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Outbreak food epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420758/moulds-associated-with-contaminated-ocular-and-injectable-drugs-fda-recalls-epidemiology-considerations-drug-shortages-and-aseptic-processing
#1
Donald G Ahearn, R Doyle Stulting
Recent (2012) grave but rare outbreaks of fungal meningitis and endophthalmitis associated with drugs contaminated with select environmental moulds (Exserohilum and Fusarium, respectively) have exacerbated mycology concerns for formulation, good laboratory practices (GLP), and use of the final drug product. Intensified investigations (2013-2015) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that included added responsibilities for specialty compounding laboratories have prompted at least nine voluntary mould-related drug recalls during 2014-2015...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397049/web-survey-based-selection-of-controls-for-epidemiological-analyses-of-a-multi-prefectural-outbreak-of-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-in-japan-associated-with-consumption-of-self-grilled-beef-hanging-tender
#2
Y Yahata, N Ohshima, F Odaira, N Nakamura, H Ichikawa, K Matsuno, J Shuri, T Toyozawa, J Terajima, H Watanabe, K Nakashima, T Sunagawa, K Taniguchi, N Okabe
An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case-control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12-48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case-control study by local public health centres, but our matched case-control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15...
February 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366468/evaluation-of-wgs-based-approaches-for-investigating-a-food-borne-outbreak-caused-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-derby-in-germany
#3
Sandra Simon, Eva Trost, Jennifer Bender, Stephan Fuchs, Burkhard Malorny, Wolfgang Rabsch, Rita Prager, Erhard Tietze, Antje Flieger
In Germany salmonellosis still represents the 2nd most common bacterial foodborne disease. The majority of infections are caused by Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis followed by a variety of other broad host-range serovars. Salmonella Derby is one of the five top-ranked serovars isolated from humans and it represents one of the most prevalent serovars in pigs, thus bearing the potential risk for transmission to humans upon consumption of pig meat and products thereof. From November 2013 to January 2014 S...
May 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356597/rapid-and-specific-methods-to-differentiate-foodborne-pathogens-campylobacter-jejuni-campylobacter-coli-and-the-new-species-causing-spotty-liver-disease-in-chickens-campylobacter-hepaticus
#4
Thi Thu Hao Van, Arif Anwar, Peter C Scott, Robert J Moore
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli play a major role in bacteria-related foodborne illness in humans. Recently, a newly identified species, Campylobacter hepaticus, was shown to be the causative agent of spotty liver disease in chickens. The pathogenic potential of C. hepaticus in humans is unknown. This new species contains genes usually used to detect C. jejuni and C. coli in DNA-based detection methods, such as the hippuricase (hipO) gene and the glyA (serine hydroxymethyltransferase) gene, with a high degree of similarity...
January 22, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302776/epidemiological-situation-of-transboundary-animal-diseases-in-north-african-countries-proposition-of-a-regional-control-strategy
#5
REVIEW
Moustafa Kardjadj
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) defined transboundary animal diseases (TADs) as those that are of significant economic, trade, and food security importance for a considerable number of countries. TADs can easily spread to other countries, reach epidemic proportions, and where control, management, or exclusion is required cooperation between several countries. The North African countries are vulnerable to several TADs by virtue of its geographical location, its borders with the Sahel region, and peculiar control constraints on the budgets of the national veterinary services of each country and on the livelihoods of livestock owners across the region...
January 5, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294579/-field-epidemiological-investigation-on-a-foodborne-outbreak-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus-enterotoxin-in-hangzhou-2014
#6
L M Huang, L X Hu, H Yu, S C Chen, C P Huang, H Liu
Objective: To identify the cause on a foodborne breakout in a university of Hangzhou in 2014. Methods: Data on cases were gathered from the out-patient logs of the university affiliated or neighboring hospitals to describe the disease distribution and epidemiological curves. Case-control and field studies on hazard factors were conducted simultaneously. Results: The incubation period was 1.5-5.0 hours, of which the median was 3 during the outbreak. All the cases consumed food from a restaurant called Chen's Snacks nearby their university and suffered from the Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin...
