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Outbreak food epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199340/crystal-structure-and-structure-based-mutagenesis-of-actin-specific-adp-ribosylating-toxin-cpile-a-as-novel-enterotoxin
#1
Waraphan Toniti, Toru Yoshida, Toshiharu Tsurumura, Daisuke Irikura, Chie Monma, Yoichi Kamata, Hideaki Tsuge
Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170414/an-outbreak-of-norovirus-associated-acute-gastroenteritis-associated-with-contaminated-barrelled-water-in-many-schools-in-zhejiang-china
#2
Xiaopeng Shang, Xiaofei Fu, Peng Zhang, Minyang Sheng, Jianqiang Song, Fan He, Yinwei Qiu, Haocheng Wu, Qinbao Lu, Yan Feng, Junfen Lin, Enfu Chen, Chengliang Chai
OBJECTIVES: More than 900 students and teachers at many schools in Jiaxing city developed acute gastroenteritis in February 2014. An immediate epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the pathogen, infection sources and route of transmission. METHODS: The probable cases and confirmed cases were defined as students or teachers with diarrhoea or vomiting present since the term began in February 2014. An active search was conducted for undiagnosed cases among students and teachers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166293/assessing-the-genome-level-diversity-of-listeria-monocytogenes-from-contaminated-ice-cream-and-environmental-samples-linked-to-a-listeriosis-outbreak-in-the-united-states
#3
Yi Chen, Yan Luo, Phillip Curry, Ruth Timme, David Melka, Matthew Doyle, Mickey Parish, Thomas S Hammack, Marc W Allard, Eric W Brown, Errol A Strain
A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162104/characteristics-of-foodborne-outbreaks-in-which-use-of-analytical-epidemiological-studies-contributed-to-identification-of-suspected-vehicles-european-union-2007-to-2011
#4
K M Schlinkmann, O Razum, D Werber
Foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) occur frequently in Europe. Employing analytical epidemiological study designs increases the likelihood of identifying the suspected vehicle(s), but these studies are rarely applied in FBDO investigations. We used multivariable binary logistic regression analysis to identify characteristics of investigated FBDOs reported to the European Food Safety Authority (2007-2011) that were associated with analytical epidemiological evidence (compared to evidence from microbiological investigations/descriptive epidemiology only)...
February 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143569/a-large-outbreak-of-acute-gastroenteritis-caused-by-the-human-norovirus-gii-17-strain-at-a-university-in-henan-province-china
#5
Xue-Yong Huang, Jia Su, Qian-Chao Lu, Shi-Zheng Li, Jia-Yong Zhao, Meng-Lei Li, Yi Li, Xiao-Jing Shen, Bai-Fan Zhang, Hai-Feng Wang, Yu-Jiao Mu, Shu-Yu Wu, Yan-Hua Du, Li-Cheng Liu, Wei-Jun Chen, John David Klena, Bian-Li Xu
BACKGROUND: Human noroviruses are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and are the main etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. An increasing number of outbreaks and sporadic cases of norovirus have been reported in China in recent years. There was a large acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a university in Henan Province, China in the past five years. We want to identify the source, transmission routes of the outbreak by epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing in order to provide the effective control measures...
