fluctuates in a complicated manner that reflects the circadian cycle, neuronal activity, metabolism, and disease states. The dynamics of extracellular adenosine in the brain are not fully understood, largely because of the lack of simple and reliable methods of measuring time-dependent changes in tissue adenosine distribution. This study describes the development of a biosensor, designated an adenosine sensor cell, expressing adenosine A1 receptor, and a genetically modified G protein...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858578/severe-cerebral-edema-following-nivolumab-treatment-for-pediatric-glioblastoma-case-report
#3
Xiao Zhu, Michael M McDowell, William C Newman, Gary E Mason, Stephanie Greene, Mandeep S Tamber
Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) currently undergoing Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of glioblastoma. The authors present the case of a 10-year-old girl with glioblastoma treated with nivolumab under compassionate-use guidelines. After the first dose of nivolumab the patient developed hemiparesis, cerebral edema, and significant midline shift due to severe tumor necrosis. She was managed using intravenous dexamethasone and discharged on a dexamethasone taper. The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated after the second dose of nivolumab, demonstrating hemiplegia, seizures, and eventually unresponsiveness with a fixed and dilated left pupil...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857999/do-age-and-anticoagulants-affect-the-natural-history-of-acute-subdural-hematomas
#4
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Ryan C Turner, Darnell Josiah, Chelsea Knotts, Sanjay Bhatia
Acute subdural hematoma is a serious complication following traumatic brain injury. Large volume hematomas or those with underlying brain injury can cause mass effect, midline shift, and eventually herniation of the brain. Acute subdural hematomas in the young are associated with high-energy trauma and often have underlying contusions, while acute subdural hematomas in the elderly are associated with minor trauma and an absence of underlying contusions, even though the elderly are more likely to be on anticoagulants or anti-platelet therapy...
2016: Arch Emerg Med Crit Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857913/addition-of-resection-of-temporal-muscle-and-fascia-in-decompressive-craniectomy-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Seung Han Yu, Byung Chul Kim, Jae Young Choi, Jae Il Lee, Won Ho Cho, Hyuk Jin Choi
OBJECTIVE: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a widely used surgical procedure for control of severely increased intracranial pressure in various conditions. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of resection of temporalis muscle and fascia in DC particularly in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Twenty patients underwent temporalis muscle and fascia resection in addition to conventional DC and duroplasty due to massive brain swelling in a single tertiary hospital from 2013 to 2015 were enrolled...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725221/fresh-frozen-plasma-modulates-brain-gene-expression-in-a-swine-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-shock-a-network-analysis
#6
Martin Sillesen, Theodore Bambakidis, Simone Dekker, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation with Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) decreases brain lesion size and swelling in a swine model of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that brain gene expression profiles following TBI+HS would be modulated by FFP resuscitation. STUDY DESIGN: 15 swine underwent a protocol of TBI and HS, two hours of shock followed by resuscitation with FFP, Normal Saline (NS) or hetastarch (Hextend, HEX, 5/group). After 6 hours, brain RNA was isolated and hybridized onto a Porcine Gene ST 1...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694105/establishment-of-a-novel-retinoblastoma-rb-nude-mouse-model-by-intravitreal-injection-of-human-rb-y79-cells-comparison-of-in-vivo-analysis-versus-histological-follow-up
#7
Alexander V Tschulakow, Ulrich Schraermeyer, H Peter Rodemann, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most frequent primary intraocular tumour in children and, if left untreated, can cause death. Preclinical animal models that mimic molecular, genetic, and cellular features of cancers are essential for studying cancer and searching for promising diagnosis and treatment modalities. There are several models described for Rb, but none of them fully meet our requirements. The aim of this study was to create a novel xenograft-nude mouse-model with broad application possibilities, which closely resembles the clinical observations of Rb patients and which could be used to investigate the development and spread of the tumour by using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy/optical coherence tomography (SLO/OCT) as well as histology methods...
November 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623738/acetazolamide-mitigates-astrocyte-cellular-edema-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Nasya M Sturdivant, Sean G Smith, Syed F Ali, Jeffrey C Wolchok, Kartik Balachandran
Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema...
