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Outbreak food epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795533/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-control-of-classical-swine-fever-recent-developments-and-future-challenges
#1
Alexander Postel, Sophia Austermann-Busch, Anja Petrov, Volker Moennig, Paul Becher
Classical swine fever (CSF) represents a major health and trade problem for the pig industry. In endemic countries or those with a wild boar reservoir, CSF remains a priority for Veterinary Services. Surveillance as well as stamping out and/or vaccination are the principle tools of prevention and control, depending on the context. In the past decades, marker vaccines and accompanying diagnostic tests allowing the discrimination of infected from vaccinated animals have been developed. In the European Union, an E2 subunit and a chimeric live vaccine have been licensed and are available for the use in future disease outbreak scenarios...
August 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791815/an-outbreak-of-leptospirosis-imported-from-germany-to-poland
#2
Beata Fiecek, Tomasz Chmielewski, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Michał Czerwiński, Grażyna Zalewska, Urszula Roguska, Stanisława Tylewska-Wierzbanowska
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the Leptospiraceae family. In both humans and animals the main route of infection is indirect contact - through water or other products contaminated with urine containing spirochetes. Infection most commonly occurs through ingestion of water or food contaminated with Leptospira spp. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to characterize cases of leptospirosis imported to Poland from Germany in 2014 and to analyze methods that are helpful for making a diagnosis...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782998/evaluation-of-whole-genome-mapping-as-a-fast-and-automated-molecular-epidemiological-tool-for-the-study-of-cronobacter-spp-in-powdered-infant-formula-processing-facilities
#3
Yanjie Tang, Geertrui Rasschaert, Liping Yu, Claire Chilton, Leen Baert
Cronobacter has been identified as the causative agent of outbreaks or sporadic cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and septicemia associated with powdered infant formula. Food processing environments may provide a possible contamination route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole genome mapping (WGM) as a fast and automated molecular epidemiological method for characterizing Cronobacter spp. in the processing environment. This is the first study indicating the applicability of WGM to Cronobacter...
September 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781938/foodborne-infectious-diseases-mediated-by-inappropriate-infection-control-in-food-service-businesses-and-relevant-countermeasures-in-korea
#4
REVIEW
Jong Myong Park, Young-Hyun You, Hyun-Min Cho, Ji Won Hong, Sa-Youl Ghim
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to propose an appropriate course of action for improving the guidelines followed by food handlers for control of infection. For this purpose, previous epidemiological reports related to acute gastroenteritis in food service businesses mediated by food handlers were intensively analyzed. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified in international databases. We selected eligible papers reporting foodborne infectious disease outbreaks...
June 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772169/astrovirus-infection-in-hospitalized-children-molecular-clinical-and-epidemiological-features
#5
Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Darleise de Souza Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Nascimento de Carvalho, Thayara Morais Portal, Maria Cleonice Aguiar Justino, Luciana Damascena da Silva, Hugo Reis Resque, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
BACKGROUND: Astrovirus (HAstV) is a common viral pathogen that causes gastroenteritis worldwide. It is classified into eight classical human types (HAstV-1/8) and seven other less prevalent types, described as HAstV VA1, VA2, VA3, VA4, MLB-1, MLB-2 and MLB-3. During outbreaks, the elderly and children are the most affected, and the spread of the virus is associated with person-to-person contact, food ingestion and contaminated water. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of infection and genetic diversity of HAstV strains...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748745/histamine-poisoning-from-insect-consumption-an-outbreak-investigation-from-thailand
#6
Summon Chomchai, Chulathida Chomchai
BACKGROUND: Insect consumption is a common practice in the Asian culture and all over the world. We are reporting an outbreak investigation of histamine poisoning from ingestion of fried insects. METHODS: On 24 July 2014, a group of students at a seminar presented to Angthong Provincial Hospital, Thailand, with pruritic rash after ingesting snacks consisting of fried insects from a vendor. We initiated an outbreak investigation with retrospective cohort design and collected samples of remaining foods for analyses...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742814/wetlands-wild-bovidae-species-richness-and-sheep-density-delineate-risk-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks-in-the-african-continent-and-arabian-peninsula
#7
Michael G Walsh, Allard Willem de Smalen, Siobhan M Mor
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging, vector-borne viral zoonosis that has significantly impacted public health, livestock health and production, and food security over the last three decades across large regions of the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The potential for expansion of RVF outbreaks within and beyond the range of previous occurrence is unknown. Despite many large national and international epidemics, the landscape epidemiology of RVF remains obscure, particularly with respect to the ecological roles of wildlife reservoirs and surface water features...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736650/a-salmonella-typhimurium-outbreak-linked-to-vietnamese-bread-rolls-in-south-western-sydney-australia-2015
#8
Meena Chandra, Heidi Lord, Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Kate Alexander, Nilva Egana, Stephen Conaty
INTRODUCTION: In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. METHODS: The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732304/outbreak-of-salmonella-enteritidis-pt14b-gastroenteritis-at-a-restaurant-in-england-the-use-of-molecular-typing-to-achieve-a-successful-prosecution
#9
C Chatt, D Nicholds-Trainor, A Scrivener, S Suleman, M Harvey, T Dallman, J Hawker, B Sibal
OBJECTIVES: To describe an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 14b in people who had eaten at a restaurant, and the investigation and subsequent prosecution of the food business operator (FBO). STUDY DESIGN: The local health protection team and environmental health department formed an outbreak control team to investigate the outbreak. METHODS: Epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental investigations were undertaken...