February 1, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141586/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-species-from-clinical-specimens-and-food-items-in-lebanon
#6
Sukayna M Fadlallah, Marwa Shehab, Katia Cheaito, Majd Saleh, Nada Ghosn, Walid Ammar, Rima El Hajj, Ghassan M Matar
INTRODUCTION: Foodborne illnesses can be due to a wide range of bacteria, one of the most common being Salmonella. In this study, PulseNet International was implemented in Lebanon to identify circulating pathogens at the species and strain levels, determine antimicrobial resistance, and link food sources and clinical cases during outbreaks. METHODOLOGY: Clinical and food Salmonella isolates received from the Epidemiological Surveillance Unit, Ministry of Public Health (ESUMOH) and the Lebanese Agriculture Research Institute (LARI) between 2011 and 2014 were identified to the species level using API 20E...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112339/-salmonella-enterica-a-review-or-the-trilogy-agent-host-and-environment-and-its-importance-in-chile
#7
Marlen Barreto, Mario Castillo-Ruiz, Patricio Retamal
Salmonella enterica is a major foodborne pathogen worldwide, being the main cause of outbreaks by food consumption in Chile. Despite all efforts deployed for control and prevention, the high incidence in people still persists, with several factors that could be influencing the epidemiological behavior of this infection. The objective of this review is to identify these factors belonging to the biological agent, the human host and the environment, which probably have a greater importance in Chile. Thus, priority areas for research of S...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105575/bongkrekic-acid-a-review-of-a-lesser-known-mitochondrial-toxin
#8
REVIEW
Mehruba Anwar, Amelia Kasper, Alaina R Steck, Joshua G Schier
INTRODUCTION: Bongkrekic acid (BA) has a unique mechanism of toxicity among the mitochondrial toxins: it inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) rather than the electron transport chain. Bongkrekic acid is produced by the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans (B. cocovenenans) which has been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness involving coconut- and corn-based products in Indonesia and China. Our objective was to summarize what is known about the epidemiology, exposure sources, toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis and treatment of human BA poisoning...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069829/genomic-insights-into-a-sustained-national-outbreak-of-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis
#9
Deborah A Williamson, Sarah L Baines, Glen Carter, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Xiaoyun Ren, Jill Sherwood, Muriel Dufour, Mark B Schultz, Nigel P French, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden
In 2014, a sustained outbreak of yersiniosis due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis occurred across all major cities in New Zealand (NZ), with a total of 220 laboratory-confirmed cases, representing one of the largest ever reported outbreaks of Y. pseudotuberculosis Here, we performed whole genome sequencing of outbreak-associated isolates to produce the largest population analysis to date of Y. pseudotuberculosis, giving us unprecedented capacity to understand the emergence and evolution of the outbreak clone...
January 9, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067990/familial-hepatitis-e-outbreak-linked-to-wild-boar-meat-consumption
#10
A Rivero-Juarez, M Frias, A Martinez-Peinado, M A Risalde, D Rodriguez-Cano, A Camacho, I García-Bocanegra, F Cuenca-Lopez, J C Gomez-Villamandos, A Rivero
An HIV-infected patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E infection in our hospital. An epidemiological inquiry was performed to collect demographic, food and animal exposure variables in order to identify the potential route of transmission. The patient reported that his family traditionally hunted wild boar for food. All family members were analysed for hepatitis E virus infection. Additionally, route of transmission by wild boar meat consumption and prevalence of HEV infection among wild boar from the same hunting area were investigated...
January 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053218/singleton-st382-an-emerging-clonal-group-of-listeria-monocytogenes-associated-with-three-multistate-outbreaks-linked-to-contaminated-stone-fruit-caramel-apples-and-leafy-green-salad
#11
Yi Chen, Yan Luo, James Pettengill, Ruth Timme, David Melka, Matthew Doyle, Alikeh Jackson, Mickey Parish, Thomas S Hammack, Marc Allard, Eric W Brown, Errol A Strain
Three multistate outbreaks between 2014 and 2016, involving case patients in and outside the United States, were linked to stone fruit, caramel apples and packaged leafy green salad contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes singleton ST382. Isolates from these outbreaks and other ST382 isolates not associated with these outbreaks were analyzed by whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis. The primary difference among these three ST382 outbreak strains were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). WGS analysis using these SNPs differentiated ST382 from a clonal complex 1 outbreak strain co-contaminating the caramel apples...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043220/epidemiology-of-bacterial-toxin-mediated-foodborne-gastroenteritis-outbreaks-in-australia-2001-to-2013
#12
Fiona J May, Benjamin G Polkinghorne, Emily J Fearnley
Bacterial toxin-mediated foodborne outbreaks, such as those caused by Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, are an important and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Due to the short incubation period and duration of illness, these outbreaks are often under-reported. This is the first study to describe the epidemiology of bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks in Australia. Using data collected between 2001 and 2013, we identify high risk groups and risk factors to inform prevention measures...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033312/outbreak-of-salmonella-oslo-infections-linked-to-persian-cucumbers-united-states-2016
#13
Lyndsay Bottichio, Carlota Medus, Alida Sorenson, Danielle Donovan, Reeti Sharma, Natasha Dowell, Ian Williams, Allison Wellman, Alikeh Jackson, Beth Tolar, Taylor Griswold, Colin Basler
In April 2016, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, detected a multistate cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Oslo infections with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern (XbaI PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090).* This PFGE pattern was new in the database; no previous infections or outbreaks have been identified. CDC, state and local health and agriculture departments and laboratories, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory investigations to identify the source of this outbreak...
