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Hiv and androgen

Andrew J Chetwynd, Amanda Samarawickrama, Jaime H Vera, Stephen A Bremner, Alaa Abdul-Sada, Yvonne Gilleece, Stephen G Holt, Elizabeth M Hill
BACKGROUND: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has substantially improved the outlook for patients with HIV infection. However, lifelong exposure to cART is also associated with adverse metabolic changes and an enhanced risk of renal, hepatic and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated disruptions of the urinary metabolome of cART-exposed patients, thereby furthering our understanding of some of the side effects of pharmaceutical intervention. METHODS: HIV-positive patients were recruited from an HIV clinic and divided into cART-naïve and cART-exposed groups...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Yuchen Zhang, Pavan K Mantravadi, Soma Jobbagy, Wei Bao, John T Koh
The Androgen Receptor (AR) remains the leading target of advanced prostate cancer therapies. Thiosalicylamide analogs have previously been shown to act in cells as acyltransfer catalysts that are capable of transferring cellular acetate, presumably from acetyl-CoA, to HIV NCp7. Here we explore if the cellular acetyl-transfer activity of thiosalicylamides can be redirected to other cellular targets guided by ligands for AR. We constructed conjugates of thiosalicylamides and the AR-binding small molecule tolfenamic acid, which binds the BF-3 site of AR, proximal to the coactivator "FXXLF" binding surface...
October 21, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Asa Radix, Jae Sevelius, Madeline B Deutsch
INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that transgender women (TGW) are disproportionately affected by HIV, with an estimated HIV prevalence of 19.1% among TGW worldwide. After receiving a diagnosis, HIV-positive TGW have challenges accessing effective HIV treatment, as demonstrated by lower rates of virologic suppression and higher HIV-related mortality. These adverse HIV outcomes have been attributed to the multiple sociocultural and structural barriers that negatively affect their engagement within the HIV care continuum...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
M Badawy Abdel-Naser, Christos C Zouboulis
Male fertility can be affected by a variety of organs diseases, including the skin. Several genodermatoses affect the skin and several other organs including the male reproductive system, commonly in the form of cryptorchidism and hypogonadism. The most relevant syndromes are associated with dyschromias, such as deSanctis-Cacchione, poikiloderma congenital, LEOPARD, and H syndrome; others with ichthyosis, such as Rud, and trichothiodystrophy; or a group of unrelated genodermatoses, such as ablepharon macrostomia, Coffin-Siris, Gorlin-Goltz, and Werner...
June 25, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Yu Zhao, Liguo Wang, Shancheng Ren, Lan Wang, Patrick R Blackburn, Melissa S McNulty, Xu Gao, Meng Qiao, Robert L Vessella, Manish Kohli, Jun Zhang, R Jeffrey Karnes, Donald J Tindall, Youngsoo Kim, Robert MacLeod, Stephen C Ekker, Tiebang Kang, Yinghao Sun, Haojie Huang
The androgen receptor (AR) is required for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression, but the function and disease relevance of AR-bound enhancers remain unclear. Here, we identify a group of AR-regulated enhancer RNAs (e.g., PSA eRNA) that are upregulated in CRPC cells, patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), and patient tissues. PSA eRNA binds to CYCLIN T1, activates P-TEFb, and promotes cis and trans target gene transcription by increasing serine-2 phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II-Ser2p)...
April 19, 2016: Cell Reports
Wee Loon Ong, Paul Manohar, Jeremy Millar, Peter Royce
OBJECTIVES: To characterise clinicopathological characteristics of prostate cancer among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men and to evaluate the current practice patterns in the management of prostate cancer in these men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with HIV in the State-wide HIV referral centre in Victoria, who were diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2000 onwards. In all, 12 patients were identified, and the medical records were reviewed to collect data on HIV parameters at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis, as well as prostate cancer clinicopathological characteristics, treatment details and outcomes...
October 2015: BJU International
Ding Yuan, Wu XiuJuan, Zhang Yan, Liang JunQin, Xiang Fang, Yu Shirong, Kang Xiaojing, Feng Yanyan, Wu Weidong, Luo Dong, Lu Qingli, Zhang DeZhi, Pu XiongMing
BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has features of both neoplastic growth and hyperplastic proliferation. It is the most common tumor seen in patients with HIV infection. Whether KS is a real tumor or a benign hyperplastic disease is not known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tissues from KS and cutaneous hemangioma lesion DNA were extracted, and then digested with methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease HpaII. Human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) was amplified with PCR method and the product was separated on 10% denaturing polyacrylamide gels and stained with ethylene dibromide (EB) to show the polymorphism of HUMARA...
2015: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Christopher J Mulder, Ryan S Cho, Stephen A Harrison, Katherine Cebe, James M Francis
BACKGROUND: Giant cell hepatitis is a rare entity in adults, accounting for 0.1% to 0.25% of liver disease in adults. Postinfantile giant cell hepatitis is often characterized by multinucleated giant cells on liver biopsy and a fulminant hepatitis. CASE REPORT: An active duty 36-year-old African-American male deployed to Kabul, Afghanistan, presented with jaundice 2 weeks after starting a testosterone analogue. He discontinued the supplement, but his jaundice persisted with up-trending bilirubin...
May 2015: Military Medicine
Yun Hua, Tong Ying Shun, Christopher J Strock, Paul A Johnston
The androgen receptor-transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein-protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) "prey" and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) "bait" components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence...