July 18, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725217/metagenomics-the-next-culture-independent-game-changer
#10
REVIEW
Jessica D Forbes, Natalie C Knox, Jennifer Ronholm, Franco Pagotto, Aleisha Reimer
A trend towards the abandonment of obtaining pure culture isolates in frontline laboratories is at a crossroads with the ability of public health agencies to perform their basic mandate of foodborne disease surveillance and response. The implementation of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) including nucleic acid and antigen-based assays for acute gastroenteritis is leaving public health agencies without laboratory evidence to link clinical cases to each other and to food or environmental substances...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694792/context-is-everything-harmonization-of-critical-food-microbiology-descriptors-and-metadata-for-improved-food-safety-and-surveillance
#11
Emma Griffiths, Damion Dooley, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, Fiona S L Brinkman, William W L Hsiao
Globalization of food networks increases opportunities for the spread of foodborne pathogens beyond borders and jurisdictions. High resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS) subtyping of pathogens promises to vastly improve our ability to track and control foodborne disease, but to do so it must be combined with epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and other health care data (called "contextual data") to be meaningfully interpreted for regulatory and health interventions, outbreak investigation, and risk assessment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662764/pulsenet-international-vision-for-the-implementation-of-whole-genome-sequencing-wgs-for-global-food-borne-disease-surveillance
#12
Celine Nadon, Ivo Van Walle, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Josefina Campos, Isabel Chinen, Jeniffer Concepcion-Acevedo, Brent Gilpin, Anthony M Smith, Kai Man Kam, Enrique Perez, Eija Trees, Kristy Kubota, Johanna Takkinen, Eva Møller Nielsen, Heather Carleton
PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The PulseNet International vision is the standardised use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify and subtype food-borne bacterial pathogens worldwide, replacing traditional methods to strengthen preparedness and response, reduce global social and economic disease burden, and save lives...
June 8, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662015/multistate-outbreak-of-salmonella-anatum-infections-linked-to-imported-hot-peppers-united-states-may-july-2016
#13
Rashida Hassan, Joshua Rounds, Alida Sorenson, Greg Leos, Jeniffer Concepción-Acevedo, Taylor Griswold, Adiam Tesfai, Tyann Blessington, Cerise Hardy, Colin Basler
Foodborne salmonellosis causes an estimated 1 million illnesses and 400 deaths annually in the United States (1). Salmonella Anatum is one of the top 20 Salmonella serotypes in the United States. During 2013-2015 there were approximately 300-350 annual illnesses reported to PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. In June 2016, PulseNet identified a cluster of 16 Salmonella Anatum infections with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern from four states...
June 30, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651629/risk-factors-person-place-and-time-characteristics-associated-with-hepatitis-e-virus-outbreak-in-napak-district-uganda
#14
Geofrey Amanya, Samuel Kizito, Immaculate Nabukenya, Joan Kalyango, Collins Atuheire, Hellen Nansumba, Stephen Akena Abwoye, Denis Nixon Opio, Edrisa Kibuuka, Charles Karamagi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E is self-limiting, but can cause death in most at risk groups like pregnant women and those with preexisting acute liver disease. In developing countries it presents as epidemic, in 2014 Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) outbreak was reported in Napak district Uganda. The role of factors in this setting that might have propagated this HEV epidemic, including host, agent, and environmental characteristics, were still not clear. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the risk factors, person, place and time characteristics, associated with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) epidemic in Napak district...