December 30, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935905/socio-demographic-epidemiological-and-environmental-determinants-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-western-india
#14
M P Rupani, A V Tridevi, M P Singh, M N Tundia, K N Patel, K D Parikh, V B Parmar
INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis had occurred in Rajpara village of Bhavnagar district. The objective of this study was to find out the socio-demographic, epidemiological and environmental determinants of this outbreak. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in Rajpara village among 238 cases of acute gastroenteritis and an equal number of controls in January 2015. Multiple logistic regression was used for identifying the variables independently predicting acute gastroenteritis...
January 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934583/bacillus-cereus-induced-food-borne-outbreaks-in-france-2007-to-2014-epidemiology-and-genetic-characterisation
#15
Benjamin Glasset, Sabine Herbin, Laurent Guillier, Sabrina Cadel-Six, Marie-Léone Vignaud, Joel Grout, Sylvie Pairaud, Valérie Michel, Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne, Nalini Ramarao, Anne Brisabois
The aim of this study was to identify and characterise Bacillus cereus from a unique national collection of 564 strains associated with 140 strong-evidence food-borne outbreaks (FBOs) occurring in France during 2007 to 2014. Starchy food and vegetables were the most frequent food vehicles identified; 747 of 911 human cases occurred in institutional catering contexts. Incubation period was significantly shorter for emetic strains compared with diarrhoeal strains A sub-panel of 149 strains strictly associated to 74 FBOs and selected on Coliphage M13-PCR pattern, was studied for detection of the genes encoding cereulide, diarrhoeic toxins (Nhe, Hbl, CytK1 and CytK2) and haemolysin (HlyII), as well as panC phylogenetic classification...
December 1, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933493/norovirus-gii-pe-genotype-tracking-a-foodborne-outbreak-on-a-cruise-ship-through-molecular-epidemiology-brazil-2014
#16
Simone Guadagnucci Morillo, Adriana Luchs, Audrey Cilli, Cibele Daniel Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky
Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the most common cause of foodborne outbreaks. In 2014, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a cruise ship in Brazil, and NoV became the suspected etiology. Here we present the molecular identification of the NoV strains and the use of sequence analysis to determine modes of virus transmission. Food (cream cheese, tuna salad, grilled fish, orange mousse, and vegetables soup) and clinical samples were analyzed by ELISA, conventional RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and sequencing...
December 8, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899155/comparative-sequence-analysis-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-apicoplast-genomes-originating-from-diverse-geographical-regions
#17
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878798/how-can-patients-and-their-physicians-contribute-to-an-outbreak-investigation-experiences-from-a-nationwide-listeriosis-outbreak-in-switzerland
#18
Sabine Kiefer, Kerstin Kling, Roger Stephan, Martin W Bratschi, Marianne Jost, Philipp Justus Bless, Claudia Schmutz, Daniel Mäusezahl, Kaspar Wyss, Mirjam Mäusezahl-Feuz, Christoph Hatz
QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY/PRINCIPLES: Gathering patient information to contain an outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes is difficult because of the patients' severe illness or death. Extending the range of interviewees to acquire epidemiological data can thus be important to maximise information. METHODS: We built the current analysis on a case-case outbreak investigation conducted during a Swiss listeriosis outbreak between 30 January and 11 May 2014, including 31 patients with confirmed L...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870538/foodborne-infections-and-intoxications-in-poland-in-2014
#19
Piotr Polański, Sylwia Kamińska, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys
AIM: The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was based on the analysis of information sent to Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH through ROE (Pol. Rejestr Ognisk Epidemicznych)- an electronic system created for uploading, transfer and analysis of data acquired during the outbreak investigations). Additional sources for the analysis were NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787491/gastrointestinal-illness-associated-with-rancid-tortilla-chips-at-a-correctional-facility-wyoming-2015
#20
Tiffany Lupcho, Alexia Harrist, Clay Van Houten
On October 12, 2015, a county health department notified the Wyoming Department of Health of an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness among residents and staff members at a local correctional facility. The majority of ill persons reported onset of symptoms within 1-3 hours after eating lunch served at the facility cafeteria at noon on October 11. Residents and staff members reported that tortilla chips served at the lunch tasted and smelled like chemicals. The Wyoming Department of Health and county health department personnel conducted case-control studies to identify the outbreak source...
October 28, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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