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Outbreak food epidemiology

Reza Ranjbar, Mitra Ahmadi, Mojtaba Memariani
Salmonella is an important cause of food-borne infection worldwide. Detection of outbreaks caused by Salmonella spp. relies on suitable and robust methods for genotyping. Little is known about the genetic diversity of the Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Infantis strains isolated from human sources in Iran. In this study, 40 isolates of S. Infantis, which were previously recovered from patients with gastroenteritis or diarrhea in Tehran between years 2007 and 2009, were subjected to multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ERIC-PCR...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
K M Angelo, A L Nisler, A J Hall, L G Brown, L H Gould
Although contamination of food can occur at any point from farm to table, restaurant food workers are a common source of foodborne illness. We describe the characteristics of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks and explore the role of food workers by analysing outbreaks associated with restaurants from 1998 to 2013 reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. We identified 9788 restaurant-associated outbreaks. The median annual number of outbreaks was 620 (interquartile range 618-629)...
October 18, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Gabrielle Jones, Nathalie Pihier, Caroline Vanbockstael, Simon Le Hello, Sabrina Cadel Six, Nelly Fournet, Nathalie Jourdan-da Silva
A prolonged outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmed S. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015...
October 6, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Steven E Massey
Forensic science concerns the application of scientific techniques to questions of a legal nature and may also be used to address questions of historical importance. Forensic techniques are often used in legal cases that involve crimes against persons or property, and they increasingly may involve cases of bioterrorism, crimes against nature, medical negligence, or tracing the origin of food- and crop-borne disease. Given the rapid advance of genome sequencing and comparative genomics techniques, we ask how these might be used to address cases of a forensic nature, focusing on the use of microbial genome sequence analysis...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Alexandra Moura, Alexis Criscuolo, Hannes Pouseele, Mylène M Maury, Alexandre Leclercq, Cheryl Tarr, Jonas T Björkman, Timothy Dallman, Aleisha Reimer, Vincent Enouf, Elise Larsonneur, Heather Carleton, Hélène Bracq-Dieye, Lee S Katz, Louis Jones, Marie Touchon, Mathieu Tourdjman, Matthew Walker, Steven Stroika, Thomas Cantinelli, Viviane Chenal-Francisque, Zuzana Kucerova, Eduardo P C Rocha, Celine Nadon, Kathie Grant, Eva M Nielsen, Bruno Pot, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Marc Lecuit, Sylvain Brisse
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a major human foodborne pathogen. Numerous Lm outbreaks have been reported worldwide and associated with a high case fatality rate, reinforcing the need for strongly coordinated surveillance and outbreak control. We developed a universally applicable genome-wide strain genotyping approach and investigated the population diversity of Lm using 1,696 isolates from diverse sources and geographical locations. We define, with unprecedented precision, the population structure of Lm, demonstrate the occurrence of international circulation of strains and reveal the extent of heterogeneity in virulence and stress resistance genomic features among clinical and food isolates...
October 10, 2016: Nature Microbiology
C Mubamba, G Ramsay, C Abolnik, G Dautu, B Gummow
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease of poultry that seriously impacts on food security and livelihoods of livestock farmers and communities in tropical regions of the world. ND is a constant problem in the eastern province of Zambia which has more than 740 000 rural poultry. Very few studies give a situational analysis of the disease that can be used for disease control planning in the region. With this background in mind, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using Newcastle Disease data submitted to the eastern province headquarters for the period from 1989 to 2014...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A Lopes-João, J R Mesquita, R de Sousa, M Oleastro, C Penha-Gonçalves, M S J Nascimento
Gastroenteritis is considered a major illness within the military settings being caused by foodborne enteric pathogens that are particularly easily spread in the crowded conditions of military camps. Gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus usually affect a great number of soldiers due to the low infectious dose, copious viral shedding and environmental stability. The present study describes the investigation of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in April 2015 in a Portuguese army base, focusing on the study of the epidemiological curve, symptoms experienced by the affected soldiers, and results of food, water and stool microbiological analysis...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Yi Chen, Laurel S Burall, Yan Luo, Ruth Timme, David Melka, Tim Muruvanda, Justin Payne, Charles Wang, George Kastanis, Anna Maounounen-Laasri, Antonio J De Jesus, Phillip E Curry, Robert Stones, Okumu KAluoch, Eileen Liu, Monique Salter, Thomas S Hammack, Peter S Evans, Mickey Parish, Marc W Allard, Atin Datta, Errol A Strain, Eric W Brown
: In 2014, identification of stone fruits contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes led to the subsequent identification of a multistate outbreak. Simultaneous detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes was performed on 105 fruits, each weighing 127 to 145 g, collected from 7 contaminated lots. The results showed that 53.3% of the fruits yielded L. monocytogenes (lower limit of detection, 5 colony-forming units [CFU]/fruit) and the levels ranged from 5 to 2,850 CFU/fruit with a geometric mean of 10...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hee Soo Koo, Mi Ok Lee, Pyeong Tae Ku, Su Jeong Hwang, Dong Ju Park, Hyung Suk Baik
The molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections was studied in food handlers without any symptoms from January to December 2015 in Busan city, Korea. A total of 2,174 fecal specimens from asymptomatic food handlers were analyzed, and 2.3% (49/2,174) were norovirus-positive. Fourteen of 335 samples (4.2%) were positive in January; fifteen of 299 samples (5.0%) in February, and seven of 189 samples (3.7%) in December. However, norovirus was rarely detected in other months. From sequencing analysis, 11 genotypes (five GI and six GII genotypes) were detected...