June 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649304/a-nationwide-outbreak-of-listeriosis-associated-with-cold-cuts-sweden-2013-2014
#15
Viktor Dahl, Lena Sundqvist, Ingela Hedenström, Margareta Löfdahl, Erik Alm, Håkan Ringberg, Mats Lindblad, Anders Wallensten, Susanne Thisted Lambertz, Cecilia Jernberg
In January 2014, the Public Health Agency of Sweden noticed an increase in listeriosis cases. Isolates from 10 cases had identical pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles, suggesting a common source. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source and stop transmission. We looked for cases in 2013-2014 and also compared cases notified after February 2014 to randomly selected controls. We surveyed food items consumed two weeks prior to symptom onset. Listeria monocytogenes isolates found by food producers were PFGE-typed...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647923/foodborne-illness-outbreak-investigation-in-a-high-profile-sports-club
#16
Kwendy Cavanagh, Travers Johnstone, Essi Huhtinen, Zeina Najjar, Peter Lorentzos, Craig Shadbolt, John Shields, Leena Gupta
A foodborne illness outbreak involving an elite sports team was investigated by a public health unit in Sydney, Australia. An epidemiological association was established between gastrointestinal illness and the consumption of food supplied by an external caterer, with a lamb meal most strongly associated with illness. Genetically identical Salmonella isolates were identified from clinical specimens, residual food items, and an environmental swab taken from the catering premises. The training schedule and other club operations were significantly affected by this outbreak...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619007/whole-genome-sequencing-analyses-of-listeria-monocytogenes-that-persisted-in-a-milkshake-machine-for-a-year-and-caused-illnesses-in-washington-state
#17
Zhen Li, Ailyn Pérez-Osorio, Yu Wang, Kaye Eckmann, William A Glover, Marc W Allard, Eric W Brown, Yi Chen
BACKGROUND: In 2015, in addition to a United States multistate outbreak linked to contaminated ice cream, another outbreak linked to ice cream was reported in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It was a hospital-acquired outbreak linked to milkshakes, made from contaminated ice cream mixes and milkshake maker, served to patients. Here we performed multiple analyses on isolates associated with this outbreak: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, species-specific core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST), lineage-specific cgMLST and whole genome-specific MLST (wgsMLST)/outbreak-specific cgMLST...
June 15, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602163/investigation-of-a-food-borne-outbreak-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-school-canteen-revealed-a-variant-of-sapovirus-genogroup-v-not-detected-by-standard-pcr-sollentuna-sweden-2016
#18
Maria-Pia Hergens, Joanna Nederby Öhd, Erik Alm, Helena H Askling, Sofia Helgesson, Mona Insulander, Nina Lagerqvist, Bo Svenungsson, Malin Tihane, Thomas Tolfvenstam, Per Follin
A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested that the source of the outbreak was the salad buffet served on 20 April, although no specific food item could be identified...
June 1, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600312/vibrio-cholerae-colonization-of-soft-shelled-turtles
#19
Jiazheng Wang, Meiying Yan, He Gao, Xin Lu, Biao Kan
Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen and environmental microflora species that can both propagate in the human intestine and proliferate in zooplankton and aquatic organisms. Cholera is transmitted through food and water. In recent years, outbreaks caused by V. cholerae-contaminated soft-shelled turtles, contaminated mainly with toxigenic serogroup O139, have been frequently reported, posing a new foodborne disease public health problem. In this study, the colonization by toxigenic V. cholerae on the body surfaces and intestines of soft-shelled turtles was explored...
July 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597535/epidemiology-of-campylobacteriosis-in-denmark-2000-2015
#20
K G Kuhn, E M Nielsen, K Mølbak, S Ethelberg
Campylobacter is the most frequently occurring cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Europe. Unlike other zoonotic diseases, European-wide incidences of Campylobacter infections have increased during the past decade, resulting in a significant disease burden. In Denmark, campylobacteriosis is notifiable by laboratory and a unique registration system of electronic transfer and storage of notified Campylobacter cases linked to the national person register of age, gender and geographical location allows collection of comprehensive case data...
June 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
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