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Brain swelling treatment

Martin Sillesen, Theodore Bambakidis, Simone Dekker, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation with Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) decreases brain lesion size and swelling in a swine model of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that brain gene expression profiles following TBI+HS would be modulated by FFP resuscitation. STUDY DESIGN: 15 swine underwent a protocol of TBI and HS, two hours of shock followed by resuscitation with FFP, Normal Saline (NS) or hetastarch (Hextend, HEX, 5/group). After 6 hours, brain RNA was isolated and hybridized onto a Porcine Gene ST 1...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Alexander V Tschulakow, Ulrich Schraermeyer, H Peter Rodemann, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most frequent primary intraocular tumour in children and if let untreated, can cause death. Preclinical animal models that mimic molecular, genetic, and cellular features of cancers are essential for studying cancer and searching for promising diagnosis and treatment modalities. There are several models described for Rb, but none of them fully met our requirements.The aim of this study was to create a novel xenograft-nude mouse-model with broad application possibilities, which closely resembles the clinical observations and to investigate the development and spread of the tumour by using SLO/OCT as well as histology methods...
September 30, 2016: Biology Open
Nasya M Sturdivant, Sean G Smith, Syed F Ali, Jeffrey C Wolchok, Kartik Balachandran
Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema...
2016: Scientific Reports
Duck-Ho Goh, Sung-Chul Jin, Hae Woong Jeong, Sam Yeol Ha
PURPOSE: Mechanical thrombectomy using a Solitaire stent has been associated with a high recanalization rate and favorable clinical outcome in intra-arterial thrombolysis. To achieve a higher recanalization rate for mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy, we used an intra-arterial low-dose booster tirofiban injection into the occluded segment after stent deployment. We report the safety and recanalization rates for mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy with a low-dose booster tirofiban injection...
September 2016: Neurointervention
Kirsten E Stoner, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, Nicole M Grosland, Matthew A Howard
BACKGROUND: Decompressive craniectomy procedures are performed in patients with malignant intracranial hypertension. A bone flap is removed to relieve pressure. Later a second operation is performed to reconstruct the skull after brain swelling has resolved. This surgical treatment would be improved if it were possible to perform a single operation that decompressed the brain acutely while eliminating the need for a second operation. In order to design a device and procedure that achieves this objective it is essential to understand how the brain swells following a craniectomy procedure...
August 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Yanbing Wang, Hong Yan, Qixing Ding, Cunhua Mao, Yelong Shen, Guangbin Wang
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acute or subacute lesion of demyelinating disease involving the optic nerve and spinal cord, and imaging techniques and their effects have been the focus of investigations. The aim of the present study was to examine the value of three-dimensional double inversion recovery (3D-DIR) in the early differential diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of NMO. Forty-eight patients with suspicious NMO were included into the study and underwent a combination of serum NMO-IgG quantitative detection and 3D-DIR examination...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Benjamin W Y Lo, Hitoshi Fukuda, Mark Angle, Jeanne Teitelbaum, R Loch Macdonald, Forough Farrokhyar, Lehana Thabane, Mitchell A H Levine
BACKGROUND: Brain-body associations are essential in influencing outcome in patients with ruptured brain aneurysms. Thus far, there is scarce literature on such important relationships. METHODS: The multicenter Tirilazad database (3551 patients) was used to create this clinical outcome prediction model in order to elucidate significant brain-body associations. Traditional binary logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Binary logistic regression main effects model included four statistically significant single prognostic variables, namely, neurological grade, age, stroke, and time to surgery...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Kevin N Sheth, Jordan J Elm, Bradley J Molyneaux, Holly Hinson, Lauren A Beslow, Gordon K Sze, Ann-Christin Ostwaldt, Gregory J Del Zoppo, J Marc Simard, Sven Jacobson, W Taylor Kimberly
BACKGROUND: Preclinical models of stroke have shown that intravenous glyburide reduces brain swelling and improves survival. We assessed whether intravenous glyburide (RP-1127; glibenclamide) would safely reduce brain swelling, decrease the need for decompressive craniectomy, and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with a large hemispheric infarction. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients (aged 18-80 years) with a clinical diagnosis of large anterior circulation hemispheric infarction for less than 10 h and baseline diffusion-weighted MRI image lesion volume of 82-300 cm(3) on MRI at 18 hospitals in the USA...