December 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258650/re-evaluation-of-a-2014-multi-country-european-outbreak-of-salmonella-enteritidis-phage-type-14b-using-recent-epidemiological-and-molecular-data
#7
Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Messelhäußer, Albert Rampp, Katharina Schönberger, Tim Dallman, Franz Allerberger, Christian Kornschober, Andreas Sing, Peter Wallner, Andreas Zapf
A European multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 14b occurred from March to November 2014 associated with the consumption of eggs. The outbreak involved more than 400 human cases from France, Luxembourg, Austria and the United Kingdom. In 2016-2017, it has been re-evaluated combining recent epidemiological results with latest molecular data. The outbreak was traced back to one large Bavarian egg producer with four distinct premises, three located in Bavaria, one in the Czech Republic...
December 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258647/cross-border-outbreak-of-listeriosis-caused-by-cold-smoked-salmon-revealed-by-integrated-surveillance-and-whole-genome-sequencing-wgs-denmark-and-france-2015-to-2017
#8
Susanne Schjørring, Sofie Gillesberg Lassen, Tenna Jensen, Alexandra Moura, Jette S Kjeldgaard, Luise Müller, Stine Thielke, Alexandre Leclercq, Mylene M Maury, Mathieu Tourdjman, Marie-Pierre Donguy, Marc Lecuit, Steen Ethelberg, Eva M Nielsen
In August 2017, an outbreak of six listeriosis cases in Denmark was traced to cold-smoked salmon, using epidemiological investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses. Exchange of genome sequences allowed identification in France of a food isolate from a salmon-derived product and a human isolate from 2016 within the same cgMLST cluster as the Danish isolates (L2-SL8-ST8-CT771). The salmon product came from a third European Union country. WGS can rapidly link human cases and food isolates across Europe...
December 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248018/an-outbreak-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-associated-with-contaminated-salad-leaves-epidemiological-genomic-and-food-trace-back-investigations
#9
A F W Mikhail, C Jenkins, T J Dallman, T Inns, A I C Martín, A Fox, P Cleary, R Elson, J Hawker
In August 2015, Public Health England detected an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 caused by contaminated salad leaves in a mixed leaf prepacked salad product from a national retailer. The implicated leaves were cultivated at five different farms and the zoonotic source of the outbreak strain was not determined. In March 2016, additional isolates from new cases were identified that shared a recent common ancestor with the outbreak strain. A case-case study involving the cases identified in 2016 revealed that ovine exposures were associated with illness (n = 16; AOR 8·24; 95% CI 1·55-39·74)...
December 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241399/identifying-the-source-of-food-borne-disease-outbreaks-an-application-of-bayesian-variable-selection
#10
Rianne Jacobs, Emmanuel Lesaffre, Peter Fm Teunis, Michael Höhle, Jan van de Kassteele
Early identification of contaminated food products is crucial in reducing health burdens of food-borne disease outbreaks. Analytic case-control studies are primarily used in this identification stage by comparing exposures in cases and controls using logistic regression. Standard epidemiological analysis practice is not formally defined and the combination of currently applied methods is subject to issues such as response misclassification, missing values, multiple testing problems and small sample estimation problems resulting in biased and possibly misleading results...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201151/complete-genome-sequences-of-clostridium-perfringens-del1-strain-isolated-from-chickens-affected-by-necrotic-enteritis
#11
Charles Li, Xianghe Yan, Hyun S Lillehoj
Background: Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165706/cholera-epidemics-of-the-past-offer-new-insights-into-an-old-enemy
#12
Matthew Phelps, Mads Linnet Perner, Virginia E Pitzer, Viggo Andreasen, Peter K M Jensen, Lone Simonsen
Background: Although cholera is considered the quintessential long-cycle waterborne disease, studies have emphasized the existence of short-cycle (food, household) transmission. We investigated singular Danish cholera epidemics (1853) to elucidate epidemiological parameters and modes of spread. Methods: Using time series data from cities with different water systems, we estimated the intrinsic transmissibility (R0). Accessing cause-specific mortality data we studied clinical severity, age-specific impact...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162354/-cryptosporidiosis-a-cause-of-acute-diarrhea-a-review-and-retrospective-study-of-cases-in-rouen-university-hospital-s-pediatrics-department
#13
G Gargala, R Razakandrainibe, D Costa, D Leméteil, C Dumant Forest
Cryptosporidium is the most important diarrhea-causing protozoan parasite, with severe health consequences for very young, malnourished children living in endemic areas and for immunocompromised individuals. Cryptosporidium is widely distributed and disease transmission can occur through person-to-person or animal-to-person contact, or contaminated food or water (drinking or swimming), leading to large outbreaks. The zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum and the anthroponotic Cryptosporidium hominis are responsible for the majority of human cases...
