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Outbreak food poisoning

Maria Schirone, Pierina Visciano, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi
The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production...
October 18, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Sowmya Nagaraj, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston, Harsh Vardhan Batra
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is a major foodborne illness caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). It is a well known fact that foodborne outbreak investigations are solely characterized by commercially available immunoassay kits. However, these assays encompass only few enterotoxins such as SEA-SEE which are renowned as "classical" enterotoxins and unable to detect any other novel enterotoxins even though their involvement is predicted. In this context, the present study involved development of a sandwich ELISA immunoassay for the specific detection of "non-classical" enterotoxin G (SEG)...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Enquebaher K Tarekgne, Taran Skjerdal, Siv Skeie, Knut Rudi, Davide Porcellato, Benjamin Félix, Judith A Narvhus
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
P R Yaashikaa, A Saravanan, P Senthil Kumar
Bacterial diseases are one of the major problems which affects the production, development and expansion of aqua culture. Vibrio sp. are widespread in marine and estuarine environments. The several pathogenic species are commonly associated with outbreaks of Vibrio species and it is mainly associated with food poisonings. In this research, the occurrence of Vibrio sp. was studied by the isolation and it is confirmed by the biochemical methods. The growth rate was studied by changing the different operating parameters...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Saindou Ben Ali Mbaé, Mohamed Mlindassé, Saindou Mihidjaé, Thomas Seyler
On 24-December-2012 newspapers reported food-poisoning cases in Ndrondroni, Comoros. The authors conducted an investigation and a case-control study to identify the source and control the outbreak. They identified eight cases. A 6-month breastfed infant died. The results suggest consumption of Eretmochelys imbricata caused the outbreak. A bio-toxin ingested by the turtle might be the source. The local authorities informed the population on the danger of turtle-meat consumption. Cooking does not destroy the toxin...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Min-Jung Lee, Jin-Jae Lee, Han Young Chung, Sang Ho Choi, Bong-Soo Kim
Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Shijia Wu, Nuo Duan, Huajie Gu, Liling Hao, Hua Ye, Wenhui Gong, Zhouping Wang
Food safety has attracted extensive attention around the world, and food-borne diseases have become one of the major threats to health. Staphylococcus aureus is a major food-borne pathogen worldwide and a frequent contaminant of foodstuffs. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by some S. aureus strains will lead to staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) outbreaks. The most common symptoms caused by ingestion of SEs within food are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and cramps. Children will suffer SFP by ingesting as little as 100 ng of SEs, and only a few micrograms of SEs are enough to cause SPF in vulnerable populations...
2016: Toxins
Hajime Takahashi, Tomoki Tsuchiya, Michiko Takahashi, Moemi Nakazawa, Tomoka Watanabe, Akira Takeuchi, Takashi Kuda, Bon Kimura
In recent years, a number of food poisoning outbreaks due to the contamination of norovirus in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods such as salads have been reported, and this issue is regarded as a global problem. The risk of contamination of fresh vegetables with norovirus has been previously reported, but the survivability of norovirus that contaminates salads remains unknown. In addition, there have been limited reports on the control of norovirus in food products by using inactivating agents. In this study, the viability of norovirus in various types of salads and dressings was examined using murine norovirus strain 1 (MNV-1) as a surrogate for the closely related human norovirus...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jim McLauchlin, Heather Aird, Andre Charlett, Nicola Elviss, Andrew Fox, Moira Kaye, Caroline Willis
Outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes in England associated with meat pie consumption were detected in 2012. To obtain baseline data for pies unrelated to outbreaks, 862 samples of ready-to-eat meat pies were collected at retail or from catering facilities in England in 2013 and examined to enumerate food-poisoning bacteria and indicator organisms using Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods for Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes (ISO 11290), Clostridium perfringens (ISO 21528), coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus (ISO 6888), Bacillus spp...
May 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Shinya Yonogi, Masashi Kanki, Takahiro Ohnishi, Masami Shiono, Tetsuya Iida, Yuko Kumeda
Clostridium perfringens causes food-borne gastroenteritis following the consumption of contaminated food by producing C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) in the intestines. Recently, we reported a novel enterotoxin, binary enterotoxin of C. perfringens (BEC) in C. perfringens isolates, which caused two disease outbreaks in Japan. Consequently, in the event of food poisoning outbreaks caused by C. perfringens, it is now necessary to screen for both the cpe and becAB genes by diagnostic PCR. Here, we present a simple multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of cpe, becAB and a C...
August 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Sophia Johler, Henna-Maria Sihto, Guerrino Macori, Roger Stephan
Ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed by Staphylococcus aureus in food leads to staphylococcal food poisoning, the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. There are five major staphylococcal enterotoxins: SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE. While variants of these toxins have been described and were linked to specific hosts or levels or enterotoxin production, data on sequence variation is still limited. In this study, we aim to extend the knowledge on promoter and gene variants of the major enterotoxins SEB, SEC, and SED...