October 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Carmen H S Chan, Sophie Octavia, Vitali Sintchenko, Ruiting Lan
De novo assembly of bacterial genomes from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data allows a reference-free discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). However, substantial rates of errors in genomes assembled by this approach remain a major barrier for the reference-free analysis of genome variations in medically important bacteria. The aim of this report was to improve the quality of SNP identification in bacterial genomes without closely related references. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline (SnpFilt) that constructs an assembly using SPAdes and then removes unreliable regions based on the quality and coverage of re-aligned reads at neighbouring regions...
September 9, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Laura Gieraltowski, Jeffrey Higa, Vi Peralta, Alice Green, Colin Schwensohn, Hilary Rosen, Tanya Libby, Bonnie Kissler, Nicola Marsden-Haug, Hillary Booth, Akiko Kimura, Julian Grass, Amelia Bicknese, Beth Tolar, Stephanie Defibaugh-Chávez, Ian Williams, Matthew Wise
IMPORTANCE: This large outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis demonstrated the complexity of investigating outbreaks linked to poultry products. The outbreak also highlighted the importance of efforts to strengthen food safety policies related to Salmonella in chicken parts and has implications for future changes within the poultry industry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a large multistate outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections. DESIGN: Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of patients infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and traceback of possible food exposures...
2016: PloS One
Elmoubasher Farag, Humberto Guanche Garcell, Nandakumar Ganesan, Shazia Nadeem N Ahmed, Mohammed Al-Hajri, Shk Mohammed Hamad J Al Thani, Salih Ali Al-Marri, Emad Ibrahim, Hamad Eid Al-Romaihi
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is a food- and water-borne pathogen that can be easily spread in a population, leading to the outbreak of salmonellosis that is caused by ingestion of mixed salads contaminated by the pathogen. Most cases occur in the late spring months and can be seen as single cases, clusters, or episodes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in the State of Qatar. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive study carried out in laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis during 2004-2012 from all Salmonella surveillance centers...
2016: Qatar Medical Journal
Anastasia Phillips, Cristina Sotomayor, Qinning Wang, Nadine Holmes, Catriona Furlong, Kate Ward, Peter Howard, Sophie Octavia, Ruiting Lan, Vitali Sintchenko
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) is an important cause of foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Subtyping of STM remains critical to outbreak investigation, yet current techniques (e.g. multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis, MLVA) may provide insufficient discrimination. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers potentially greater discriminatory power to support infectious disease surveillance. METHODS: We performed WGS on 62 STM isolates of a single, endemic MLVA type associated with two epidemiologically independent, food-borne outbreaks along with sporadic cases in New South Wales, Australia, during 2014...
2016: BMC Microbiology
(no author information available yet)
This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation)...
September 2016: Pediatrics
J Ronholm, Neda Nasheri, Nicholas Petronella, Franco Pagotto
The epidemiological investigation of a foodborne outbreak, including identification of related cases, source attribution, and development of intervention strategies, relies heavily on the ability to subtype the etiological agent at a high enough resolution to differentiate related from nonrelated cases. Historically, several different molecular subtyping methods have been used for this purpose; however, emerging techniques, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based techniques, that use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offer a resolution that was previously not possible...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Y J Chen, N X Cao, R H Xie, C X Ding, E F Chen, H P Zhu, J M Sun, X P Shang, X X Wang, Z P Miao
An outbreak of acute hepatitis recently occurred in a nursing home in Zhejiang Province, China. The objectives of this study were to confirm the outbreak and identify the aetiology, source and transmission patterns. All residents and staff in or near the nursing home during the period from 1 October 2014 to 21 May 2015 were investigated regarding hygiene and for epidemiological information including water and food (eating meat especially pork products). Serum and stool specimens were collected for detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies using ELISA and RNA using RT-PCR...
August 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Enquebaher K Tarekgne, Taran Skjerdal, Siv Skeie, Knut Rudi, Davide Porcellato, Benjamin Félix, Judith A Narvhus
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Neelam Taneja, Abhishek Mewara
Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Claudia Lucarelli, Anna Maria Dionisi, Livia Trezzi, Claudio Farina, Marco Passera, Tommi Kärki, Fortunato D'Ancona, Ida Luzzi
Campylobacter spp. is the most common gastrointestinal pathogen worldwide with a very low reported incidence in Italy. In November of 2013, local and national public health authorities investigated an outbreak caused by Campylobacter jejuni among children in a kindergarten in Northern Italy. A case was defined as a child who had diarrhea with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of C. jejuni between 11 and 30 November. Stool samples from the kindergarten kitchen staff and environmental samples from the kitchen were examined for enteric pathogens...
September 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Sarah J O'Brien
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the study was to provide an update on foodborne viral infections describing illness burden, the main aetiological agents (enteric viruses, hepatitis viruses and emerging and zoonotic viruses) and advances in virus detection in foods. RECENT FINDINGS: Norovirus (NoV) is the most common viral foodborne pathogen globally (125 million cases and 35 000 deaths). The role of the asymptomatic food handlers in contributing to NoV outbreaks is becoming increasingly clear, with up to one-quarter of outbreaks attributable to them...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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