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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922655/zymosan-a-protects-the-hematopoietic-system-from-radiation-induced-damage-by-targeting-tlr2-signaling-pathway
#1
Jicong Du, Ying Cheng, Suhe Dong, Pei Zhang, Jiaming Guo, Jiaqi Han, Fu Gao, Hainan Zhao, Ding Sun, Jianguo Cui, Jianming Cai, Cong Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The hematopoietic system is vulnerable to ionizing radiation and is often severely damaged by radiation. Molecules affecting radioresistance include Toll-like receptor 2. We investigated whether Zymosan-A, a novel TLR2 agonist, can protect the hematopoietic system from radiation-induced damage after total body irradiation. METHODS: Mice were exposed to total body radiation after treatment with Zymosan-A or normal saline, and their survival was recorded...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918908/macrophage-biology-plays-a-central-role-during-ionizing-radiation-elicited-tumor-response
#2
REVIEW
Qiuji Wu, Awatef Allouch, Isabelle Martins, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Luc Perfettini
Radiation therapy is one of the major therapeutic modalities for most solid tumors. The anti-tumor effect of radiation therapy consists of the direct tumor cell killing, as well as the modulation of tumor microenvironment and the activation of immune response against tumors. Radiation therapy has been shown to promote immunogenic cells death, activate dendritic cells and enhance tumor antigen presentation and anti-tumor T cell activation. Radiation therapy also programs innate immune cells such as macrophages that leads to either radiosensitization or radioresistance, according to different tumors and different radiation regimen studied...
August 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915584/a-phase-1-dose-escalation-study-of-the-oral-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-abexinostat-in-combination-with-standard-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-in-advanced-solid-tumors
#3
Eric Deutsch, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Vanesa Gregorc, Paolo Andrea Zucali, Jean Menard, Jean-Charles Soria, Ioana Kloos, Jeff Hsu, Ying Luan, Emily Liu, Remus Vezan, Thorsten Graef, Sofia Rivera
Current treatments for advanced solid tumors tend to be only palliative. Although radiotherapy is administered with a curative intent, radioresistance and dose-limiting toxicities pose limitations to treatment. Abexinostat, an oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to radiation in various solid tumor cell lines. We conducted an exploratory, phase 1, dose-escalation study of abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a palliative setting...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914645/notch-inhibitors-and-their-role-in-the-treatment-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-promises-and-failures
#4
Marzia Locatelli, Giuseppe Curigliano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Notch signaling is a highly evolutionarily conserved cell-to-cell communication system that is involved in a number of pivotal cellular processes, such as development, stem cell maintenance, cell fate specification, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Much progress has been made in understanding Notch signaling. This review will focus on the role of canonical Notch signaling pathway in breast cancer cause and progressing. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we will discuss the results of the studies using drugs, which target the Notch pathway...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912885/brusatol-mediated-inhibition-of-c-myc-increases-hif-1%C3%AE-degradation-and-causes-cell-death-in-colorectal-cancer-under-hypoxia
#5
Eun-Taex Oh, Chan Woo Kim, Ha Gyeong Kim, Jae-Seon Lee, Heon Joo Park
HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) regulates the expression of ~100 genes involved in angiogenesis, metastasis, tumor growth, chemoresistance and radioresistance, underscoring the growing interest in targeting HIF-1 for cancer control. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying brusatol-induced HIF-1α degradation and cell death in colorectal cancer under hypoxia (0.5% O2). Under hypoxia, pretreatment of cancer cells with brusatol increased HIF-1α degradation and cancer cell death in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904416/knockout-of-pprm-decreases-resistance-to-desiccation-and-oxidation-in-deinococcus-radiodurans
#6
Yang Zeng, Yun Ma, Fangzhu Xiao, Wuzhou Wang, Shuya He
Deinococcus radiodurans has attracted a great interest in the past decades due to its extraordinary resistance to ionizing radiation and highly efficient DNA repair system. Recent studies indicated that pprM is a putative pleiotropic gene in D. radiodurans and plays an important role in radioresistance and antioxidation, but its underlying mechanisms are poorly elucidated. In this study, pprM mutation was generated to investigate resistance to desiccation and oxidative stress. The result showed that the survival of pprM mutant under desiccation was markedly retarded compared to the wild strain from day 7-28...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903408/derlin-1-is-a-target-to-improve-radiotherapy-effect-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Qianze Dong, Lin Fu, Yue Zhao, Yang Liu, Qingchang Li, Xueshan Qiu, Enhua Wang
Radiotherapy is widely used for treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to explore the role of Derlin-1 on the sensitivity of ESCC to radiotherapy and its underlying mechanism. We examined the clinical significance of Derlin-1 in 125 ESCC tissues. We found that Derlin-1 protein was higher in ESCC tissues than that in normal esophageal epithelial tissues. Derlin-1 overexpression was correlated with chemoradiotherapy resistance in ESCC patients and served an independent predictor for short overall survival...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903403/cofilin-1-and-phosphoglycerate-kinase-1-as-promising-indicators-for-glioma-radiosensibility-and-prognosis
#8