2016: Toxins
Daniela Schmid, Corinna Rademacher, Elisabeth Eva Kanitz, Elrike Frenzel, Erica Simons, Franz Allerberger, Monika Ehling-Schulz
Identifying Bacillus cereus as the causative agent of a foodborne outbreak still poses a challenge. We report on the epidemiological and microbiological investigation of three outbreaks of food poisoning (A, B, and C) in Austria in 2013. A total of 44% among 32 hotel guests (A), 22% among 63 employees (B) and 29% among 362 residents of a rehab clinic (C) fell sick immediately after meal consumption. B. cereus isolated from left overs or retained samples from related foods were characterized by toxin gene profiling, and molecular typing using panC sequencing and M13-PCR typing (in outbreak A and C)...
September 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Pedro Manuel Martínez-García, Emilia López-Solanilla, Cayo Ramos, Pablo Rodríguez-Palenzuela
Recent scenarios of fresh produce contamination by human enteric pathogens have resulted in severe food-borne outbreaks, and a new paradigm has emerged stating that some human-associated bacteria can use plants as secondary hosts. As a consequence, there has been growing concern in the scientific community about these interactions that have not yet been elucidated. Since this is a relatively new area, there is a lack of strategies to address the problem of food-borne illnesses due to the ingestion of fruits and vegetables...
May 27, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Reinhard Zeleny, Yacine Nia, Heinz Schimmel, Isabelle Mutel, Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne, Håkan Emteborg, Jean Charoud-Got, Frédéric Auvray
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) account for a substantial number of food-poisoning outbreaks. European legislation (Commission Regulation 1441/2007) stipulates the reference procedure for SE analysis in milk and dairy products, which is based on extraction, dialysis concentration and immunochemical detection using one of two approved assays (VIDAS(®) SET2, Ridascreen(®) SET Total). However, certified reference materials (CRMs) are lacking to support laboratories in performing reliable detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) in relevant matrices at sub-nanogram per gram levels...
August 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Joanna Kraszewska, Michael C Beckett, Tharappel C James, Ursula Bond
UNLABELLED: Antimicrobial peptides offer potential as novel therapeutics to combat food spoilage and poisoning caused by pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies identified the peptide human beta-defensin 3 (HBD3) as a potent antimicrobial agent against a wide range of beer-spoiling bacteria. Thus, HBD3 is an excellent candidate for development as an additive to prevent food and beverage spoilage. To expand the repertoire of peptides with antimicrobial activity against bacteria associated with food spoilage and/or food poisoning, we carried out an in silico discovery pipeline to identify peptides with structure and activity similar to those of HBD3, focusing on peptides of plant origin...
July 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Reuven Rasooly, Paula Do, Bradley Hernlem
Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial cause of clinical infections and foodborne illnesses through its production of a group of enterotoxins (SEs) which cause gastroenteritis and also function as superantigens to massively activate T cells. In the present study, we tested Staphylococcal enterotoxin type E (SEE), which was detected in 17 of the 38 suspected staphylococcal food poisoning incidents in a British study and was the causative agent in outbreaks in France, UK and USA. The current method for detection of enterotoxin activity is an in vivo monkey or kitten bioassay; however, this expensive procedure has low sensitivity and poor reproducibility, requires many animals, is impractical to test on a large number of samples, and raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals...
2016: Toxins
Yacine Nia, Isabelle Mutel, Adrien Assere, Bertrand Lombard, Frederic Auvray, Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne
Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe...
April 2016: Toxins
Hazel Farrell, Anthony Zammit, Jennifer Manning, Craig Shadbolt, Lisa Szabo, D Tim Harwood, Paul McNabb, John A Turahui, Debra J van den Berg
Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head)...
March 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Xiaolu Shi, Yiman Lin, Yaqun Qiu, Yinghui Li, Min Jiang, Qiongcheng Chen, Yixiang Jiang, Jianhui Yuan, Hong Cao, Qinghua Hu, Shenghe Huang
Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity...
2016: PloS One
Arun Singh, Rashmi Katyal, Varsha Chaudhary, Kusum Narula, Deepak Upadhayay, Shailendra Pratap Singh
INTRODUCTION: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USDHHS-CDC 1996) revealed that the outbreaks of food borne diseases include inadequate cooking, heating, or re-heating of foods consumption of food from unsafe sources, cooling food inappropriately and allowing too much of a time lapse. As we all know that the food handlers have been working in various types of community kitchen and their health status can affect the status of food hygiene which can lead to contamination of foods attributing to acute gastroenteritis and food poisoning in various subgroups of the population e...
September 2015: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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