September 2014: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Vincenzo Rochira, Giovanni Guaraldi
Androgen deficiency occurs frequently in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiretroviral treatments had reduced the prevalence of male hypogonadism. The pathogenesis of testosterone (T) deficiency in HIV is multifactorial. Several mechanisms have been proposed; among them, drugs, fat redistribution, and a poor health status could explain the mechanism leading to gonadotropins inhibition and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The diagnosis of hypogonadism in HIV-infected men should be made based on clinical symptoms and a specific workup including T measurement...
September 2014: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
J Pepe, A M Isidori, M Falciano, G Iaiani, A Salotti, D Diacinti, R Del Fiacco, E Sbardella, C Cipriani, S Piemonte, O Raimo, P Biondi, F Biamonte, A Lenzi, S Minisola
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of risedronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in HIV-infected osteoporotic males, according to their gonadal status. HIV patients were followed up for 24 months and divided into two groups: patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia with fractures (group A, n = 20) and those without (group B, n = 21). Group A and B were further divided according to the presence of reduced androgenizations. Both groups were treated with cholecalciferol 800 I...
November 2014: Endocrine
Donita J Africander, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Janet P Hapgood
The importance of investigating the molecular mechanism of action of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and norethisterone acetate (NET-A), two clinically important progestins used in hormone therapy (HT), has been highlighted by clinical evidence showing that MPA and norethisterone (NET) increase the risk of the development of breast cancer in HRT users, and that MPA may increase susceptibility to- and transmission of HIV-1. The aim of this study was to compare the molecular mechanisms of action of MPA, NET-A and progesterone (Prog) via the androgen receptor (AR) in a cell line model that can minimize confounding factors such as the presence of other steroid receptors...
September 2014: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Luis Bahamondes, M Valeria Bahamondes
BACKGROUND: The first hormonal contraceptive was introduced onto the market in several countries 50 years ago; however, the portfolio of contraceptive methods remains restricted with regards to their steroid composition, their cost, and their ability to satisfy the requirements of millions of women/couples in accordance with their different reproductive intentions, behaviors, cultures, and settings. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase, and Current Contents databases, up to September 1, 2013 to identify publications reporting new contraceptives in development using combinations of the search terms: contraception, contraceptives, oral contraceptives, patch, vaginal ring, implants, intrauterine contraceptives, and emergency contraception (EC)...
2014: International Journal of Women's Health
Reshmi Srinath, Adrian Dobs
Muscle loss and wasting occurs with aging and in multiple disease states including cancer, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, end-stage liver disease, end-stage renal disease and HIV. Cachexia is defined as a multifactorial syndrome that is associated with anorexia, weight loss and increased catabolism, with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently no therapy is approved for the treatment or prevention of cachexia. Different treatment options have been suggested but many have proven to be ineffective or associated with adverse events...
February 2014: Future Oncology
Jane Ashby, David Goldmeier, Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad
In recent years, the life expectancy for those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with access to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has increased. As men live longer, the role testosterone plays in sexual function as well as in general well-being is becoming increasingly important. Here we discuss the available literature concerning androgens and HIV disease. A review was undertaken by using a PubMed search with the umbrella terms HIV or AIDS and testosterone or androgens spanning 1985 to 2011...
January 2014: Korean Journal of Urology
Justine Bons, Lucile Moreau, Hervé Lefebvre
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is associated with adrenal disorders, which must not be underestimated. Adrenal morphologic changes are primarily related to opportunistic infections, mostly by cytomegalovirus and mycobacteria, and malignant tumours such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. The most frequent biological alteration reported to date is the increases in cortisol concentrations which results from a decrease in cortisol metabolism and hyperactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis commonly referred to as pseudo-Cushing's syndrome...
December 2013: Annales D'endocrinologie
J G Rabkin, G Wagner, R Rabkin
Our research program was designed to assess androgenic, anabolic, and mood effects of testosterone replacement therapy in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) men with significant immune suppression and hypogonadism. This article focuses on mood effects. Treatment consisted of biweekly intramuscular injections of testosterone cypionate at doses of 200 to 400 mg. Assessments included psychiatric evaluation using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Brief Symptom Inventory...
March 1996: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Mohit Khera
Prevalence of depression in men increases with age, so does the prevalence of hypogonadism. Depression and anxiety are the most common psychopathological symptoms associated with male hypogonadism.The question is whether the age-related gradual decline in testosterone levels contributes to the rising rate of depression in older men. Many studies have demonstrated the improvement in depressive symptoms in hypogonadal men with testosterone supplementation. However, a subpopulation of hypogonadal men appear to be better responders to TRT when treated for depression...
September 2013: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Jose Maria Martinez-Jabaloyas
The progressive aging of the population and the wish to keep a good quality of life in advanced ages makes testosterone deficit syndrome associated with aging a health issue of increasing relevance. It is a proved fact there is a decrease of androgen levels associated with aging. Nevertheless, there are some difficulties to establish what is the actual prevalence, since there are some ambiguities about which clinical and biochemical parameters allow us to state a correct clinical diagnosis. The figures on prevalence are variable, specially taking into consideration the different age ranges found in the studies, but we could say there would be a global prevalence of around 6% to 12% of symptomatic hypogonadism in the age range between 30/40 and 70 years, with a progressive increase with age There is a series of factors that may favor androgen deficit increasing the prevalence in different population groups...
September 2013: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Gary Blick
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of hypogonadism in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS), the most useful serum testosterone measurement and threshold for diagnosing hypogonadism, and the comparative efficacy of 2 testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) 1% gels (AndroGel® [Abbott Laboratories] and Testim® [Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.]). DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: This was a 2-stage observational study. In stage 1, patient records from 2 medical practices specializing in HIV/AIDS were reviewed...
March 2013: Postgraduate Medicine
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