November 18, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137606/outbreak-of-caliciviruses-in-the-singapore-military-2015
#14
Freddy Jun Xian Neo, Jimmy Jin Phang Loh, Peijun Ting, Wei Xin Yeo, Christine Qiu Han Gao, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Ching Ging Ng
BACKGROUND: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. METHODS: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122606/foodborne-cryptosporidiosis
#15
REVIEW
Una Ryan, Nawal Hijjawi, Lihua Xiao
Foodborne illness, the majority of which is caused by enteric infectious agents, costs global economies billions of dollars each year. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is particularly suited to foodborne transmission and is responsible for >8 million cases of foodborne illness annually. Procedures have been developed for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts on fresh produce and molecular diagnostic assays have been widely used in case linkages and infection source tracking, especially during outbreak investigations...
January 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104564/high-throughput-sequencing-for-detection-of-foodborne-pathogens
#16
REVIEW
Camilla Sekse, Arne Holst-Jensen, Ulrich Dobrindt, Gro S Johannessen, Weihua Li, Bjørn Spilsberg, Jianxin Shi
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) is becoming the state-of-the-art technology for typing of microbial isolates, especially in clinical samples. Yet, its application is still in its infancy for monitoring and outbreak investigations of foods. Here we review the published literature, covering not only bacterial but also viral and Eukaryote food pathogens, to assess the status and potential of HTS implementation to inform stakeholders, improve food safety and reduce outbreak impacts. The developments in sequencing technology and bioinformatics have outpaced the capacity to analyze and interpret the sequence data...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102506/-consumption-of-psychoactive-drugs-and-exposure-to-bacterial-toxins-carried-by-food-a-dangerous-association
#17
Anaïs Corma-Gómez, Rocío López-Sepúlveda, Inés Capitán-Del Río, María Dolores Sánchez Mariscal, Begoña López-Hernández
OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyse from a clinical and epidemiological point of view, a food borne outbreak in a psychiatric institution in Granada, in 2015, and to examine whether treatment with psychoactive drugs constitutes a risk factor for the development of a food borne disease, analysing the degree of susceptibility according to the therapeutic group consumed. METHOD: Ambispective cohort study. Residents were the unit of analysis. Our group carried out an active case search and a food survey...
November 1, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054297/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection
#18
REVIEW
M Bruyand, P Mariani-Kurkdjian, M Gouali, H de Valk, L A King, S Le Hello, S Bonacorsi, C Loirat
The leading cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection, which has a major outbreak potential. Since the early 2010s, STEC epidemiology is characterized by a decline of the historically predominant O157 serogroup and the emergence of non-O157 STEC, especially O26 and O80 in France. STEC contamination occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, person-to-person transmission, or contact with ruminants or their contaminated environment...
October 17, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020965/epidemiological-link-of-a-major-cholera-outbreak-in-greater-accra-region-of-ghana-2014
#19
Kennedy Ohene-Adjei, Ernest Kenu, Delia Akosua Bandoh, Prince Nii Ossah Addo, Charles Lwanga Noora, Priscillia Nortey, Edwin Andrew Afari
BACKGROUND: Cholera remains an important public health challenge globally. Several pandemics have occurred in different parts of the world and have been epidemiologically linked by different researchers to illustrate how the cases were spread and how they were related to index cases. Even though the risk factors associated with the 2014 cholera outbreak were investigated extensively, the link between index cases and the source of infection was not investigated to help break the transmission process...
October 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994868/foodborne-outbreak-simulation-to-teach-field-epidemiology-the-moroccan-field-epidemiology-training-program
#20
Imane Jroundi, Abdellatif Belarbi
BACKGROUND: Morocco in 2010 launched a new field epidemiology training program to enhance the skills of health professionals in charge of epidemiological surveillance and to investigate outbreaks; including foodborne diseases that represent a very substantial burden of disease. AIM: To apply an active learning method to teach outbreak investigation within a controled environment for field epidemiology trainees program at the Moroccan National school of public Health...
November 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
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