October 2016: Lancet Neurology
Eduardo Maria Normando, Benjamin Michael Davis, Lies De Groef, Shereen Nizari, Lisa A Turner, Nivedita Ravindran, Milena Pahlitzsch, Jonathan Brenton, Giulia Malaguarnera, Li Guo, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Maria Francesca Cordeiro
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, affecting 1 % of the population over 65 years of age. Dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra and accumulation of Lewy bodies are the defining neuropathological hallmarks of the disease. Neuronal death and dysfunction have been reported in other central nervous system regions, including the retina. Symptoms of PD typically manifest only when more than 70 % of dopaminergic cells are lost, and the definitive diagnosis of PD can only be made histologically at post-mortem, with few biomarkers available...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Mohammad Waseem, Heena Tabassum, Suhel Parvez
There is increasing recognition of the magnitude of mitochondria in neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondria play a key role in apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Melatonin (Mel), an indoleamine produced in several organs including the pineal gland has been known for its neuroprotective actions. In our study, we have investigated whether the mitochondrial ATP sensitive potassium (mtKATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) and calcium (Ca(2+)) affects permeability transition pore (PTP) alterations in isolated brain mitochondria treated with melatonin (Mel) and cyclosporin A (CsA)...
August 14, 2016: Mitochondrion
Marianna E Jung, Daniel B Metzger
Ethanol withdrawal (EW) is referred to the abrupt termination of long-term heavy drinking, and provokes oxidative brain damage. Here, we investigated whether the cerebellum and hippocampus of female rats are less affected by prooxidant EW than male rats due to the antioxidant effect of 17β-estradiol (E2). Female and male rats received a four-week ethanol diet and three-week withdrawal per cycle for two cycles. Some female rats were ovariectomized with E2 or antioxidant (Vitamin E+Co-Q10) treatment. Measurements were cerebellum (Rotarod) and hippocampus (water-maze)-related behaviors, oxidative markers (O2(-), malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls), mitochondrial membrane swelling, and a key mitochondrial enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO)...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Ha Nguyen, Karl Janich, Ashish Sharma, Mohit Patel, Wade Mueller
INTRODUCTION: The fate of the bone flap is a significant decision during surgical treatment of acute subdural hematoma (SDH). A general guideline revolves around the surgeon's concern for brain edema. However, limited studies have focused on the factors that contribute to perioperative brain edema. We proposed that assessment of brain volume via CT imaging in patients without bone flaps is a reasonable model to study brain edema. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 38 patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy for acute SDH were reviewed...
July 28, 2016: World Neurosurgery
P Konieczka, M Barszcz, N Chmielewska, M Cieślak, M Szlis, S Smulikowska
The effects of the dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-6:n-3 ratio and vitamin E (vE) on the levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) into immune tissues, and changes in leukocyte population after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) challenge were investigated in broiler chickens of different ages. One-day-old female broilers (48 per treatment) were fed 4 different wheat-soybean-corn-based diets containing corn oil with a high PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio (HR) or a mixture of linseed and fish oils with a low PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio (LR)...
July 18, 2016: Poultry Science
Zhen-Yu Guo, Ya-Hong Zhang, Guo-Qiang Xie, Chong-Xiao Liu, Ren Zhou, Wei Shi
Endothelial dysfunction in brain endothelial cells contributes to vasogenic cerebral edema and increased mortality after various neurological diseases. The postsynaptic density protein Homer1 plays an important role in neuronal synaptic activity and is extensively involved in neurological disorders. The present study investigated the role of Homer1 in modulating cell survival using an in vitro endothelial dysfunction model in murine brain endothelial cells (mBECs). Treatment with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced a dose-dependent toxicity in mBECs, with no effects on Homer1 expression and distribution...
