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Outbreak food epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899155/comparative-sequence-analysis-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-apicoplast-genomes-originating-from-diverse-geographical-regions
#1
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878798/how-can-patients-and-their-physicians-contribute-to-an-outbreak-investigation-experiences-from-a-nationwide-listeriosis-outbreak-in-switzerland
#2
Sabine Kiefer, Kerstin Kling, Roger Stephan, Martin W Bratschi, Marianne Jost, Philipp Justus Bless, Claudia Schmutz, Daniel Mäusezahl, Kaspar Wyss, Mirjam Mäusezahl-Feuz, Christoph Hatz
QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY/PRINCIPLES: Gathering patient information to contain an outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes is difficult because of the patients' severe illness or death. Extending the range of interviewees to acquire epidemiological data can thus be important to maximise information. METHODS: We built the current analysis on a case-case outbreak investigation conducted during a Swiss listeriosis outbreak between 30 January and 11 May 2014, including 31 patients with confirmed L...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870538/foodborne-infections-and-intoxications-in-poland-in-2014
#3
Piotr Polański, Sylwia Kamińska, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys
AIM: The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was based on the analysis of information sent to Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH through ROE (Pol. Rejestr Ognisk Epidemicznych)- an electronic system created for uploading, transfer and analysis of data acquired during the outbreak investigations). Additional sources for the analysis were NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787491/gastrointestinal-illness-associated-with-rancid-tortilla-chips-at-a-correctional-facility-wyoming-2015
#4
Tiffany Lupcho, Alexia Harrist, Clay Van Houten
On October 12, 2015, a county health department notified the Wyoming Department of Health of an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness among residents and staff members at a local correctional facility. The majority of ill persons reported onset of symptoms within 1-3 hours after eating lunch served at the facility cafeteria at noon on October 11. Residents and staff members reported that tortilla chips served at the lunch tasted and smelled like chemicals. The Wyoming Department of Health and county health department personnel conducted case-control studies to identify the outbreak source...
October 28, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771520/multiple-locus-variable-number-of-tandem-repeat-analysis-as-a-tool-for-molecular-epidemiology-of-botulism-the-italian-experience
#5
Fabrizio Anniballi, Silvia Fillo, Francesco Giordani, Bruna Auricchio, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Enrica di Stefano, Giuseppina Mandarino, Dario De Medici, Florigio Lista
Clostridium botulinum is the bacterial agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuro-paralytic disease. Because of its high impact, in Italy botulism is monitored by an ad hoc surveillance system. The National Reference Centre for Botulism, as part of this system, collects and analyzes all demographic, epidemiologic, microbiological, and molecular data recovered during cases and/or outbreaks occurred in Italy. A panel of 312 C. botulinum strains belonging to group I were submitted to MLVA sub-typing. Strains, isolated from clinical specimens, food and environmental samples collected during the surveillance activities, were representative of all forms of botulism from all Italian regions...
October 19, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765620/multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-mlva-for-genotyping-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-serotype-infantis-isolated-from-human-sources
#6
Reza Ranjbar, Mitra Ahmadi, Mojtaba Memariani
Salmonella is an important cause of food-borne infection worldwide. Detection of outbreaks caused by Salmonella spp. relies on suitable and robust methods for genotyping. Little is known about the genetic diversity of the Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Infantis strains isolated from human sources in Iran. In this study, 40 isolates of S. Infantis, which were previously recovered from patients with gastroenteritis or diarrhea in Tehran between years 2007 and 2009, were subjected to multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ERIC-PCR...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751201/epidemiology-of-restaurant-associated-foodborne-disease-outbreaks-united-states-1998-2013
#7
K M Angelo, A L Nisler, A J Hall, L G Brown, L H Gould
Although contamination of food can occur at any point from farm to table, restaurant food workers are a common source of foodborne illness. We describe the characteristics of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks and explore the role of food workers by analysing outbreaks associated with restaurants from 1998 to 2013 reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. We identified 9788 restaurant-associated outbreaks. The median annual number of outbreaks was 620 (interquartile range 618-629)...
October 18, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748250/outbreak-of-salmonella-enteritidis-linked-to-the-consumption-of-frozen-beefburgers-received-from-a-food-bank-and-originating-from-poland-northern-france-december-2014-to-april-2015
#8
Gabrielle Jones, Nathalie Pihier, Caroline Vanbockstael, Simon Le Hello, Sabrina Cadel Six, Nelly Fournet, Nathalie Jourdan-da Silva
A prolonged outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmed S. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015...
