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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913915/age-related-differences-in-clinical-characteristics-and-esophageal-motility-in-patients-with-dysphagia
#1
Rui Nakato, Noriaki Manabe, Tomoari Kamada, Hideo Matsumoto, Akiko Shiotani, Jiro Hata, Ken Haruma
Dysphagia in elderly patients has a major effect on nutrition and quality of life (QOL). Although several studies have shown that aging itself is associated with changes in esophageal motility, the impact of these changes on dysphagia symptoms and QOL is unknown. This study assessed the manometric diagnoses of elderly patients with dysphagia compared with diagnoses in younger counterparts. Participants included 116 consecutive patients examined for dysphagia from 2007 to 2014. We divided patients into three groups by age: Group A, 66 years and older (24 men, 23 women); Group B, 45-65 years (18 men, 24 women); and Group C, 44 years and younger (15 men, 12 women)...
December 2, 2016: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912894/self-generation-and-positivity-effects-following-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-reality-monitoring-task-in-older-adults
#2
Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Rocco Palumbo, Beth Fairfield
Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912761/relationship-between-weight-status-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-chinese-primary-school-children-in-guangzhou-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Wei Liu, Rong Lin, Weijia Liu, Zhongshan Guo, Lihua Xiong, Bai Li, K K Cheng, Peymane Adab, Miranda Pallan
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between weight status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among pupils in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: The study comprised 5781 children aged 8-12 years from 29 schools. Height and weight were objectively measured using standardized methods, and BMI z-score derived using the age and sex specific WHO reference 2007 for 5-19 years. Weight status was classified as underweight (<-2SD), healthy weight (between -2SD and 1SD), overweight/obesity (>1SD)...
December 3, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912747/the-three-dimensional-kinematics-and-spatiotemporal-parameters-of-gait-in-6-10-year-old-typically-developed-children-in-the-cape-metropole-of-south-africa-a-pilot-study
#4
Yvonne Smith, Quinette Louw, Yolandi Brink
BACKGROUND: Functional gait is an integral part of life, allowing individuals to function within their environment and participate in activities of daily living. Gait assessment forms an essential part of a physical examination and can help screen for physical impairments. No three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis studies of children have been conducted in South Africa. South African gait analysis laboratory protocols and procedures may differ from laboratories in other countries, therefore a South African data base of normative values is required to make a valid assessment of South African children's gait...
December 3, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912042/the-prevalence-and-risks-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-hospice-caregivers
#5
Debra Parker Oliver, Karla Washington, Jamie Smith, Aisha Uraizee, George Demiris
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common concerns for hospice caregivers. OBJECTIVE: This study looked at the prevalence and variables associated with hospice caregiver depression and anxiety, as well as the relationship between the two conditions. SUBJECTS: We did a secondary analysis of preexisting data. MEASUREMENTS: Measures included the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. RESULTS: Nearly one-quarter of caregivers were moderately to severely depressed, and nearly one-third reported moderate to severe symptoms of anxiety...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911236/patient-versus-physician-reported-facial-disability-in-vestibular-schwannoma-an-international-cross-sectional-study
#6
Øystein Vesterli Tveiten, Matthew L Carlson, Frederik Goplen, Erling Myrseth, Colin L W Driscoll, Rupavathana Mahesparan, Michael J Link, Morten Lund-Johansen
OBJECTIVE Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used in studies of vestibular schwannoma (VS); however, few studies have examined self-evaluated facial nerve function and its relation to physician-reported outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to compare patient self-evaluations of facial disability with physician-evaluated facial nerve status and with self-evaluations of a healthy control group. The second objective was to provide insight into the controversial subject of the optimal initial management of small- and medium-sized VSs; consequently, the authors compared patient-reported facial nerve disability following treatment via observation (OBS), Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), or microsurgery (MS)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901398/discriminating-between-neuropathic-pain-and-sensory-hypersensitivity-using-the-chronic-pain-questions-cpq
#7
Karin S Coyne, Brooke M Currie, Sean Donevan, Joseph C Cappelleri, Rozelle Hegeman-Dingle, Lucy Abraham, Christine Thompson, Alesia Sadosky, Marina Brodsky
OBJECTIVE: The Chronic Pain Questions (CPQ) were developed for clinical use with the aim of supporting primary care physicians in the screening, assessment and monitoring of patients with chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the CPQ to discriminate between patients with neuropathic pain (NeP) versus those with sensory hypersensitivity (SH). METHODS: Adult men and women with a diagnosis of a NeP or SH condition were recruited from 5 clinical sites across the United States...
