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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207867/thermal-stability-and-structural-changes-in-bacterial-toxins-responsible-for-food-poisoning
#1
Paulina Regenthal, Jesper S Hansen, Ingemar André, Karin Lindkvist-Petersson
The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are secreted by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and are the most common causative agent in staphylococcal food poisoning. The staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been associated with large staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks, but newer identified SEs, like staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has recently been shown to be present at similar levels as SEA in food poisoning outbreaks. Thus, we set out to investigate the thermo-stability of the three-dimensional structures of SEA, SEH and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE), since heat inactivation is a common method to inactivate toxins during food processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207308/prevalence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-retail-lightly-pickled-vegetables-and-its-successful-control-at-processing-plants
#2
Masumi Taguchi, Masashi Kanki, Yuko Yamaguchi, Hideichi Inamura, Yosuke Koganei, Tetsuya Sano, Hiromi Nakamura, Hiroshi Asakura
Incidences of food poisoning traced to nonanimal food products have been increasingly reported. One of these was a recent large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection from the consumption of lightly pickled vegetables, indicating the necessity of imposing hygienic controls during manufacturing. However, little is known about the bacterial contamination levels in these minimally processed vegetables. Here we examined the prevalence of STEC, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in 100 lightly pickled vegetable products manufactured at 55 processing factories...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199340/crystal-structure-and-structure-based-mutagenesis-of-actin-specific-adp-ribosylating-toxin-cpile-a-as-novel-enterotoxin
#3
Waraphan Toniti, Toru Yoshida, Toshiharu Tsurumura, Daisuke Irikura, Chie Monma, Yoichi Kamata, Hideaki Tsuge
Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190406/an-assessment-of-the-microbiological-quality-of-liver-based-p%C3%A3-t%C3%A3-in-england-2012-13-comparison-of-samples-collected-at-retail-and-from-catering-businesses
#4
J McLAUCHLIN, F Jørgensen, H Aird, A Charlett, N Elviss, D Fenelon, A Fox, C Willis, C F L Amar
The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of liver pâté. During 2012-13, a total of 870 samples, unrelated to the investigation of food-poisoning outbreaks, were collected either at retail (46%), catering (53%) or the point of manufacture (1%) and were tested using standard methods to detect Salmonella spp. or Campylobacter spp., and to enumerate for Listeria spp., including Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp...
February 13, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144705/ecological-fitness-and-virulence-features-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-estuarine-environments
#5
REVIEW
Charles R Lovell
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a commonly encountered and highly successful organism in marine ecosystems. It is a fast-growing, extremely versatile copiotroph that is active over a very broad range of conditions. It frequently occurs suspended in the water column (often attached to particles or zooplankton), and is a proficient colonist of submerged surfaces. This organism is an important pathogen of animals ranging from microcrustaceans to humans and is a causative agent of seafood-associated food poisoning. This review examines specific ecological adaptations of V...
January 31, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135403/rapid-cell-based-assay-for-detection-and-quantification-of-active-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-type-d
#6
Reuven Rasooly, Paula M Do, Bradley J Hernlem
Food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by this bacterium and is a major source of foodborne illness. Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED) is one of the predominant enterotoxins recovered in Staphylococcal food poisoning incidences, including a recent outbreak in Guam affecting 300 children. Current immunology methods for SED detection cannot distinguish between the biologically active form of the toxin, which poses a threat, from the inactive form, which poses no threat...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105575/bongkrekic-acid-a-review-of-a-lesser-known-mitochondrial-toxin
#7
REVIEW
Mehruba Anwar, Amelia Kasper, Alaina R Steck, Joshua G Schier
INTRODUCTION: Bongkrekic acid (BA) has a unique mechanism of toxicity among the mitochondrial toxins: it inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) rather than the electron transport chain. Bongkrekic acid is produced by the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans (B. cocovenenans) which has been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness involving coconut- and corn-based products in Indonesia and China. Our objective was to summarize what is known about the epidemiology, exposure sources, toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis and treatment of human BA poisoning...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039133/dynamics-of-salmonella-shedding-and-welfare-of-hens-in-free-range-egg-production-systems
#8
V C Gole, R Woodhouse, C Caraguel, T Moyle, J-L Rault, M Sexton, K Chousalkar
: The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free range production systems, and correlations with behavioural and physiological measures (faecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point in time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free range farms and in different seasons. There were no significant effects of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885561/outbreak-of-severe-pseudorabies-virus-infection-in-pig-offal-fed-farmed-mink-in-liaoning-province-china
#9
Hao Liu, Xin-Tong Li, Bo Hu, Xiao-Yu Deng, Lei Zhang, Shi-Zhen Lian, Hai-Ling Zhang, Shuang Lv, Xiang-Hong Xue, Rong-Guang Lu, Ning Shi, Ming-Hao Yan, Peng-Peng Xiao, Xi-Jun Yan
An outbreak of severe pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in farmed mink occurred in northern China in late 2014, causing significant economic losses in the local fur industry. Here, we report the first case of a PRV outbreak in mink in northeastern China, caused by feeding farmed mink with raw pork or organs contaminated by PRV. Mink infected with virulent PRV exhibited diarrhea, neurologic signs, and higher mortality, which can be misdiagnosed as highly pathogenic mink enteritis virus (MEV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and food poisoning...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870538/foodborne-infections-and-intoxications-in-poland-in-2014
#10
Piotr Polański, Sylwia Kamińska, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys
AIM: The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was based on the analysis of information sent to Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH through ROE (Pol. Rejestr Ognisk Epidemicznych)- an electronic system created for uploading, transfer and analysis of data acquired during the outbreak investigations). Additional sources for the analysis were NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800449/molecular-typing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolate-responsible-for-staphylococcal-poisoning-incident-in-homemade-food
#11
Guerrino Macori, Alberto Bellio, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Silvia Gallina, Daniela Adriano, Fabio Zuccon, Francesco Chiesa, Pier Luigi Acutis, Francesco Casalinuovo, Lucia Decastelli
In October 2012, two persons fell ill with symptoms consistent with staphylococcal food poisoning after eating home-canned tuna fish and tomatoes. Laboratory investigation detected the enterotoxins in the home-canned tuna and molecular analysis of the isolated Staphylococcus aureus confirmed it carried toxin genes. Qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzime linked fluorescent assay methods and quantitative assay identified the enterotoxins in the food leftovers, specifically staphylococcal enterotoxins type A (SEA) and D (SED), respectively 0...