Wenbo Sun, Hua Yan, Chunfa Qian, Chenhan Wang, Mengjie Zhao, Yuchi Liu, Yujie Zhong, Hongyi Liu, Hong Xiao
Glioma is a primary malignancy in central nervous system. Radiotherapy has been used as one of the standard treatments for glioma for decades. Since radioresistance can reduce the curative efficacy of radiotherapy in glioma, investigating the cause of radioresistance and predicting the tumour radiosensibility appeared particularly important. We previously reported that CFL1 and PGK1 are over-expressed in radioresistant U251 glioma cells. In this study, the level of CFL1 and PGK1 of 113 glioma tissues were measured by ELISA method...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902347/measuring-the-response-of-human-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-to-irradiation-in-a-microfluidic-model-allowing-customized-therapy
#9
Ramsah Cheah, Rishi Srivastava, Nicholas D Stafford, Andrew W Beavis, Victoria Green, John Greenman
Radiotherapy is the standard treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), however, radioresistance remains a major clinical problem despite significant improvements in treatment protocols. Therapeutic outcome could potentially be improved if a patient's tumour response to irradiation could be predicted ex vivo before clinical application. The present study employed a bespoke microfluidic device to maintain HNSCC tissue whilst subjecting it to external beam irradiation and measured the responses using a panel of cell death and proliferation markers...
October 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900507/targeting-micrornas-in-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Jie Ni, Joseph Bucci, Lei Chang, David Malouf, Peter Graham, Yong Li
Radiotherapy is one of the most important treatment options for localized early-stage or advanced-stage prostate cancer (CaP). Radioresistance (relapse after radiotherapy) is a major challenge for the current radiotherapy. There is great interest in investigating mechanisms of radioresistance and developing novel treatment strategies to overcome radioresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, participating in numerous physiological and pathological processes including cancer invasion, progression, metastasis and therapeutic resistance...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893110/radioimmunotherapy-for-delivery-of-cytotoxic-radioisotopes-current-status-and-challenges
#11
Carlos Daniel Martins, Gabriela Kramer-Marek, Wim J G Oyen
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with monoclonal antibodies and their fragments labelled with radionuclides emitting α-particles, β-particles or Auger electrons have been used for many years in the development of anticancer strategies. While RIT has resulted in approved radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of hematological malignancies, its use in solid tumors still remains challenging. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the exciting progress towards elucidating the potential of current and novel radioimmunoconjugates and address the challenges for translation into clinical practice...
September 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892302/cancer-targeted-selenium-nanoparticles-sensitize-cancer-cells-to-continuous-%C3%AE-radiation-to-achieve-synergetic-chemo-radiotherapy
#12
Leung Chan, Lizhen He, Binwei Zhou, Shouhai Guan, Mingjun Bo, Yahui Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao Liu, Yanyang Zhang, Qiang Xie, Tianfeng Chen
Cancer radiotherapy with 125I seeds demonstrates long-term higher efficacy and lower side effects than traditional X-ray radiotherapy due to its low-dose and continuous radiation but is still limited by radioresistance in clinical applications. Therefore, the design and synthesis for sensitizers that could enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to 125I seeds is of great importance for future radiotherapy. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been found to exhibit high potential in cancer chemotherapy and as drug carriers...
September 11, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885067/differential-gene-expression-in-primary-fibroblasts-induced-by-proton-and-cobalt-60-beam-irradiation
#13
Steffen Nielsen, Niels Bassler, Leszek Grzanka, Jan Swakon, Pawel Olko, Christian Nicolaj Andreassen, Jens Overgaard, Jan Alsner, Brita Singers Sørensen
INTRODUCTION: Proton beam therapy delivers a more conformal dose distribution than conventional radiotherapy, thus improving normal tissue sparring. Increasing linear energy transfer (LET) along the proton track increases the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) near the distal edge of the Spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The severity of normal tissue side effects following photon beam radiotherapy vary considerably between patients. AIM: The dual study aim was to identify gene expression patterns specific to radiation type and proton beam position, and to assess whether individual radiation sensitivity influences gene expression levels in fibroblast cultures irradiated in vitro...
September 8, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884046/inhibition-of-ikk-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-sensitizes-lung-cancer-cell-lines-to-radiation
#14
Avgi Tsolou, Maria Liousia, Dimitra Kalamida, Stamatia Pouliliou, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Michael Koukourakis
OBJECTIVE: : Cancer cell radioresistance is a stumbling block in radiation therapy. The activity in the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway correlates with anti-apoptotic mechanisms and increased radioresistance. The IKK complex plays a major role in NFκB activation upon numerous signals. In this study, we examined the interaction between ionizing radiation (IR) and different members of the IKK-NFκB pathway, as well as upstream activators, RAF1, ERK, and AKT1. METHODS: : The effect of 4 Gy of IR on the expression of the RAF1-ERK-IKK-NFκB pathway was examined in A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines using Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy...