November 30, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900660/increasing-breast-and-cervical-cancer-screening-in-rural-and-border-texas-with-friend-to-friend-plus-patient-navigation
#8
Derek Falk, Catherine Cubbin, Barbara Jones, Kristen Carrillo-Kappus, Andrew Crocker, Carol Rice
The Friend to Friend plus Patient Navigation Program (FTF+PN) aims to build an effective, sustainable infrastructure to increase breast and cervical screening rates for underserved women in rural Texas. The objective of this paper is to identify factors that (1) distinguish participants who chose patient navigation (PN) services from those who did not (non-PN) and (2) were associated with receiving a mammogram or Papanicolaou (Pap) test. This prospective study analyzed data collected from 2689 FTF+PN participants aged 18-99 years from March 1, 2012 to February 28, 2015 who self-identified as African American (AA), Latina, and non-Hispanic white (NHW)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899474/retrospective-cohort-study-of-the-south-tyneside-exercise-referral-scheme-2009-14-predictors-of-dropout-and-barriers-to-adherence
#9
Michael C Kelly, Glen C Rae, Diane Walker, Sarah Partington, Caroline J Dodd-Reynolds, Nick Caplan
BACKGROUND: Exercise Referral Schemes (ERS) are a prevalent method of increasing physical activity levels. However, they suffer from participant dropout and research predicting dropout or barriers to adherence are limited. This study aimed to focus upon the effect of referral characteristics on dropout, dropout predictors and whether self-reported barriers to exercise predict dropout. METHODS: ERS data from 2009 to 2014 were retrieved for analysis. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to investigate differences between referral characteristics, and logistic regression used to investigate dropout predictors...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898512/cancer-related-cognitive-impairment-and-patients-ability-to-work-a-current-perspective
#10
Saskia F A Duijts, Allard J van der Beek, Ingrid G Boelhouwer, Sanne B Schagen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: About half of all cancer survivors are 65 years of age or younger and potentially part of the labor force. Increasing numbers of these survivors are able to return to work (RTW) or even continue working during treatment. Many factors are known to inhibit occupational reintegration of cancer survivors, and further affect job performance after RTW. However, the impact of cancer-related cognitive impairment on work-related outcomes in cancer survivors is not well understood...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894837/cd4-virtual-memory-antigen-inexperienced-t-cells-reside-in-the-na%C3%A3-ve-regulatory-and-memory-t-cell-compartments-at-similar-frequencies-implications-for-autoimmunity
#11
Alina I Marusina, Yoko Ono, Alexander A Merleev, Michiko Shimoda, Hiromi Ogawa, Elizabeth A Wang, Kayo Kondo, Laura Olney, Guillaume Luxardi, Yoshinori Miyamura, Tilahun D Yilma, Itzel Bustos Villalobos, Jennifer W Bergstrom, Daniel G Kronenberg, Athena M Soulika, Iannis E Adamopoulos, Emanual Maverakis
It is widely accepted that central and effector memory CD4(+) T cells originate from naïve T cells after they have encountered their cognate antigen in the setting of appropriate co-stimulation. However, if this were true the diversity of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences within the naïve T cell compartment should be far greater than that of the memory T cell compartment, which is not supported by TCR sequencing data. Here we demonstrate that aged mice with far fewer naïve T cells, respond to the model antigen, hen eggwhite lysozyme (HEL), by utilizing the same TCR sequence as their younger counterparts...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891718/the-association-between-hepatitis-b-self-awareness-and-depression-exploring-the-modifying-effects-of-socio-economic-factors
#12
Y Liu, K Tang, J Long, C Zhao
China has a high prevalence of HBV. Despite previous studies, uncertainty remains about the association of HBV with depression. This study explores the strength of the association and the modifying effects of participants' self-awareness of the disease and their socio-economic status. Data from the baseline of a Chinese cohort study of approximately 500 000 adults were analysed. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory. Blood spot tests were conducted to detect hepatitis B surface antigen...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888737/an-intervention-to-improve-sibling-relationship-quality-among-youth-in-foster-care-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Brianne H Kothari, Bowen McBeath, Paul Sorenson, Lew Bank, Jeff Waid, Sara Jade Webb, Joel Steele
Sibling programming is an important part of a prevention framework, particularly for youth in foster care. After children are removed from their families and placed into foster care in the aftermath of maltreatment, the sibling relationship is often the most viable ongoing relationship available to the child, and may be critical to a youth's sense of connection, emotional support, and continuity. The promise of dyadic sibling programming in particular rests on the ability of interventions to enhance the quality of sibling relationships; yet little research exists that suggests that sibling interventions can improve relationship quality among foster youth...