April 19, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791395/histamine-food-poisonings-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Fabio M Colombo, Patrizia Cattaneo, Enrica Confalonieri, Cristian Bernardi
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to assess the mean of histamine concentration in food poisoning. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of reports published between 1959-2013. STUDY SELECTION: main criteria for inclusion of studies were: all report types that present outbreaks of "histamine poisoning" or "scombroid syndrome" from food, including histamine content and type of food. Health status of people involved must be non pathological...
October 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752845/histamine-food-poisoning
#13
Maria Schirone, Pierina Visciano, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi
The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production...
October 18, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569376/development-of-igy-based-sandwich-elisa-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-g-seg-an-egc-toxin
#14
Sowmya Nagaraj, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston, Harsh Vardhan Batra
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is a major foodborne illness caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). It is a well known fact that foodborne outbreak investigations are solely characterized by commercially available immunoassay kits. However, these assays encompass only few enterotoxins such as SEA-SEE which are renowned as "classical" enterotoxins and unable to detect any other novel enterotoxins even though their involvement is predicted. In this context, the present study involved development of a sandwich ELISA immunoassay for the specific detection of "non-classical" enterotoxin G (SEG)...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497126/enterotoxin-gene-profile-and-molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-bovine-bulk-milk-and-milk-products-of-tigray-region-northern-ethiopia
#15
Enquebaher K Tarekgne, Taran Skjerdal, Siv Skeie, Knut Rudi, Davide Porcellato, Benjamin Félix, Judith A Narvhus
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457973/isolation-and-identification-of-vibrio-cholerae-and-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-from-prawn-penaeus-monodon-seafood-preservation-strategies
#16
P R Yaashikaa, A Saravanan, P Senthil Kumar
Bacterial diseases are one of the major problems which affects the production, development and expansion of aqua culture. Vibrio sp. are widespread in marine and estuarine environments. The several pathogenic species are commonly associated with outbreaks of Vibrio species and it is mainly associated with food poisonings. In this research, the occurrence of Vibrio sp. was studied by the isolation and it is confirmed by the biochemical methods. The growth rate was studied by changing the different operating parameters...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452931/food-poisoning-outbreak-and-fatality-following-ingestion-of-sea-turtle-meat-in-the-rural-community-of-ndrondroni-moh%C3%A3-li-island-comoros-december-2012
#17
Saindou Ben Ali Mbaé, Mohamed Mlindassé, Saindou Mihidjaé, Thomas Seyler
On 24-December-2012 newspapers reported food-poisoning cases in Ndrondroni, Comoros. The authors conducted an investigation and a case-control study to identify the source and control the outbreak. They identified eight cases. A 6-month breastfed infant died. The results suggest consumption of Eretmochelys imbricata caused the outbreak. A bio-toxin ingested by the turtle might be the source. The local authorities informed the population on the danger of turtle-meat consumption. Cooking does not destroy the toxin...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371902/analysis-of-microbiota-on-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai-in-south-korea-for-improved-product-management
#18
Min-Jung Lee, Jin-Jae Lee, Han Young Chung, Sang Ho Choi, Bong-Soo Kim
Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348003/a-review-of-the-methods-for-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-enterotoxins
#19
REVIEW
Shijia Wu, Nuo Duan, Huajie Gu, Liling Hao, Hua Ye, Wenhui Gong, Zhouping Wang
Food safety has attracted extensive attention around the world, and food-borne diseases have become one of the major threats to health. Staphylococcus aureus is a major food-borne pathogen worldwide and a frequent contaminant of foodstuffs. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by some S. aureus strains will lead to staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) outbreaks. The most common symptoms caused by ingestion of SEs within food are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and cramps. Children will suffer SFP by ingesting as little as 100 ng of SEs, and only a few micrograms of SEs are enough to cause SPF in vulnerable populations...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299671/viability-of-murine-norovirus-in-salads-and-dressings-and-its-inactivation-using-heat-denatured-lysozyme
#20
Hajime Takahashi, Tomoki Tsuchiya, Michiko Takahashi, Moemi Nakazawa, Tomoka Watanabe, Akira Takeuchi, Takashi Kuda, Bon Kimura
In recent years, a number of food poisoning outbreaks due to the contamination of norovirus in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods such as salads have been reported, and this issue is regarded as a global problem. The risk of contamination of fresh vegetables with norovirus has been previously reported, but the survivability of norovirus that contaminates salads remains unknown. In addition, there have been limited reports on the control of norovirus in food products by using inactivating agents. In this study, the viability of norovirus in various types of salads and dressings was examined using murine norovirus strain 1 (MNV-1) as a surrogate for the closely related human norovirus...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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