September 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jacqueline M Ku, Mohammadali Taher, Kai Yee Chin, Tom Barsby, Victoria Austin, Connie H Y Wong, Zane B Andrews, Sarah J Spencer, Alyson A Miller
The major ghrelin forms, acylated ghrelin and des-acylated ghrelin, are novel gastrointestinal hormones. Moreover, emerging evidence indicates that these peptides may have other functions including neuro- and vaso-protection. Here, we investigated whether post-stroke treatment with acylated ghrelin or des-acylated ghrelin could improve functional and histological endpoints of stroke outcome in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). We found that des-acylated ghrelin (1 mg/kg) improved neurological and functional performance, reduced infarct and swelling, and decreased apoptosis...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Tamara Martínez-Valverde, Angela Sánchez-Guerrero, Marian Vidal-Jorge, Ramon Torné, Lidia Castro, Dario Gándara, Franscisca Munar, Maria A Poca, Juan Sahuquillo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ischemic stroke cause a variable disruption of ionic homeostasis and massive ionic fluxes with subsequent osmotic water movement across the cells that causes edema, brain swelling and deformation of the damaged tissue. Although cerebral microdialysis (CMD) has been used to study the brain neurochemistry, the ionic profiles of brain interstitial space fluid have rarely been reported in humans. We studied the ionic profile in injured areas of the brain by using CMD. As a control group, we included 7 patients who had undergone surgical treatment of posterior fossa lesions, without abnormalities in the supratentorial compartment...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Yushan Liu, Wen-Cao Liu, Yanyun Sun, Xianzhi Shen, Xiaona Wang, Hui Shu, Rong Pan, Chun-Feng Liu, Wenlan Liu, Ke Jian Liu, Xinchun Jin
N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione that reduces reperfusion-induced injury, has been shown protection when it was administered pre-ischemia. However, less is known about the effect when it was given post-ischemia and there is no positive result associated with anti-oxidant in clinical trials. This study investigated the neuro- and vaso-protection of post-ischemia NAC administration as well as combining NAC with normobaric hyperoxia (NBO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to NBO or normoxia during 2-h occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, followed by 48-h reperfusion...
May 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Tomoaki Higashiyama, Yasuhiro Nishida, Masahito Ohji
PURPOSE: To characterize the relationship between inflammation and swelling of extraocular muscles in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. METHODS: The signal intensities and volumes of the superior rectus (SR), inferior rectus (IR), lateral rectus (LR), medial rectus (MR), and superior oblique (SO) muscles were measured with magnetic resonance imaging in 25 eyes of 25 patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in the acute inflammatory phase before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Kazuhide Adachi, Akiyo Sadato, Motoharu Hayakawa, Shingo Maeda, Yuichi Hirose
The safety and efficacy of emergency carotid artery stenting (CAS) for patients with acute ischemic stroke resulting from internal carotid artery stenosis are not established. In this retrospective study, we evaluated outcomes for CAS performed within 2 weeks of acute ischemic stroke for 16 patients treated between December 2009 and February 2014. Cases of internal carotid artery occlusion, internal carotid dissection, or intracranial major arterial trunk occlusion were excluded. Five patients were treated with CAS during the hyperacute phase (within 24 h of stroke onset), three in the advanced phase (within 24 h of stroke-in-evolution after admission), and eight in the acute phase (24 h to 2 weeks after onset)...
April 27, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Li-Jun Zhang, Da-Hu Li, Yan-Zhao Zhou, Xin Huang, Xin Huang, Tong Zhao, Yong-Qi Zhao, Ming Fan, Ling-Ling Zhu
The aim of this study was to develop a murine model of brain injury induced by high altitude hypoxic inflammation. In the study, we used a decompression chamber to mimic an acute hypobaric hypoxia, and 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammatory response. We determined the levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory factor (IL-10) in mice serum using ELISA assays to confirm the high altitude hypoxic inflammation, and verified the brain injury after the inflammation using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining...
April 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
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