November 23, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887581/design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-treatment-induced-menopausal-symptoms-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#14
Vera Atema, Marieke van Leeuwen, Hester S A Oldenburg, Valesca Retèl, Marc van Beurden, Myra S Hunter, Neil K Aaronson
BACKGROUND: Menopausal symptoms are common and may be particularly severe in younger women who undergo treatment-induced menopause. Medications to reduce menopausal symptoms are either contra-indicated or have bothersome side effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer. However, compliance with face-to-face CBT programs can be problematic. A promising approach is to use the Internet to make this form of CBT more accessible and feasible for patients...
November 25, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885897/false-feedback-and-beliefs-influence-name-recall-in-younger-and-older-adults
#15
Carla M Strickland-Hughes, Robin Lea West, Kimberly A Smith, Natalie C Ebner
Feedback is an important self-regulatory process that affects task effort and subsequent performance. Benefits of positive feedback for list recall have been explored in research on goals and feedback, but the effect of negative feedback on memory has rarely been studied. The current research extends knowledge of memory and feedback effects by investigating face-name association memory and by examining the potential mediation of feedback effects, in younger and older adults, through self-evaluative beliefs...
November 25, 2016: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885806/mental-health-of-women-entering-fertility-treatment-what-role-do-age-and-internal-resources-play
#16
Shirley Ben Shlomo, Vera Skvirsky, Orit Taubman-Ben-Ari, Yoseph Azuri, Eran Horowitz
Drawing on Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of stress and coping, the study aimed at (a) examining the associations between the mental health of women entering fertility treatment and their internal resources (hope and two aspects of self-consciousness: reflection and rumination); (b) indicating whether mental health is associated with age (above or below 35), and whether this association is mediated by the internal resources. The sample consisted of 137 women (76 aged 20-34; 61 aged 35-44) at the start of fertility treatment who completed a series of self-report questionnaires...
November 24, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882830/adherence-to-disease-modifying-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Lucas Higuera, Caroline S Carlin, Sarah Anderson
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological degenerative chronic condition without cure. However, long-term disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) help reduce the severity of MS symptoms. Adherence to DMTs is key to their success. Several studies have analyzed what makes patients adherent to their DMTs. As new DMTs have entered the market, few studies have analyzed factors of adherence using all currently available DMTs. OBJECTIVE: To analyze different factors of adherence to DMTs for MS, in particular how the type of DMT affects adherence...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881359/feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-using-wearable-activity-trackers-in-youth-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Nicola D Ridgers, Melitta A McNarry, Kelly A Mackintosh
BACKGROUND: The proliferation and popularity of wearable activity trackers (eg, Fitbit, Jawbone, Misfit) may present an opportunity to integrate such technology into physical activity interventions. While several systematic reviews have reported intervention effects of using wearable activity trackers on adults' physical activity levels, none to date have focused specifically on children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to examine the effectiveness of wearable activity trackers as a tool for increasing children's and adolescents' physical activity levels...
November 23, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879494/gynecologists-and-human-papillomavirus-dna-testing-exploring-knowledge-attitudes-and-practice-in-italy
#19
Claudia Caglioti, Claudia Pileggi, Carmelo G A Nobile, Maria Pavia
The aim of this survey was to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of gynecologists in terms of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. A national cross-sectional web survey was carried out through multistage sampling using an overall sample of 1000 gynecologists. Gynecologists were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire exploring their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward cervical cancer screening and HPV-DNA testing. A total of 582 gynecologists completed the web questionnaire...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878788/sun-protective-behaviour-and-sunburn-prevalence-in-primary-and-secondary-schoolchildren-in-western-switzerland
#20
Simone Ackermann, Anne Vuadens, Fabio Levi, Jean-Luc Bulliard
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Although solar overexposure during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of melanoma, determinants of sunburn and sun protective behaviours of Swiss children have scarcely been explored. We investigated sunburn occurrence and sun protective behaviours of schoolchildren in western Switzerland, the region with the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Self-reported questionnaires were administered during regular classes to pupils in 5th (primary school, n = 431), 8th and 11th grades (secondary school, n = 837) in the 18 public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
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