October 6, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726760/comparative-microbial-genomics-and-forensics
#9
Steven E Massey
Forensic science concerns the application of scientific techniques to questions of a legal nature and may also be used to address questions of historical importance. Forensic techniques are often used in legal cases that involve crimes against persons or property, and they increasingly may involve cases of bioterrorism, crimes against nature, medical negligence, or tracing the origin of food- and crop-borne disease. Given the rapid advance of genome sequencing and comparative genomics techniques, we ask how these might be used to address cases of a forensic nature, focusing on the use of microbial genome sequence analysis...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723724/whole-genome-based-population-biology-and-epidemiological-surveillance-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#10
Alexandra Moura, Alexis Criscuolo, Hannes Pouseele, Mylène M Maury, Alexandre Leclercq, Cheryl Tarr, Jonas T Björkman, Timothy Dallman, Aleisha Reimer, Vincent Enouf, Elise Larsonneur, Heather Carleton, Hélène Bracq-Dieye, Lee S Katz, Louis Jones, Marie Touchon, Mathieu Tourdjman, Matthew Walker, Steven Stroika, Thomas Cantinelli, Viviane Chenal-Francisque, Zuzana Kucerova, Eduardo P C Rocha, Celine Nadon, Kathie Grant, Eva M Nielsen, Bruno Pot, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Marc Lecuit, Sylvain Brisse
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a major human foodborne pathogen. Numerous Lm outbreaks have been reported worldwide and associated with a high case fatality rate, reinforcing the need for strongly coordinated surveillance and outbreak control. We developed a universally applicable genome-wide strain genotyping approach and investigated the population diversity of Lm using 1,696 isolates from diverse sources and geographical locations. We define, with unprecedented precision, the population structure of Lm, demonstrate the occurrence of international circulation of strains and reveal the extent of heterogeneity in virulence and stress resistance genomic features among clinical and food isolates...
October 10, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720031/a-retrospective-study-and-predictive-modelling-of-newcastle-disease-trends-among-rural-poultry-of-eastern-zambia
#11
C Mubamba, G Ramsay, C Abolnik, G Dautu, B Gummow
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease of poultry that seriously impacts on food security and livelihoods of livestock farmers and communities in tropical regions of the world. ND is a constant problem in the eastern province of Zambia which has more than 740 000 rural poultry. Very few studies give a situational analysis of the disease that can be used for disease control planning in the region. With this background in mind, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using Newcastle Disease data submitted to the eastern province headquarters for the period from 1989 to 2014...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704549/acute-gastroenteritis-outbreak-associated-to-norovirus-gi-9-in-a-portuguese-army-base
#12
A Lopes-João, J R Mesquita, R de Sousa, M Oleastro, C Penha-Gonçalves, M S J Nascimento
Gastroenteritis is considered a major illness within the military settings being caused by foodborne enteric pathogens that are particularly easily spread in the crowded conditions of military camps. Gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus usually affect a great number of soldiers due to the low infectious dose, copious viral shedding and environmental stability. The present study describes the investigation of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in April 2015 in a Portuguese army base, focusing on the study of the epidemiological curve, symptoms experienced by the affected soldiers, and results of food, water and stool microbiological analysis...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694232/isolation-enumeration-and-whole-genome-sequencing-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-stone-fruits-linked-to-a-multistate-outbreak
#13
Yi Chen, Laurel S Burall, Yan Luo, Ruth Timme, David Melka, Tim Muruvanda, Justin Payne, Charles Wang, George Kastanis, Anna Maounounen-Laasri, Antonio J De Jesus, Phillip E Curry, Robert Stones, Okumu KAluoch, Eileen Liu, Monique Salter, Thomas S Hammack, Peter S Evans, Mickey Parish, Marc W Allard, Atin Datta, Errol A Strain, Eric W Brown
: In 2014, identification of stone fruits contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes led to the subsequent identification of a multistate outbreak. Simultaneous detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes was performed on 105 fruits, each weighing 127 to 145 g, collected from 7 contaminated lots. The results showed that 53.3% of the fruits yielded L. monocytogenes (lower limit of detection, 5 colony-forming units [CFU]/fruit) and the levels ranged from 5 to 2,850 CFU/fruit with a geometric mean of 10...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687231/molecular-epidemiology-of-norovirus-in-asymptomatic-food-handlers-in-busan-korea-and-emergence-of-genotype-gii-17
#14
Hee Soo Koo, Mi Ok Lee, Pyeong Tae Ku, Su Jeong Hwang, Dong Ju Park, Hyung Suk Baik
The molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections was studied in food handlers without any symptoms from January to December 2015 in Busan city, Korea. A total of 2,174 fecal specimens from asymptomatic food handlers were analyzed, and 2.3% (49/2,174) were norovirus-positive. Fourteen of 335 samples (4.2%) were positive in January; fifteen of 299 samples (5.0%) in February, and seven of 189 samples (3.7%) in December. However, norovirus was rarely detected in other months. From sequencing analysis, 11 genotypes (five GI and six GII genotypes) were detected...