September 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621948/mechanical-solitaire-thrombectomy-with-low-dose-booster-tirofiban-injection
#9
Duck-Ho Goh, Sung-Chul Jin, Hae Woong Jeong, Sam Yeol Ha
PURPOSE: Mechanical thrombectomy using a Solitaire stent has been associated with a high recanalization rate and favorable clinical outcome in intra-arterial thrombolysis. To achieve a higher recanalization rate for mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy, we used an intra-arterial low-dose booster tirofiban injection into the occluded segment after stent deployment. We report the safety and recanalization rates for mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy with a low-dose booster tirofiban injection...
September 2016: Neurointervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591100/volume-of-brain-herniation-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-following-decompressive-craniectomy
#10
Kirsten E Stoner, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, Nicole M Grosland, Matthew A Howard
BACKGROUND: Decompressive craniectomy procedures are performed in patients with malignant intracranial hypertension. A bone flap is removed to relieve pressure. Later a second operation is performed to reconstruct the skull after brain swelling has resolved. This surgical treatment would be improved if it were possible to perform a single operation that decompressed the brain acutely while eliminating the need for a second operation. In order to design a device and procedure that achieves this objective it is essential to understand how the brain swells following a craniectomy procedure...
August 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588068/3d-dir-for-early-differential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-evaluation-of-nmo
#11
Yanbing Wang, Hong Yan, Qixing Ding, Cunhua Mao, Yelong Shen, Guangbin Wang
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acute or subacute lesion of demyelinating disease involving the optic nerve and spinal cord, and imaging techniques and their effects have been the focus of investigations. The aim of the present study was to examine the value of three-dimensional double inversion recovery (3D-DIR) in the early differential diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of NMO. Forty-eight patients with suspicious NMO were included into the study and underwent a combination of serum NMO-IgG quantitative detection and 3D-DIR examination...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583179/clinical-outcome-prediction-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-alterations-in-brain-body-interface
#12
Benjamin W Y Lo, Hitoshi Fukuda, Mark Angle, Jeanne Teitelbaum, R Loch Macdonald, Forough Farrokhyar, Lehana Thabane, Mitchell A H Levine
BACKGROUND: Brain-body associations are essential in influencing outcome in patients with ruptured brain aneurysms. Thus far, there is scarce literature on such important relationships. METHODS: The multicenter Tirilazad database (3551 patients) was used to create this clinical outcome prediction model in order to elucidate significant brain-body associations. Traditional binary logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Binary logistic regression main effects model included four statistically significant single prognostic variables, namely, neurological grade, age, stroke, and time to surgery...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567243/safety-and-efficacy-of-intravenous-glyburide-on-brain-swelling-after-large-hemispheric-infarction-games-rp-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial
#13
Kevin N Sheth, Jordan J Elm, Bradley J Molyneaux, Holly Hinson, Lauren A Beslow, Gordon K Sze, Ann-Christin Ostwaldt, Gregory J Del Zoppo, J Marc Simard, Sven Jacobson, W Taylor Kimberly
BACKGROUND: Preclinical models of stroke have shown that intravenous glyburide reduces brain swelling and improves survival. We assessed whether intravenous glyburide (RP-1127; glibenclamide) would safely reduce brain swelling, decrease the need for decompressive craniectomy, and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with a large hemispheric infarction. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients (aged 18-80 years) with a clinical diagnosis of large anterior circulation hemispheric infarction for less than 10 h and baseline diffusion-weighted MRI image lesion volume of 82-300 cm(3) on MRI at 18 hospitals in the USA...
October 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535749/the-retina-as-an-early-biomarker-of-neurodegeneration-in-a-rotenone-induced-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-for-a-neuroprotective-effect-of-rosiglitazone-in-the-eye-and-brain
#14
Eduardo Maria Normando, Benjamin Michael Davis, Lies De Groef, Shereen Nizari, Lisa A Turner, Nivedita Ravindran, Milena Pahlitzsch, Jonathan Brenton, Giulia Malaguarnera, Li Guo, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Maria Francesca Cordeiro
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, affecting 1 % of the population over 65 years of age. Dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra and accumulation of Lewy bodies are the defining neuropathological hallmarks of the disease. Neuronal death and dysfunction have been reported in other central nervous system regions, including the retina. Symptoms of PD typically manifest only when more than 70 % of dopaminergic cells are lost, and the definitive diagnosis of PD can only be made histologically at post-mortem, with few biomarkers available...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535111/melatonin-modulates-permeability-transition-pore-and-5-hydroxydecanoate-induced-katp-channel-inhibition-in-isolated-brain-mitochondria
#15
Mohammad Waseem, Heena Tabassum, Suhel Parvez
There is increasing recognition of the magnitude of mitochondria in neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondria play a key role in apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Melatonin (Mel), an indoleamine produced in several organs including the pineal gland has been known for its neuroprotective actions. In our study, we have investigated whether the mitochondrial ATP sensitive potassium (mtKATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) and calcium (Ca(2+)) affects permeability transition pore (PTP) alterations in isolated brain mitochondria treated with melatonin (Mel) and cyclosporin A (CsA)...