August 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883406/mir-338-5p-enhances-the-radiosensitivity-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-inducing-apoptosis-through-targeting-survivin
#15
Misun Park, Hyeon-Joon Yoon, Moon Chul Kang, Junhye Kwon, Hae Won Lee
Radioresistance is a challenge in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play an important role in the functional modification of cancer cells and recent studies have reported miRNA-mediated radiotherapy resistance. However, further research is necessary to reveal the regulation mechanisms, and treatment strategies using miRNA are yet to be established for ESCC. We compared the miRNA expression profiles of ESCC parental (TE-4) and acquired radioresistance (TE-4R) cell lines using a miRNA microarray and qRT-PCR...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882183/mir-22-suppresses-tumorigenesis-and-improves-radiosensitivity-of-breast-cancer-cells-by-targeting-sirt1
#16
Xia Zhang, Yuehua Li, Dan Wang, Xiaoer Wei
BACKGROUND: miR-22 has been shown to be frequently downregulated and act as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers including breast cancers. However, the role of miR-22 in regulating the radioresistance of breast cancer cells, as well as its underlying mechanism is still not well understood. METHODS: The expressions of miR-22 and sirt1 at mRNA and protein levels were examined by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. The effects of miR-22 overexpression and sirt1 knockdown on cell viability, apoptosis, radiosensitivity, γ-H2AX foci formation were evaluated by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay, and γ-H2AX foci formation assay, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881774/chromatin-remodeling-modulates-radiosensitivity-of-the-daughter-cells-derived-from-cell-population-exposed-to-low-and-high-let-irradiation
#17
Ping Wang, Dexiao Yuan, Fei Guo, Xiaoyan Chen, Lin Zhu, Hang Zhang, Chen Wang, Chunlin Shao
Radiation effects are dependent of linear energy transfer (LET), but it is still obscure whether the daughter cells (DCs) derived from irradiated population are radioresistance and much less the underlying mechanism. With the measurements of survival, proliferation and γH2AX foci, this study shows that the DCs from γ-ray irradiated cells (DCs-γ) became more radioresistant than its parent control without irradiation, but the radiosensitivity of DCs from α-particle irradiated cells (DCs-α) was not altered...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881654/fusion-between-m2-macrophages-and-cancer-cells-results-in-a-subpopulation-of-radioresistant-cells-with-enhanced-dna-repair-capacity
#18
Annelie Lindström, Kristine Midtbö, Lars-Gunnar Arnesson, Stina Garvin, Ivan Shabo
Cell fusion is a natural biological process in normal development and tissue regeneration. Fusion between cancer cells and macrophages results in hybrids that acquire genetic and phenotypic characteristics from both maternal cells. There is a growing body of in vitro and in vivo data indicating that this process also occurs in solid tumors and may play a significant role in tumor progression. However, investigations of the response of macrophage:cancer cell hybrids to radiotherapy have been lacking. In this study, macrophage:MCF-7 hybrids were generated by spontaneous in vitro cell fusion...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880265/cdp138-silencing-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-to-impair-radioresistance-and-metastasis-via-gdf15-in-lung-cancer
#19
Yanwei Lu, Jia Ma, Yan Li, Jing Huang, Sheng Zhang, Zhongyuan Yin, Jinghua Ren, Kai Huang, Gang Wu, Kunyu Yang, Shuangbing Xu
CDP138, a CDK5 binding partner, regulates cell proliferation and migration. However, the mechanisms by which CDP138 functions in these processes remain unclear. In this study, we show that CDP138 is frequently overexpressed and that high levels of CDP138 are correlated with lymph node metastasis in lung cancer. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CDP138-depleted lung cancer cells exhibit enhanced radiosensitivity as well as reduced migration and invasion. Mechanistically, we identify GDF15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, as a key downstream effector of CDP138...
September 7, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879560/involvement-of-mir-155-foxo3a-and-mir-222-pten-in-acquired-radioresistance-of-colorectal-cancer-cell-line
#20
Hamed Manoochehri Khoshinani, Saeid Afshar, Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki, Ali Mahdavinezhad, Safora Nikzad, Rezvan Najafi, Razieh Amini, Mohammad Hadi Gholami, Alireza Khoshghadam, Massoud Saidijam
PURPOSE: Finding a novel biomarker for determining the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of two main miRNAs including miR-222 and miR-155 in radiation response of CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radioresistant CRC cell lines were established by exposing the HCT 116 cell line to fractional X-ray radiation. SubG1 fraction analysis, MTT and clonogenic assays were applied to evaluate acquired radioresistant cell line radiosensitivity...
September 6, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
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