October 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647159/snpfilt-a-pipeline-for-reference-free-assembly-based-identification-of-snps-in-bacterial-genomes
#15
Carmen H S Chan, Sophie Octavia, Vitali Sintchenko, Ruiting Lan
De novo assembly of bacterial genomes from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data allows a reference-free discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). However, substantial rates of errors in genomes assembled by this approach remain a major barrier for the reference-free analysis of genome variations in medically important bacteria. The aim of this report was to improve the quality of SNP identification in bacterial genomes without closely related references. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline (SnpFilt) that constructs an assembly using SPAdes and then removes unreliable regions based on the quality and coverage of re-aligned reads at neighbouring regions...
September 9, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631492/national-outbreak-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-heidelberg-infections-linked-to-a-single-poultry-company
#16
Laura Gieraltowski, Jeffrey Higa, Vi Peralta, Alice Green, Colin Schwensohn, Hilary Rosen, Tanya Libby, Bonnie Kissler, Nicola Marsden-Haug, Hillary Booth, Akiko Kimura, Julian Grass, Amelia Bicknese, Beth Tolar, Stephanie Defibaugh-Chávez, Ian Williams, Matthew Wise
IMPORTANCE: This large outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis demonstrated the complexity of investigating outbreaks linked to poultry products. The outbreak also highlighted the importance of efforts to strengthen food safety policies related to Salmonella in chicken parts and has implications for future changes within the poultry industry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a large multistate outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections. DESIGN: Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of patients infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and traceback of possible food exposures...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630822/a-retrospective-epidemiological-study-on-the-incidence-of-salmonellosis-in-the-state-of-qatar-during-2004-2012
#17
Elmoubasher Farag, Humberto Guanche Garcell, Nandakumar Ganesan, Shazia Nadeem N Ahmed, Mohammed Al-Hajri, Shk Mohammed Hamad J Al Thani, Salih Ali Al-Marri, Emad Ibrahim, Hamad Eid Al-Romaihi
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is a food- and water-borne pathogen that can be easily spread in a population, leading to the outbreak of salmonellosis that is caused by ingestion of mixed salads contaminated by the pathogen. Most cases occur in the late spring months and can be seen as single cases, clusters, or episodes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in the State of Qatar. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive study carried out in laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis during 2004-2012 from all Salmonella surveillance centers...
2016: Qatar Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629541/whole-genome-sequencing-of-salmonella-typhimurium-illuminates-distinct-outbreaks-caused-by-an-endemic-multi-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-type-in-australia-2014
#18
Anastasia Phillips, Cristina Sotomayor, Qinning Wang, Nadine Holmes, Catriona Furlong, Kate Ward, Peter Howard, Sophie Octavia, Ruiting Lan, Vitali Sintchenko
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) is an important cause of foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Subtyping of STM remains critical to outbreak investigation, yet current techniques (e.g. multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis, MLVA) may provide insufficient discrimination. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers potentially greater discriminatory power to support infectious disease surveillance. METHODS: We performed WGS on 62 STM isolates of a single, endemic MLVA type associated with two epidemiologically independent, food-borne outbreaks along with sporadic cases in New South Wales, Australia, during 2014...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573083/recommendations-for-serogroup-b-meningococcal-vaccine-for-persons-10-years-and-older
#19
(no author information available yet)
This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation)...
September 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559074/navigating-microbiological-food-safety-in-the-era-of-whole-genome-sequencing
#20
REVIEW
J Ronholm, Neda Nasheri, Nicholas Petronella, Franco Pagotto
The epidemiological investigation of a foodborne outbreak, including identification of related cases, source attribution, and development of intervention strategies, relies heavily on the ability to subtype the etiological agent at a high enough resolution to differentiate related from nonrelated cases. Historically, several different molecular subtyping methods have been used for this purpose; however, emerging techniques, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based techniques, that use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offer a resolution that was previously not possible...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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