August 14, 2016: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503149/a-sex-difference-in-oxidative-stress-and-behavioral-suppression-induced-by-ethanol-withdrawal-in-rats
#16
Marianna E Jung, Daniel B Metzger
Ethanol withdrawal (EW) is referred to the abrupt termination of long-term heavy drinking, and provokes oxidative brain damage. Here, we investigated whether the cerebellum and hippocampus of female rats are less affected by prooxidant EW than male rats due to the antioxidant effect of 17β-estradiol (E2). Female and male rats received a four-week ethanol diet and three-week withdrawal per cycle for two cycles. Some female rats were ovariectomized with E2 or antioxidant (Vitamin E+Co-Q10) treatment. Measurements were cerebellum (Rotarod) and hippocampus (water-maze)-related behaviors, oxidative markers (O2(-), malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls), mitochondrial membrane swelling, and a key mitochondrial enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO)...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476687/to-retain-or-remove-the-bone-flap-during-evacuation-of-acute-subdural-hematoma-factors-associated-with-perioperative-brain-edema
#17
Ha Nguyen, Karl Janich, Ashish Sharma, Mohit Patel, Wade Mueller
INTRODUCTION: The fate of the bone flap is a significant decision during surgical treatment of acute subdural hematoma (SDH). A general guideline revolves around the surgeon's concern for brain edema. However, limited studies have focused on the factors that contribute to perioperative brain edema. We proposed that assessment of brain volume via CT imaging in patients without bone flaps is a reasonable model to study brain edema. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 38 patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy for acute SDH were reviewed...
July 28, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433010/interactive-effects-of-dietary-lipids-and-vitamin-e-level-on-performance-blood-eicosanoids-and-response-to-mitogen-stimulation-in-broiler-chickens-of-different-ages
#18
P Konieczka, M Barszcz, N Chmielewska, M Cieślak, M Szlis, S Smulikowska
The effects of the dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-6:n-3 ratio and vitamin E (vE) on the levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) into immune tissues, and changes in leukocyte population after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) challenge were investigated in broiler chickens of different ages. One-day-old female broilers (48 per treatment) were fed 4 different wheat-soybean-corn-based diets containing corn oil with a high PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio (HR) or a mixture of linseed and fish oils with a low PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio (LR)...
July 18, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396622/down-regulation-of-homer1-attenuates-t-bhp-induced-oxidative-stress-through-regulating-calcium-homeostasis-and-er-stress-in-brain-endothelial-cells
#19
Zhen-Yu Guo, Ya-Hong Zhang, Guo-Qiang Xie, Chong-Xiao Liu, Ren Zhou, Wei Shi
Endothelial dysfunction in brain endothelial cells contributes to vasogenic cerebral edema and increased mortality after various neurological diseases. The postsynaptic density protein Homer1 plays an important role in neuronal synaptic activity and is extensively involved in neurological disorders. The present study investigated the role of Homer1 in modulating cell survival using an in vitro endothelial dysfunction model in murine brain endothelial cells (mBECs). Treatment with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced a dose-dependent toxicity in mBECs, with no effects on Homer1 expression and distribution...
September 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303049/protective-actions-of-des-acylated-ghrelin-on-brain-injury-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-after-stroke-in-mice
#20
Jacqueline M Ku, Mohammadali Taher, Kai Yee Chin, Tom Barsby, Victoria Austin, Connie H Y Wong, Zane B Andrews, Sarah J Spencer, Alyson A Miller
The major ghrelin forms, acylated ghrelin and des-acylated ghrelin, are novel gastrointestinal hormones. Moreover, emerging evidence indicates that these peptides may have other functions including neuro- and vaso-protection. Here, we investigated whether post-stroke treatment with acylated ghrelin or des-acylated ghrelin could improve functional and histological endpoints of stroke outcome in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). We found that des-acylated ghrelin (1 mg/kg) improved neurological and functional performance, reduced infarct and swelling, and decreased apoptosis...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
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